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My Month as a Student
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An Email;Gene Whitt's Flying Life?;  ...Gene Whitt's Other Life; ...My Month as a Student; ...Gadgets; ...Basic Knowledge for Flying;Passenger Boarding Information;Books NOT to read by RAS contributors; ...Tail Stickers for Aircraft; …Fear of Flying; ...Music and Flying; Unteachable Student; …Learnin' Ain't Easy; ...Teachin' Ain't Easy Either...CFI Selection;Flying Clubs; …Flight Instructors;Instructional Program;Costs;Growing Up as a Pilot;Why?Notes on Learning; …Sainthood; …Dudley on Instruction; … Email to Will, (age 16); …What You Know Gets in the Way of What You Don't Know; ...Opinion by Kristi; ...Fortune Cookies; ... Would You Believe that You Can; ...How Flying Plays with Your Mind; ...Taking Chances; ... Driving vs Flying; …Bits and Pieces; …Frequently Asked Questions; ... Pilots Creed; ...Dear Student; ...The Way We Learn; ...Flying with Your Attitudes; ...Learning to Be Free; ...Pilot Self Assessment; ...On Getting Old; ...
An Email
Date: Tue, 11 Jul 2000 11:54:19 -0700
From: Rod Machado <>
Subject: Greetings
Greetings Gene:
Just a note to tell you how much I enjoyed the aviation contribution you've
made on your web site. I was very impressed by the items I had a chance
read. You've obviously given a lot of thought to flying and teaching. Most
important, you seem to keep a very open mind, which, in my book, has always
been the signature of a wise person. I only wish that aviation had more
instructors like you who treated the subject of flying and teaching with
the importance it deserves. Hope we have a chance to meet someday.
Rod Machado


Amateurs practice until they get it right. Professionals practice until they can't get it wrong.

Passage from an unknown author
--"Because I fly, I laugh more than other men. I look up and see more than they, I know how clouds feel. What it's like to have the blue in my lap. To look down on birds. To feel freedom in a thing called the stick. Who but I can slice between God's billow-legs and feel them laugh and crash with his step? Who else has seen the unclimbed peaks? The rainbow's secret? The real reason birds sing? Because I fly, I envy no man on earth." 

Gene Whitt's Flying Life
I have early childhood memories of airplanes starting with seeing either the Macon or Akron dirigible fly at several hundred feet directly over my home in Kansas City, MO. The next year my Mother got me a ride in a Curtis Robin and afterwards I sat in the wicker seats of a Ford Tri-Motor. From the age of ten through fourteen I lived and went to school within sight of Hamilton Field near San Francisco. From the far school yard I could watch Keystone bombers lumber into the air and later Boeing P-12s and Martin B-10s and P-26s "Peashooters".

I made models and read every airplane book and magazine I could get my hands on during my school years from 1935 through 1941. I made both solid and flying models and could identify the major warplanes of WWI and all the racing and warplanes before WWII. Shortly after high school I was inducted into the Army Air Force. I went through basic training and attended electronic technical schools until I got leave before sent over seas.

I had occasion to fly by air from San Francisco to Miami in 1943 by commercial airlines. Since everyone was on different priority tickets, it took me two days for the trip all by DC-3. Anyone with a higher priority could kick me off the plane. Ten days later I was in Calcutta, India.

I was on Tinian Island of the Marianas when WWII ended. I had instructed navigators of the 58th Bomb Wing in the operation of the improved APN-9 LORAN set which was 50% smaller and at least 50% faster to use than the previous APN-4. I was enamored in the capability of LORAN but those who had been previously trained in celestial navigation could not accept the unreliability of the equipment that had numerous vacuum tubes. In the resulting contest of wills my rank of teacher-Corporal could do little to convince officers where their navigational future was headed.

I was soon transferred across the building to assemble a device then called a Supersonic Trainer. This was a radar bombing simulator that was able to simulate aircraft and wind effects by moving over a queen-bed sized pool of water. Beneath the water was a glass map with glass, beads and sand that were capable to reflecting crystal vibrations in the water from the map back into a radarscope. The map was one of several covering different areas of Japan. The scope pictures simulated by the Trainer were quite accurate representations of what a radar operator/bombardier, or navigator would actually see in flight over Japan. The combination of simulated aircraft movement over the map and radar presentation gave radar operators and navigators very much needed radar experience in recognition and interpretation of what they would see over Japan.

Incorporated into the APQ23 radar set near the end of the war were sine and co-sine wire-wound resistors. Linear taps could be taken from these resistors and numerical odometer read-outs could be given of slant range to a target. We now call this ability Distant Measuring Equipment. It was used to determine the bomb release point much as with the Norden Bomb Sight by using dual tracking knobs to get a bomb release point in space that corrected for track and distance to target. July/August 1945

An additional ability of the APQ-23 was to electronically offset a radar-visible site by distance and azimuth into its wire-wound trigonometric computer. This means that an APQ-23 equipped aircraft was capable of performing 'offset' bombing by a process we now call RNAV flights. It would be capable of bombing targets that were invisible to radar by 'pretending' to bomb a visible radar site a known distance and azimuth from each other. July/August 1945

When the war ended, I had to wait two months for a ship to carry me to the U.S. During these two months I spend the better part of each working day 'flying' a Link Trainer. The state of art navigation for this period consisted of the Radio Range. Using the basic gyro instruments the pilot would be able to use the ADF to home on a radio beacon that when on-course would give a constant tone. Off course would give either the coded A or N depending on which side of the course you were on. Two months of this flying meant that twenty-eight years later when I took up flying, I could fly better on instruments than by looking out over the nose.

I began G.A. flying in 1968 in the NRI Flying Club at Concord, CA and started teaching ground school in 1969 and by 1970 I was a flight instructor by popular request of my ground school students. Since then I have accumulated over 8500 instructional hours and another 2000 hours of other time.

Gene Whitt's Other Life
I departed a state teacher’s college without a credential because I accused the system of wasting my time with unrealistic ‘busy work’ designed to fill out a training system ill conceived to provide what was needed in the real world of teaching. Just prior to graduation I told no fewer than five of my professors that they had wasted my time. I was older than most teacher candidates due to my military service. That is where I learned how to teach. The longer you stayed in training the longer you lived. Within five years of my graduation the teacher’s training program reversed itself and got prospective teachers into classrooms early on instead of too late. Many good people chained to a failed system.

I have often said that I became a schoolteacher to get even. In my mind, I could undo for those I taught the damage done by teachers who destroyed the desire of students for knowledge for its own sake. I was an unconventional classroom teacher. I never used a chair. When the state made videos of selected teachers to help set the standards for the state in the 70’s, I was one of those chosen.

As an over 50 year half-life member of NEA I am finally writing a letter. Surprising, reading the letters of present day teachers to see how little has improved in teaching conditions. When I started I taught in a room with only one light bulb. In a couple of years I moved into a room that had a full skylight for a ceiling. A few things I learned from my administrator.
1. Removing a problem from your class does no good because someone will rise to fill the vacancy.
2. Pupils don’t fail; teachers do
3. Don’t depend on State Teacher’s Retirement for your old age.

I was selected to be my school representative to the Superintendent’s Council. When I carried the word that all the teachers felt that the supervisors could better be used in the classroom, I was removed. I attended college classes on the teaching of handicapped children in which I was the only one who had ever successfully done such teaching.

I changed districts twice while using the teacher association’s hiring office. I refused to give my résumé the second time but demanded to know as much about the school district as they required of me. The shocked interviewer proceeded to tell me about where she lived and about the district. I was hired in her district over 41 other applicants for the same position.

It tried at two different universities to obtain a Masters based upon having school districts provide information to teachers rather than just teachers providing the information. Was turned away twice because universities were fearful of offending school districts. I was elected to State Teachers Council and made the same proposal. All of the Districts in my section were asked to provide an ‘assessment of professional opportunity’ which was made available to all teachers seeking employment. The Assessment of Professional Opportunity did not survive my leaving the state council.

As the president of my local teacher’s association I wrought two significant changes. First, that teacher’s facilities were given a better grade of toilet paper from that given the students. Second that administrative meetings would not be held on Friday afternoons but rather on Wednesday afternoons. This kept them on the job for the full week rather than the four and a half previously served by leaving early on Friday. Everything changed back when I left office.

However, in my last term on State Council, I distributed leaflets to the 500 or so State Council members showing how administrator members of the teacher’s association were manipulating the entire organization. They did this by way of seniority that gave them controlling membership of the legislative committee’s submissions to the state legislature. Shortly after I left the council, administrators were no longer in the teachers association.  Some years later, I was the only non-officer of my section who was asked to rise to applause when it was disbanded through a mass reorganization of the state association. Six hundred guests applauding showed that "one person can make a difference". Unintended consequences of my activities were the loss of professionalism in exchange for unionism. Would I do it again? Yes!

I left teaching the day after I was eligible for retirement. I had found that the money in my retirement fund was going down in value faster than the state and I was adding to it. Twenty-two years later I received a letter saying that I was one of twenty-three thousand teachers who had been compensated at levels below the poverty level since retirement. My retirement income was doubled so now my poverty level retirement funds cover my medical insurance and old age health care insurance.

Were it not for the rampant school-district/administrators spiking of retirement benefits, teachers could be much better off. Spiking is where favored administrators get high-paying titles in their last years to boost their retirement incomes often to double the amounts otherwise available. I have never found it done for a teacher. This administrative retirement balloon is unfairly milking the teachers and the retirement systems, but what else is new. The retirement boards at local and state levels have known about it all the time. At one time, five-percent of the administrative retirees were taking 15-percent of the funds paid out. Doubt that it’s any different today.

So what else have I learned?
1. Teachers are under appreciated, under paid and under lock-step pressure
2. The inertia of the system will outlive anything human.
3. The educational system has in itself the seeds of its own destruction.
4. Anyone, who can teach, can do better financially almost anywhere.
5. Administrators will continue to Emron the teachers of the country.
6. Next month I will take part the Library of Congress’ photographic oral history of WWII.
Should not the NEA/CTA do as much for the teachers of the country? It is not too late

 I rebelled against the local airport administration when they tried to prohibit free-lance flight instruction. I even rebelled against the local real estate industry when they would not show or sell me a home because I was a low-income teacher.

I did have some successes. California administrators are no longer members of the teacher's association. We built an apartment instead of buying a home. We retired on its income. I won a lawsuit against the airport and free-lance instruction has been a protected right in California ever since. I fought every parking ticket I ever got. Along with some other rebels we forced California to wiggle into a new kind of crime called an 'infraction' to make parking tickets work as a money making system.  I am not winning the battle against old age.

My Month as a Student (humor)
Week 1
Monday: Rain.
Tuesday: Rain.
Wednesday: No rain; no visibility either.
Thursday: Take instructor to lunch. Discover I don't know enough to take instructor to lunch.
Friday: FLY! Do first stall and second stall during same maneuver, cover instructor with lunch.

Week 2
Monday: Learned not to scrape frost off Plexiglas with ice-scraper. Used big scratches on windshield as marker to set pitch.
Tuesday: Instructor wants me to stop calling throttle, "THAT BIG KNOB THING."
Also, hates it when I call instruments 'GADGETS'.
Wednesday: Radios won't pick up radio stations, so I turn them off. Instructor seems to think I missed something during the introductory flight.
Thursday: Learned 10-degree bank is not a steep turn. Did stall again today. Lost 2000 feet. Instructor said that was some kind of record. -My first complement.
Friday:  Did steep turn. Instructor said I was ready for inverted flight, yet.

Week 3
Monday: Instructor called in sick. New instructor told me to stop calling her "BABE"
Did steep turns. She said I have to have permission for inverted flight.
Tuesday: Instructor back. He told me to stop calling him "BABE", too. He got mad
when I pulled power back on takeoff because the engine was too loud.
Wednesday: Instructor said after the first 20 hours, most students have established a
learning curve. He said it seemed there was only a slight bend in mine.
Thursday: Did stalls. Clean recovery. Instructor said I did good job. Also did turns
around a point. Instructor warned me never to pick ex-fiancée's house as point again.
Friday: Did pattern work. Instructor said that if downwind, base, and final formed a triangle,
I would be perfect. More praise!

Week 4
Monday: First landing at controlled field. Did fine until I told the captain in the 747 ahead of
us on taxiway to move his bird. Instructor says we'll have ground school all this week on radio
Tuesday: asked instructor if everyone in his family had turned gray at such an early age. He
smiled. We did takeoff stalls. He says I did just fine but to wait until we reach altitude next
time. C-150 will be out of shop in three days when the new nose-strut and tire arrive.
Instructor says his back bothers him only a little.
Wednesday: Flew through clouds. I thought those radio towers were a lot lower. I'm sure my
instructor is going gray.
Thursday: Left flaps down for entire flight. Instructor asked why. I told him I wanted the extra
lift as a safety margin. More ground school.
Friday: Asked instructor when I could solo. He laughed till he cried. What was so funny?
Author unknown found in weekly throwaway

--Consider making up a 'Fanny Pack" for your preflight. It could/should contain rubber gloves, rags, window cleaner, sump-cup, tools. Put it on during preflight because it leaves the hand free. Take it off while flying.

--Keep a supply of "post-its" of different sizes in your flight kit. Make a frequency list on a longer one for what you expect to need on a given leg. Use small one to diagram destination runway and reference points for anticipated arrival or 45 entry.

--Don't spend any money for overpriced devices from the local FBO (Fixed Base Operator or "Sporty's." The following suggestions work just as well for a lot less money.

--A COUPLE of heavy rubber bands with a paper clip will wrap around your leg and make a good device to hold small note pads.

--WEST BEND makes a series of kitchen timers and stop watches that can be bought at flea markets for as little as $8. These can be fastened to broom clips that will hold to the yoke. FBO's sell less capable timers for about $30.

--A BROOM clip can be screwed to a spring paper clip with a 1-2 inch screw to hold checklists to yoke. A small plastic rectangle will hold approach plates or writing pad.

--Keep your ground checklist on a piece of cardboard hung by string around your neck. This should include preflight, pre-start, start, taxi, run-up, and pre-takeoff in one series. A second series should be post landing, taxi, shutdown, and tie-down. The backside of the card should be outlined in red with emergency procedures.

--THE ashtray makes a good pen holder. Fasten a pen or pencil to your clipboard with a string long enough to make it useful. Hang a pen or pencil with a couple of rubber bands from the yoke as an emergency scribble digit. Always carry an extra supply of rubber bands.

--TAKE TWO (one) old sectionals and cut out a circle 10-12 inches in radius centered on your home airport. Take an old record album cover and cut a circle to maximum size. Center the cardboard and your home airport. Glue the sectional to the cardboard and trim to size. Get a piece of fairly stiff wire or a rubber band. Bend the wire so that it goes through the center of the circle and the other end so that it folds under the circumference. The rubber band must thread through the center and the ends held with a paper clip. Mark the outer edge of the sectional in 10 degree marks and 30 degree numbers as though it were a VORs. These marks should be magnetic courses centered on your home field. If your home field is near the edge of a sectional this card will make it very easy to plan local flights as well as courses requiring both sides of the sectional. Just slide the wire to the desired course. Crease the circle so it will fold for easy storage. The backside makes a good place for emergency checklists, etc. Backside printout of radio procedures is part of radio material. Design radio call-ups, reporting points, and runway expectations so that when looking at the chart on one side, you can flip it over and read the appropriate radio material.

--A BASEBALL type cap is invaluable when the sun is low on the horizon. It serves well as a barf bag if not ventilated. A bee in the cockpit is a problem best solved with a cap.

--A THIN tube of plastic about 15" long serves well as a fuel gauge. Be sure the plastic is fuel resistant. Hold your finger over the end to hold fuel in tube for measuring. Mark the tube at different levels to get accurate time/fuel/flight conditions consumption. Take fuel measurements before and after each flight until you learn to estimate fuel consumption accurately for the flying you do.

--SILICA GEL can be purchased with a plastic basket at Motor Home Suppliers. This will absorb cockpit moisture and protect the interior of an aircraft.

--LOSING fuel out of the overflow tube can be fixed. Raising that side of the plane on a 1x12 or 1x12 ramp for the low wheel will solve the problem.

--A long CLIPBOARD can be cut so as to be 2" narrower and then used sideways. Keep permanent checklist data and flight information such as clearance sequence, rate of climb per mile, time over 5, 10 mile distances, on one side. Have a supply of extra clips to hold notes, etc. Wide clipboards interfere with the yoke.

Sunglasses that pass less than 15% light will reduce acuity. Photochromic lenses may not work well with aircraft windshields. These glasses may not change rapidly enough for certain mountain conditions. Polarized sunglasses should not be used through a laminated windshield. Many glass cockpit aids cannot be read with polarized glasses. Wearing sunglasses will protect the eyes and reduce visual fatigue. Get the best 'blue-blockers' you can afford.

--Keep a partial roll of duct-tape and electrical tape in your flight kit. Carry a "Leatherman" knife, tire pressure gauge, and cellular phone. Wear walking shoes. For many years I supplied my club aircraft with a pair of blocks tied with a short cord. The blocks were a 2 x 4 about five inches long and a 2 x 6 about eight inches long. The blocks in combination made it possible to block the seats in a wide variety of spacings. Cheap, simple, effective.

Basic Knowledge for Flying
--Arriving late is better than never but not by much..
--If you have a plane that can carry a full load of passengers and baggage plus full fuel, it should have larger fuel tanks for when range needs exceed payload needs.
--Takeoffs are optional. Landings are mandatory.
--If you push the stick forward, the houses get bigger, if you pull the stick back they get smaller. (Unless you keep pulling the stick back - then they get bigger again)
--Flying is not dangerous; crashing is dangerous.
--It's better to be down here wishing you were up there, than up there wishing you were down here.
--The propeller is just a big fan in the front of the plane to keep the pilot cool. Want proof? Make it stop; then watch the pilot break out into a sweat.
--Speed is life, altitude is life insurance. No one has ever collided with the sky.
--It's best to keep the pointed end going forward as much as possible.
--The only time you have too much fuel is when you're on fire.
--Everyone already knows the definition of a 'good' landing is one from which you can walk away. But very few know the definition of a 'great landing.' It's one after which you can use the airplane another time.
--The probability of survival is equal to the angle of arrival.
--You know you've landed with the wheels up when it takes full power to taxi.
--Aviation is not so much a profession as it is a disease.
--There are three simple rules for making a smooth landing: Unfortunately, no commercial pilot knows what they are.
--Those who hoot with the owls by night should not fly with the eagles by day.
--Trust your captain... but keep your seat belt securely fastened.
-- The only thing worse than a captain who never flew as copilot is a copilot who once was a captain.
--Be nice to your first officer, he may be your captain at your next airline.
--It's easy to make a small fortune in aviation. You start with a large fortune.
--A fool and his money are soon flying more airplane than he can handle.
--Remember, you're always a student in an airplane.
--Try to keep the number of your landings equal to the number of your takeoffs.
--You cannot propel yourself forward by patting yourself on the back.
--Gravity never loses - the best you can hope for is a draw!
--Flying is the 2nd greatest thrill known to man, Landing is the 1st!
--A mandatory landing occurs when you are out of fuel.
--Flying is just throwing yourself at the ground and missing.
--If weather and winds constitute a possible problem, do not plan a refueling stop at a single runway airport. Even on the ground you may not be able to taxi to the pumps.
--For safer crosswind takeoff operations, leave the nose wheel on the ground until a bit above normal rotation speeds. Then 'pop' it off and hold it off in a crabbing angle to the runway as the wind may require.
--The mixture knob is red for a reason. Improper leaning will affect the color of your bank account.
--At ten thousand feet 30% of your power has been lost.
--Verify proper vacuum during the pre-takeoff runup.
--Running out of fuel in G.A. Aircraft happens on average, three times a week.
--Effective useable distance for a landing light is 200'. Use of light sooner does little good.
--Keep looking around; there's always something you've missed.
--Judgment skills are more important than flying skills.
--Learn from the mistakes of others. You won't live long enough to make all of them yourself.
--Ability to retreat from error is an essential attribute of a safe pilot.
--Good judgment comes from experience and experience comes from bad judgment.
--Always remember, you fly an airplane with your head, not your hands.
--Never let an airplane take you somewhere your brain didn't get to five minutes earlier.
--Many receive advice, on the wise profit by it.
--He who teaches learns twice.

Passenger Boarding Information
Welcome aboard this non-commercial flight in the vicinity of San Francisco. We will be departing shortly and with any luck at all will continue to be airborne until our return to our departure point. You will be instructed to fasten your seat belt and you are expected to obey the aircraft captain in every other instance. Please make sure your seatbelt is on and that your seat is securely fastened to the fuselage. At this time, any personal items should be stowed securely in the trunk of your car, since there is no overhead compartment or space beneath your seat, to speak of. Please turn off all portable electronic devices, and keep them off until we have landed safely, or for the duration of the flight, whichever comes first. Smoking is not permitted inside the cabin; smoking outside the cabin should be reported to the captain immediately. There is no beverage service during the flight. If you need to make a bathroom stop, do so prior to our departure. In-flight entertainment will consist of watching the pilot's desperate struggle to control the plane. We'll be flying at an altitude deemed, in the opinion of the pilot, to be safe and most likely to avoid other aircraft. This is in theory; but, should the plane's altitude drop precipitously, please check to ensure that the pilot is awake and in an upright position. As we prepare for takeoff, please take this opportunity to locate the exit nearest you and, if you have any sense at all, avail yourself of it before it's too late. In a moment, the pilot will begin handing out the release forms in preparation for takeoff. Be assured that in all his time aloft, the pilot has never lost a passenger; however, your results may vary. Now sit back, relax, and enjoy your flight.

Books Not To Read?"
None of the titles have any bearing whatsoever on the actual skills or personalities of the people mentioned. It's just a joke, okay?
101 ways to trip a circuit breaker, or "How I saved money by rewiring my aircraft" by Jim Weir.
"How to freeze your main gear brakes by taxiing in ice and snow", And a companion work, "How to call for de-icing" by Timothy Metzinger.
"I Learned All I Needed to Know about Flying in Kindergarden" by Gene Whitt
The Pitts isn't the Pendulum by Todd Pattist
"Swing Low,Sweet Chariot - a rebuttal by by AlexY"
"Taildraggers: Just say NO" by Michael Masterov.
"C-I-T-A-B-O-R-I-A What else is there?" by Billy Beck
POH? Who needs it? And my bible......" by Fred Choate
"Flying with Left Wings Only" by machogrande as offered by Don Tabor
"I Can't Fly because Republicans Own All the Airplanes" by Machogrande
"Usenet Duelling: Invective at Ten Paces", by Machogrande
"Marx is My Co-Pilot" by Machogrande
"Become A Pilot Without Turning Into A Right-Wing, Dittohead, Freak" by Machogrande
"101 Things You Can Do Only Once in a Plane" and "Hey, Watch this Sh*t - Fun things to show Grandma on a Sunday afternoon flight" by Heather R.G. Hopfensperger
"Vector THIS....."  by a disgruntled ATC person
"Getting the Most from a Company Car" by Jim Fisher.
"How to Win friends and Influence your Airport Nieghbors" By: Mike "I Need A New Muffler" Hoza
"Snooze Rooms-The Pllot's Guide"'by bluestreak
"The F.A.A. and You: How to Enforce the F.A.R.'s on Your Own" and "FAR Self-Study: Learn How to Violate Yourself" by Jeff Johnson
 "1001 Ways to Sell Aviation Literature", by Bob Gardner.
 "The MU-2 Story", by Mike
 "Wear Your Airplane", by Tina Marie, clothing specialist
 "Missouri Summer Favorites: Cooking on Your Cowling", by Dustin Graves
 "How to Remember the Keys Before You Get Strapped In and Ready to Go", by Dustin Graves
"External Power and Antennae Cord Management Inside Cockpit For Dummies", by Dustin Graves
"Everything I need to know about being a CFI I learned in kindergarten" by Joe~~
"How to use an IFR approach to get a straight in to almost any airport" by St Stephen Ames
 "Three point landings using only one main" by Highflyer
 "Slips with Flaps: How to land the 172" by Tina Marie
 "Coping with flapping doors" by Ben Tristam
 "Coping with deflated tailwheels", with a followup work, "Finding 4-inch innertubes at 6pm on a Saturday night in Corpus Christi" by Dylan Smith
 "The Wonderful World of Cessnas" by Stephen Ames
"Badges? We Don't Need No Stinkin' Line Badges" by Bob Gardner
"Say Anything, Please" or "A Pilot's Guide to Squelch" or "26 Ways to Annoy Approach Controllers" by Unknown
"The Performance of Light Bricks" or "Full-Flap Takeoffs in the 152" by john Lowry
"Unadorned Skydiving for Experts" and a second book "Slipping With Flaps, Landings Made Dangerous" by Tina Marie
"Buying too much airplane: How to survive the first 50 hours" by Tina Marie
"Flying for Dummies, "Hurricane Crosswinds made Simple" and "101 Ways to Bust your Checkride" by James Bieker
"You, Your Airplane, and Radio Shack", by Jim Weir?
"Freds's Guide to Crashing Small Planes" by Fred Choate, Student Pilot
"Passenger Terror - How to have fun with your small-plane passengers" By | Jay Hoeneck
"Teach Yourself To Fly In 30 Minutes or Less" by Roy Smith, CFI
"Do It Yourself Engine Repairs for Dummies" by Ron and Margie Natalie
"FARs Made Complicated" by Stan Prevost
"Zero-Zero: IMC for Beginners" by Andy Grose.
|Up Close & Personal: Formation Flying for the Novice. by Steve Ames
The Sky's the Limit: How to Experimentally Determine the Service Ceiling of Your Aircraft. Part 1. Without Supplemental O2. by Steve Ames
Those who can do, those who can't teach: A Guidebook for CFI's. by Gene Whitt
"Get Your PPL in 500 Hours or Less" ; Subtitled "The $9000 Dream." "Objekt's
Guide to CFI's of NC and Southwestern VA," and "Your Third through Seventh Instructors." all by Objekt
"The F.A.A. and You: How to Enforce the F.A.R.'s on Your Own" by Jeff Johnson
"There's No Math In Flight", by John T. Lowry
"Zero Zero takeoff for Dummies"; "VFR Not Recommended: What's he really saying?"; "He sure looked far enough away in the camera" by St Stephen Ames
"Running on the Fumes from Formulas," by John T. Lowry.
|"Learn to fly by spending the next two years reading text files" by Gene Whitt.
"Perfecting Your Go-Around," by Karen Alexander
"SoCal Approach, Where Do YOU Think I Am?; How to find the airport without admitting you're lost"--by Tim Howell
"Teach Yourself Aerobatics in Only One Lesson" by Jeff
"IMC Adventures with John Wayne (Airport)" by Victor Morange;^)
"Build Your Own Plane from Scratch for Less than $10 with Common Radio Shack Parts"; >Previously printed as a 4-part series in Tim Howell?
"How to hack your old PCS phone into a linear detection super accurate Loran receiver" by Chuck Forsberg 
"Grumpy old men and their flying machines" --by highflyer
"Real Airplanes are for Wimps" by Microsoft
"Radio Engineers do it with Frequency" by Jim Weir
"The Sun actually rises in the West" by Troll Inc.
"Gay Pilots may Bite me" by Anonymous|
Teach yourself semiconductor physics in 14 days (a beginners guide for the aspiring student pilot), by Jim Weir
"Proper Flaring Technique" (or "There's two fat guys in the front seats of this plane. It's bound to be nose heavy") by Al Gilson's CFI
"Upper Body Workouts and the Primer: The Guide to Starting a Cessna at 20 Below" -by Stella in Minnesota
"Pattern Flying at Uncontrolled Fields: How to Cut-in When It Really Counts" by Jeff Johnson.
"101 Excuses Your Examiner Never Heard" by Unknown
 "How To Check The Oil In A Greasy Navajo And Not Stain Your White Shirt" by bluestreak 
 "The Complete Crew Car Guide" by bluestreak 
 "Jepp Revisions Made Easy" by bluestreak 
 "The Beginner's Guide To Aerobatics In V-Tail Bonanzas" by bluestreak 

"How to Take Your Airplane Apart, One Flight At a Time" by Jill Kamienski
The chapters of this book are :
1. Climb a 150 to 8,000 feet over eastern Colorado farm fields and pop the spinner off.
2. Clamp the tailwheel of a Champ on touchdown in a full left deflection and take it on an excursion off the runway.
3. Have high voltage indications and radio problems in a 172 heading into Cheyenne (class D).
4. Have a fuel cap come off during flight in a 172.
5. Take an Arrow around the pattern and have the nose gear collapse.
6. Get a problem with the seal in the prop and have oil cover the windshield in a Husky.
"Where's my airport?" By Andy Davis
"VOR Navigation for Dummies" by Andy Davis
"Skinny Pilots and Their Effects on Climb Rate" by Andy Davis
"Where'd My Student Go?", A Guide for CFIs that Never See Their Students
Again After Their Solo Signoff - by my Instructor Russ Mann
"The Treetop Pilot" - Stan Prevost
"Psyche!" - The Professional Student's Guide to Scheduling Checkrides" - Billy Beck
"Advanced Tactical Maneuvers for the Student Pilot" - Dudley Henriques
"Cheap Thrills with FAA Approved Medications" - Jay Honeck
"Head Vice: A Buyers Guide For Migraine-Producing Headsets" - One I'm considering writing.
"Student to Captain in Less Than Three Months" - Stephen Ames
"What the Hell Did You Say, Buttwipe? - A Guide to Getting Along With ATC", Bob Gardner
"How to win friends and influence people" by J Kelley, foreword by HighTimePilot
"Solo Students Guide to Buzzing your Girlfriends House", Deadend Charley
"Short Final: A pilots guide to knowing when to establish communications"
"Hmmm...what would happen if I pulled this?: A pilots guide to your first, and last, passenger"
"Sun, what's that?: A pilots guide to flying in Seattle" , -- Scott
"When ATC Shouts 'Bravo,' It's Probably Not Applause" -- X. Tended Downwind
"Where's That Heavy? Pattern Aerobatics in Your Mooney" -- Thurston Howell III
"Flaps Zero on Short Final and Other Ways to Impress Your CFI", Peter H. Schmidt
"Vne, Fact or Fiction?" by Kami Kazie (Alias of Gene Seibel)
Hunting Moose in the C-150" by Ben There and Done That (Alias of Gene Seibel)
"100 Things To Do With Your Fathers PPL" by Late Tu Breakfast (Alias of Gene Seibel)
"The Fine Art of Tractor Trailer Touch N' Goes" by Big Rig (Alias of Gene Seibel)
"Building Time as a 747 Stowaway" by Class A Flyer (Alias of Gene Seibel)
"AC 124Z: Absorbency Properties of Advisory Circulars" by Far Away (Alias of Gene Seibel)
"Vector Analysis of Headphone Jack Insertion" by J. Lowery ;- (Alias of Gene Seibel)
Airspeed: Who needs it! Lowspeed Johnny
Flying on Fumes by Sump Strainer
Mastering the Thunderstorm by Vector Analysis
1001 Uses for Bubblegum in Aviation by Big Chew
Aerodynamics and Duct Tape by Stick Tewit
Amateur's Guide to Test Piloting by One Wing Low
Using convective updrafts to increase range, Don Paquette
Virga, it's not just for breakfast anymore, Don Paquette
Night Lights: only for chickens, Don Paquette
Inadequate hand propping by one armed Louis, Don Paquette
Testing the max load factor on wings, Don Paquette
The joys of alcohol in the cockpit, Don Paquette
Convincing your mother in law to take the right seat, Don Paquette
How to fly without a CFI, Don Paquette
Turn your plane into a glider to reduce hobb's time, Don Paquette
Viewing (your city) at 50' AGL, Don Paquette
Master cross control stalls during landing, Don Paquette
Pre-heating condoms with the pitot tube, Don Paquette
Formation flying with geese, Don Paquette
Here's mine: "NORDO on the Active". Dustin Graves
IFR for dummies by Scott Migaldi
In-flight engine maintenance for the private pilot by Scott Migaldi
Home built aircraft from the New Yankee Workshop by Scott Migaldi
Let me add mine: "The Compleat Student's Guide to Weather Prediction, or Damn, Another Lesson Canceled."- Eric Remy.
" The Complete English Language Dictionary For Air Traffic Controllers Dealing With Pilots From Alabama" :-) Dudley
Mastering the Thunderstorm.; Gene Seibel
This one has me laughing my ass off ; Gene Seibel.
Aerodynamics and Duct Tape; Gene Seibel
"Students are from Mars, ATC's are from Venus"; John Gruson
"Low and Slow - A wake up call for Instructors" ; John Gruson
"The Kavorkian Guide to Thunderstorm Flying"; John Gruson
"Inverted Flight without a Harness: Leveraging the Pucker Factor" by S.Uck Vinil
"Water Landings--Not Just For Floatplanes Anymore"; Antonio Aponte
"Create Your Own Logbooks from Scratch"; Antonio Aponte
"Backyard Carrier Launcher in 7 Days"; Antonio Aponte
"Simulating Air Traffic Control from the C-172"; Antonio Aponte
"A Pictoral Retrospective of the Pitot Tube"; Antonio Aponte
"Hand-Propping Techniques for the Visually Challenged" ; Antonio Aponte
"Hairstyles for the Woman Aviator" by Martha King
"King Video Implementation for the Treatment of Insomnia"; King
"Teach Yourself Aerobatics"; Antonio
"Building Your Own Anti-Density Altitude Machine" by Depok Chopra
Let me add mine: "The Compleat Student's Guide to Weather Prediction, or
Damn, Another Lesson Canceled."- Eric Remy.
In-flight engine maintenance for the private pilot; SFM
"MU-2 Pilots Make More Noise"; (EXR101)
"Why won't gramma fly with me anymore?" by Sean D. Tucker

Tail Stickers for Aircraft
My cockpit or yours?"
Construction vehicle
Do not Push
Get your eyes off my tail & scan !!!!!
Hey baby, what's your call sign???
Horn broken, watch for finger
Stick it up your alpha sierra sierra
Caution wake turbulence....
I brake for small aircraft
"Stella passed her checkride in me: you could too!"
My other airplane is a car
If you can read this sticker, you are too close!
My other airplane is an F-18

Fear of Flying
An Opinion on Fear

I have concerns with fear as it relates to flying. I realize fear of heights and falling are instinctive and normal. It appears irrational to let our fears inappropriately affect reasonable considerations. It requires that you take a positive attitude toward what you want to do and the way you do it. This approach can overcome irrational fears. By not flying the risks cease to exist. The risks of flying will still be there. The pleasures of flying exist as driving force in the face of the risks. You cannot experience one without exposure to the other

The pilot has resigned himself to the fact that one must forego some security for pleasure. If you fear heights and sense them when flying then you must counter this concern with thoughts related to the pleasurable sensations that exist in flying. The distinction between fear and respect is reasoned understanding that risks exist; any lack of caution is a ticket for disaster. Failure to recognize the risks opens the Pandora box of unanticipated fears. By understanding and accepting risk you remove the irrational causes of fear from flying. The skilled pilot can and will prepare for risk situations. Fear and irrational behavior is to be expected on the part of the unskilled and unprepared pilot.

Music and Flying
I don't know that anyone has ever equated music to flying by comparing the skills of a music master vs. a student to the flying skills of a master pilot and a student pilot. It is my understanding that a student learning most any instrument is under stress, using far more energy and effort to play a few notes, while the master will play a concerto with a light touch and little apparent effort. The master aerobat will through skill and anticipation make an aircraft perform miracles while the student pilot will sweat bullets just making a level turn.

It appears that there is more music in flying than one would have ever imagined. The flying student who has music as a backup career has the basic ingredients for being a successful pilot. But then, so does anyone else who has taken a mental/muscular skill and mastered it.

Mr. Whitt,
I have been spending all morning exploring your website. What a joy! I agree with your analogy of music vs aviation. One of the most cherished compliments that I ever received came from a concert pianist who had chartered the Mitsubishi MU-2 I was captain of. We flew hard IFR the whole trip from San Antonio, Texas (SAT) to Corpus Christi, Texas (CRP). As we parted she commented, in reply to my apology for the weather, that I flew the airplane the same way she played the piano and that she was never concerned. I had a big head for days, but aviation has a way of humbling us and it very soon did. I've always considered flying an art and it is gratifying to find someone else who sees aviation the same way, as you obviously do. I have only scratched the surface on your website and I will delve further into it at a later date. So you will probably hear from me again. Right now I have a flight to catch. By the way I am a 61 year old ATP with over 30 years in the air.
Take Care, Bick Eubanks

The Unteachable Student
I have found that, my methods, and I, are incompatible with about 5% of my students. This was true when I was teaching school and still holds true for flight instruction. I have advised three students not to continue because of judgment difficulties. The one that continued with another instructor and killed himself flying back from passing his flight-test. It is very difficult for a student with difficulties to separate out the instruction of a new instructor from that of the first instructor. The learning law of primacy rules more than we would believe. Perhaps a different type of aircraft at a different airport along with a different instructor would resolve the problem. 

No mention of the reading or ground school material was mentioned. Perhaps videos would help. Regardless, I think a clean break from the past would give the student a chance to 'start over'. Were he to be my student I would have him talk into a tape recorder along with me prior to every flight. We would discuss the procedures for a closed traffic pattern exercise. We would verbalize everything he would do and how he would do it. We would walk and talk the flight first by direction and position, then by altitude and changes and finally by what is said on the radio. The same process would carry through in the aircraft, on the ground and in the air. The use of a checklist in every step of the way would be mandatory

 The lesson would be listened to by the student after the flight and critical notes taken for discussion with the instructor as to the what and why of problems and successes. Additionally, the student would be told what to prepare for the next lesson. I would make myself available by phone in the evenings, especially the night before a lesson to make sure that the student was prepared. From this beginning, I would adjust the program to fit the needs of the student. The essential is to make each step successful. Nothing breeds success and confidence better than success. Though I was only an incidental part of Lisa's success, she is a shining example of how desire overcomes difficulty. In a subsequent communication I indicated that it was just possible that the student had some unexpressed or shown fears or concerns that were overriding his efforts to learn and remember.

Learnin' Ain't Easy
The way you're first taught is the way you will react under stress.
2. Unlearning and learning a new way is harder than learning right in the first place.
3. Teaching a skill requires much more than just demonstration and performance.
4. Learning transfer requires expression in your own words of the information.
5. An abstract word requires 32 repetitions before it becomes 'yours'.
6. A skill is not 'yours' until you have performed it eight times correctly.
7. Retention is related to the imprint of the occasion and the background of the student..
8. Only through reviews of different types can we really remember.
9. Over teaching is not a waste of time or effort.

Teachin' Ain't Easy Either
Before political correctness entered, I was a teacher of retarded children. When understanding occurred we had an ah-ha experience together. I learned as much from my students as they learned from me. My combined experiences of teaching LORAN to officers during WWII and experiences with slow learning children children made me a better teacher of flying.

I found that if I could not explain something to a ten-year old I did not understand it well enough. I would explain/demonstrate one aspect of Bernouli theory by blowing between two hanging sheets of paper. I would further illustrate Bernoulli by blowing below and above a piece of paper making an airfoil over my fingers. Like Dudley, I believe simplicity is the way to go.

CFI Selection
All CFIs and airplanes are different. Try to get the best match you can. You may need to give a little in CFI or airplane to get the best for you.

Narrow the search down to convenience of the airport, then by FBO. Work on availability of aircraft and CFIs. Smell the restrooms. Look at the outside grounds. Count the smokers. Take a trial ride. Make a list of questions. What to ask the owner. What to ask the Chief Pilot. What to ask the CFI. What to ask another trainee. High price vs low price is not always a good criterion. Be selective. Don't fall for a 'money up front' situation. FBOs come and go rather rapidly. Find someone who is willing to talk to you about flying.

Flying Clubs
Organizational particulars
Safety record

Flight Instructors
Why you?

Instructional Program
Ground and Flight
Lesson sequence
Lesson frequency

Ways to cut costs
Pay schedule
Other charges

Growing Up as a Pilot
It takes more than time to grow and mature as a pilot. Judgment cannot be measured just by time but by the number of successful decisions made weighed against the poor decisions. It would be akin to a quarterbacks touchdown passes measured against interceptions. At the present time I am flying with a pilot who has been flying for 35 years. Even when his aircraft has been sitting in the open for over five days, his preflight is so cursory that he only checks the fuel in the tank where the gauge is inoperative. I arrive early to make sure that his preflight fits my much higher standards.

He is planning to make a flight across Canada to Anchorage, Alaska. I have agreed to help him plan the flight. He is planning a rather casual flight with stops to smell the flowers along the way. I feel that this approach offers him the best chance of success. We he to be under any pressure his lack of judgment could get him into serious weather difficulty. He has made mistakes in judgment and wrecked an airplane in the recent past. Learning to improve his judgment requires that he be exposed to those conditions that require the making of good decisions. However, he is so concerned about redoing past mistakes that he will not allow himself to be taught how to deal successfully with adverse conditions. This means that he is unwilling to continue to learn about flying. It means his personal envelope will not be expanded. It means that he does not know how to or even want to find ways of seeking outside validation about what he hears from others or even sees himself. 

The poor flight instructor has been a perpetuator of as many misconceptions and bad habits in future pilots and flight instructors. The worst of instruction seems to have a persistence that confounds the truth. Mistaken ideas exist about all flying procedures. There are 'holidays' in the knowledge of even the best of us. I found one in mine just a few weeks ago about fuel pumps in Cessnas.

Why do "slow down" and "slow up" mean the same thing?
Why do "fat chance" and "slim chance" mean the same thing?
Why is it called "after dark" when it really is "after light"?
Doesn't 'expecting the unexpected" make the unexpected expected?

Notes On Learning
Learning to fly was still the greatest adventure of life. The inner process of learning to do so many different tasks in a context so radically altered from everyday life is the most rewarding thing a person can do. The presence of danger adds spice to the process by keeping the adrenaline flowing. Weather, circumstance, and mechanical problems can always combine to overwhelm the pilot. Inability to properly handle a suddenly increased workload is the ultimate cause of many accidents. But, when things are going normally, it's actually pretty easy. It is difficult to imagine how hard it was at first. Always do things as simply as possible from navigation, to piloting, to power settings. Added work can be thought of as a distraction from necessary tasks. Excessive tasking eventually causes overload and associated mistakes.

At one time a study was made involving giving radioisotopes in sugar to students. Magnetic scans were made of brain activity while new tasks were being learned. The study results determined that there is a part of the brain that is dedicated to the acquisition of new knowledge. The brain has a transfer/storage capability that will move new knowledge, once acquired into an appropriate brain sector available for recall. The brain's acquisition center is a relatively small sector that is subject to overload. The pilot processes of engine operation, instrument interpretation, communication, navigation and flying can place a heavy load on the learning center. Only one additional element such as conflicting traffic can produce instant overload.

The student who breaks the learning process and acquisition of new knowledge into smaller units of learning that can be acquired and transferred in bits into the memory storage space. The brain is able to gather the new learning bits and combine them in to unified order patterns. The power of the brain is to apply once learned material into new situations.  .As each task is learned, and moved out of the brain's small learning center, your whole brain will be able to put the pieces together. It's amazing how the brain can organize and control vast amounts of learned data. The disturbing aspect of this ability, is the ease with which an additional single bit of new data working in the new acquisition center can adversely affect the ability of the storage data center to function effectively. Yet this new data will be learned and someday blended seamlessly into the total data package as is required in making landings. 

There was a newsgroup reference to me as being 'venerable'. Though I resemble that remark, I would appreciate it if you can make me laugh at it.
venerable: (adj.) worthy of respect or reverence, usually by virtue of age, wisdom, character, or dignity.
According to my dictionary, veneration is the first of three rungs of sanctification, the others being beatification and canonization. So it sounds like you're on your way to Sainthood. :-)
Russell Kent
Didn't mean 'die laughing'.

Dudley on Instruction
"Almost anyone can learn to fly an airplane if exposed to the environment long enough. Teaching someone properly is extremely hard work. It takes a truly dedicated individual to take this kind of interest in their students. It doesn't take long after becoming a CFI to realize that if you want to do it, you can just sit there and keep them from killing themselves, and sooner or later, after they have spent enough of their hard earned money, almost all of them will learn to fly well enough to pass the tests and become certificated. Fortunately, most flight instructors try to be good teachers. The really bad ones are a minority.

It's a damn crime when students are subjected to bad instruction. These students become pilots believing they have a handle on everything they need to know to survive in the air environment. The truth is that they are barely competent through no fault of their own. Through trial and error they have reached a basic level of acquired skills. They have demonstrated competence to an examiner on a specific day and point in time, and been passed. They are now on their own to survive or perish as they individually seek either higher learning or level off and cease learning. Fortunately, most learn through trial and error that they need to understand things a lot better. These are the majority thank God! They go on and seek competent help, and manage to get "caught up" to where they should have been had their instructor's done a decent job . Some, unfortunately, for various reasons, never actually come to realize that true safety in flying comes from a complete understanding of the most basic of the skills involved. It's only a matter of time until these pilots have a serious problem; sometimes years; sometimes never. But the initial fault remains; some flight instructor obscured by time and place, who knew how to fly, but didn't care enough to learn how to teach!!"

Dudley Henriques added;
"After all the formal text and syllabus on teaching has been absorbed, and for a flight instructor, this is usually the bare essentials, there is a factor above that which will in part determine how well a flight instructor can teach. It's difficult to define in exact terms, as it's found in each individual at a different intensity level, but it has a common denominator, and that denominator is "interest". This factor is so important to the success of a flight instructor that I have spent a great deal of my time discussing it with every CFI applicant I have recommended for certification.

It's interest in teaching that will determine how effective one becomes as a flight instructor. It's a genuine concern for doing the absolute best job you can that makes the difference. This goes much deeper than the obvious. It's because flight instructors for the most part don't have extensive educational exposure to a formal teaching education that this is so important. Flight instruction is unique to teaching, as it relates to the task of taking a student into a constantly changing environment and instructing them from within this environment to eventually be able to survive within this environment without assistance . In other words, you are teaching in real time; what to do to survive in real time. This interest factor of which I speak isn't really found in the text books that deal with flight instruction. It's beyond that level. It's a unique quality that has to be nurtured and cultivated.

You begin by developing a general attitude toward your students. You take the time to get to know each one separately; their motivation; their background; and most importantly, the level from which they will be absorbing your instruction. This is the key that opens the door. If I had to put a finger on the one thing that I believe separates a flight instructor from a superior flight instructor, I would put that finger on the superior instructor's ability to find the exact level on which he/she can communicate with an individual student so that the student can understand and comprehend what the instructor is teaching. This single factor should be the teaching goal of every flight instructor. It takes effort to achieve this communication "key", and a lot of instructors don't ever concentrate enough on their own performance to achieve it.

It requires a constant and sometimes brutal self evaluation of the instructor's own performance by the instructor involved. Each lesson should be as much a learning experience for the instructor as it is for the student. An honest self evaluation should be made and adjustments made in the teaching method used. as actual experience with each student dictates these adjustments necessary. At no time should the instructor become complacent with his/her own performance.

Verification and assessment of student comprehension should be made on an ongoing basis at all times, and if any deviation from the desired standard is detected by the instructor; either in the student's or the instructor's performance, a review should be initiated immediately trying a new approach, until the desired comprehension has been achieved. You can cut this thing many different ways. You can make it as complicated or as simple as you like, but the bottom line is always the same. The superior flight instructor uses a teaching approach that is personally geared to each individual student and based entirely on the instructor's having taken the time to gain the knowledge necessary about that individual student to implement a level on which the student can absorb".

I hope you find this of interest, and wish you the best of luck on becoming the kind of flight instructor we need in aviation today. If I can help you in any way, please feel free to ask.

Gene's addition
--You must find out how a given student learns best.
--Plan your lessons and instruction to take advantage of the learning skills of the student.
--Fixed material like charts, FARs and radio must be taught by what ever means it takes.
--Expect to teach some students how to study, learn and remember.
--Desire to fly will raise learning and achievement standards. Teach for success.
--Walk and talk through each lesson before getting into the airplane.
--Have students talk through a maneuver.
--I have taped over 8500 hours of flight instruction and at least that much on the ground.
--Not all of my students have found the tapes helpful because of time restraints in replaying.
--A mistake is a learning opportunity.

Email to Will, (age 16)
You really don't need to go to a flying school to learn to fly. The schools tend to be quite expensive. I hope you live close to an airport. If so, start hanging out there and offering to help and learn. Pilots tend to be wonderful people who like to help kids who want to learn about flying. Even washing an airplane is an art. You should earn enough by washing one airplane to get an hour's lesson. You can learn a great deal while washing planes. An FBO (Fixed Base Operator) at the airport may hire you to keep things clean. While you work you can make friends with the instructors and get ideas from them. Nearly every pilot has a collection of old books that are no longer needed. Ask if you can read them and promise to return them. As often as not they will become a gift. Go to the public library and go through the Aviation section. Read about the history and famous pilots. Most of them have started out just as you are. You are quite fortunate to be starting out at your age knowing what you want to do in your life. I didn't learn until I was 42. However, I made model airplanes and ships all of my life. The making of flying models will teach you about the parts of airplanes and the reading about flying will teach you the words you need to know in order to talk airplane. Live a clean life, don't smoke or drink if you intend to be a pilot. Your driving record is used by airlines and others as an indication of how safe you will be as a pilot. Eat healthy. I am now 77 and live in constant fear that I may lose my medical and have to give up flying. This happens to everyone who flies. By taking care of yourself you can live to have a long and successful flying life.

What You Know Gets in the Way of What You Don't Know
The learning law of 'Primacy' is what makes developing proper habits first build the foundation for what you will do when under stress. As children we cried under stress. As youngsters we screamed and cavorted. As adults we curse and swear and perhaps strike out. I have seen all of these acts in my flying students when under stressful circumstances. Learning to fly is very much a process of replacing these prior habit reactions with new ad hoc (for this) habit patterns related to flying a particular manufacture of aircraft. Manufacturers use very similar cockpit and operational procedures for all their models.

When what you have already learned about one make of aircraft becomes inappropriate in a different make you are faced with 'negative habit transfer'. You are five times more likely to make a mistake in operation and procedure when what you are supposed to do is 'different' than what you did previously. The likelihood of the mistake occurring is multiplied by several factors if compounded by the introduction of stress. In a situation that requires immediate action we all tend to revert to the habits we first learned. In flying the region of 'negative habit transfer' is most apparent during the inadvertent stall and inadvertent unusual attitudes.

When it comes time for the pilot to transition out of the 'trainer' into the heavier, high-performance or complex aircraft at least some of the operational procedures will change. Power operations will vary, landing flare requirements will vary and timing of everything will change. 'Negative habit transfer' becomes a problem that can only be overcome by practice. There is no substitute for practice. However, it must be directed practice of the right kind. The pilot must devise and revise checklists into a form that will all the development of consistent habit patterns. Included in the actual flying must be considerable time spent in cockpit simulation of what to do, where it is, when to do it, what comes next, and when. Recognize, that you will never be entirely free from your first learned habits. Past habits will arise again and again out of the dust and rust of your past to corrupt your new habits being formed and then neglected from non-use. The ghosts of your flying past can and will rise to haunt your present. What's worse is you won't even realize it.

Opinion by Kristi
Hang in there. I can vouch for Gene's method since he was my instructor. I had 30 hrs and 100 or so landings before I soloed. During my solo, there was some ATC issue at the field and because of the "Gene's radio lesson" it didn't bother me at all. The time you spend going to and from the practice are should be full of lesson stuff. Gene always had me doing Dutch rolls on climb out for rudder coordination practice. Other things to do en route: tracking VORs and NDBs, hood work flying headings. Airwork, constant speed climbs and descents. Ground reference work. Pilotage, landmark recognition. As I remember it, I rarely had a moment that wasn't spent in one sort of learning experience or another. Even when Gene told his stories (of which there are many!) they were "realistic distractions." :-) Gene is really good at turning every moment into a meaningful lesson. He is truly a gifted teacher.

Fortune Cookies:
Hope for the best, but prepare for the worst.
Accept something that you cannot change and you will feel better.
Tomorrow will be too late to enjoy what you can do today.
To teach is to learn twice.

Would You Believe that You Can…
--Be a non-instrument rated pilot and fly in VFR condition of top of overcast at night in a VFR only aircraft
--Fly with VFR minimums only one mile
--Fly into a thunderstorm
--Fly into icing since there is no FAR limitation for flight into icing conditions
--Avoid all thunderstorms by remaining very VFR
--Depart a runway as short as the minimum distance given in the POH
--Join the night frequency of accidents club just by flying into the ground
--Survive in a twin by flying it just as you would a single.
--Fly safer by training for safety in a specific aircraft.
--Match experience by getting realistic training
--Increase the value of experience by getting a lot quickly.
--Increase the risk of flight as weather conditions deteriorate.
--Avoid midair collisions by avoiding airports and VORs while flying above 5000' AGL.
--Survive most all engine failures by making a controlled landing type crash.
--Greater chance of an accident by flying out of the center of gravity. than by being over-weight.
--Control your flying fate.

How Flying Plays with Your Mind
--Flying has induced high level of personal anxiety, confusion, and inability to process information.
--Under stress even the intelligent have trouble performing two tasks at the same time.
--Usually when two tasks are presented together the tendency is to perform one while sacrificing the other.
--The task having the greatest threat focuses the attention but over time the stress fades to a moderate level.
--Pilots can focus attention on low and moderate threats but the focus on high threats fade quickly.
--High stress attention levels cannot be maintained for long since attention turns to peripheral cues.
--A threat that creates anxiety, learned helplessness and inability to perform must be trained and retrained
so that rational decision-making and effective information processing makes coping possible.
--Such an anxiety threat cannot be allowed to become chronic because hyper-vigilance becomes focused.
--Typical aviation stress areas subject to focused hyper-vigilance are turbulence, landings, stalls, and radio
--It takes an instructor with high perceived expertise, trustworthiness and authority to reduce the stress.
--As an instructor I will work on only one stress factor at a time. Once resolved to an acceptable level, I use it as the kite to which I can tie others as a tail. Does this work? Not always and not every time.
--The student who becomes chronically anxious, unable to see progress and frustrated by uncontrollable events needs to be returned to work on basic skills. 
--Complex performance rests on a bed of basics.
--It is the weak basics functioning on an illusion of mastery that existed in the past that needs refreshing.
--The instructor must reduce student guilt feeling and insecurity by building a constructive problem-solving recovery program.
--Beating a student with a sense of failure with repeated failed lessons will impair the student's innate ability and motivation.
--The student is under a terrorist like attack by the unknown evils residing just outside his knowledge and performance base that poise credible threats that will cause him to:
        --feel helpless and become unwilling to effect solutions
       --adopt a sense of hopelessness toward any positive change
       --disrupt his previous study and flying schedules
        --have feelings of suspicion, anxiety and fear about events only in his mind.
--What the student should do is to build a support system via other pilot acquaintances, internet news groups and family.
--Second, the student should work with his instructor to design an action plan of things to do that will emphasize any positive aspects and self-efficacy. You do not dig your way out of a hole.

Taking Chances
--We have no means to measure the willingness of an individual to take risks.
--We have no means to measure the amount of luck an individual will have in a given situation.
--It is recurrent training that will expose a pilot to the latest additions and retractions in the flying process.

Driving vs Flying
If they taught people to drive like they do to fly you would have to:
-- Know how to deal with (or avoid) every kind of weather.
-- Know every system in your car, and how it works.
-- Be able to read a map, and memorize every symbol on it to make sure you never get lost.
--Accurately estimate fuel usage (to the minute), understand the optimum power settings for duration
and range, be able to predict varying performance based on weather and temperature variables.
--Memorize the motor vehicle laws.
-- Check your tires and brakes prior to driving.
--Practice a tire blowout at 70 mph.
--Get special training to drive in bad weather.
--Get a checkout in any new vehicle you wanted to drive and if it was a high performance vehicle get
even more training and a signoff from an instructor saying you are ok to drive that type of car.
--Take a driving test every 2 years to make sure you are still a safe driver.
--Must have less than a .04 blood alcohol level and not be within 8 hrs of your last drink.
--Pass a medical exam every 2yrs if you are over 40 and every 3 years if you are younger.
--Simulate a crash from a bridge into a lake, and memorize the procedures that would afford the best
chance of survival and escape.
--And then...they'd let you go around the block for a couple months, and if that worked out ok, you'd be
able to go to the next town with the instructor's written permission.
--After a time, you'd take a written examination to demonstrate your knowledge of the above, and if that
worked out ok, you'd get to spend hours with an examiner to deem you safe to carry passengers.
--After all that, you'd be sharing the road with others who've gone through the same training as you did.
--Despite all this, once in a while an accident would still occur.
--It is one thing to show a student he is wrong, it is another to put him on the path of correctness..

Bits and Pieces
--Tolerance to lack of oxygen decreases proportionately with age.
--Patience is one of the prime virtues of piloting.
--Lemon Pledge furniture polish causes water to run off windows.
--To secure an aircraft against severe wind damage: put tree branch on top of wing, deflate tires, park
truck on windward side, fill tanks.
--By the time you are 60 you will need three times as much light to perform a task as you did at 20.
--A 30 degree bank causes 1.15 Gs
--A 45 degree bank increases stall speed 20 percent
--A 60 degree bank increases stall speed by 40 percent
--Half of midairs happen below 500 feet and 75 percent occur below 3000 feet.
--81 percent of 'incursions' are essentially non-events.
--Engine loses 3 percent of power for every 1000 feet of altitude
--In four year period ending with 2000 over 1300 incursions were reported with three minor accidents.
--By the age sixty you will need three times the light to see by as you did at 20.
--Maturity comes to some earlier than others but to all survivors given enough time.
--Love maintains enthusiasm and youth in those who love.
--Getting older is a worthwhile process when you consider that dying younger is the alternative.
--Your alternative to becoming an old pilot is being a statistic.
--Your job is what you do, not who you are.
--Problems can be managed by anticipation of a situation's options.
--In advisory communications the aircraft type is more important than the call sign.
--Use radio to call the turns in an uncontrolled airport pattern is best aid for visual location of position.
--Stopping to talk to pilots is an excellent way to get ideas and incidental knowledge
--Beware of pilots who exaggerate their capabilities and experiences.
--Going to places were planes and pilots congregate is the best part of flying.

Rec.Aviation.Student FAQ 0.9
1. How do I get started?  ...Bring money;;;
2. Where do I learn to fly? ...closest saves time...
3. How much does it cost to learn to fly? ..--$7,000 up ...9,000 in2005
4. How long does it take to learn to fly?  --30 days to five years...
5. What books are most useful?  ..Library is beginning ...
6. What resources are available online..More than you can afford or use...
7. Am I too old to learn to fly?  --I once taught an 81 year old...
8. What if I get airsick? ..Eat Ginger before flying...
9. What kind of plane will I fly? --old, small, expensive ...
10. Is flying dangerous? Only if you expect to fly over 65,000 hours...
11. Should I get insurance? --All life insurance and non-owners on solo...
12. Should I join a national organization? ..Yes...
13. What kind of watch should I get?  --Cheap...
14. What kind of headphones should I buy?  ..ANR (Lightspeed)
Michael E. Marotta (Gene Whitt)

Pilot Creed
Become a better pilot not because I need to be better but because I can be better.
It is good training to push the limits of performance and stress to show weaknesses.
Time is directed to getting better will make you better.

Dear Student
Learning to fly is a complex combination of:
Having surplus cash. It might be possible to learn for less than $7000. More likely to cost more than $9000. What is not said in most cases is that it will cost close to that much for every year of your flying life. I have been able to make my flying costs and CFI income give me a break-even hobby.

O.K you have the money. Do you have the time? I have taught a beginning student with money and time in 31 days. If your personal responsibilities prevent you from flying every day then it will take longer and cost more. Best economy and progress requires at least four days a week. Don't waste your time or money on less than twice a week.

When you begin makes a great deal of difference. I get the impression that you want to begin when the weather gets nice. Lousy timing. You want to learn to fly in the late fall so that your instructor has opportunities to teach you about weather and the making of weather decisions. Half of all pilots quit shortly after getting their license. Reason: Learn in the nice weather. Quit when weather gets bad. Have to start all over the next year. Suggestion: Gather money and begin in the fall.

One of the learning problems is in the availability of airplanes. In the nice weather too many people begin learning to fly only to find that the scheduling of aircraft and instructors is too difficult. Planes need periodic maintenance and may be out of service for weeks at a time. Fall is the best time to get airplanes to fly

You are best off learning to fly as close to home as you can. I recently taught a pilot who had to drive an hour to get to my airport. The only good aspect of this was that he could use the driving time to playback the flying tapes we had made covering ground instruction and flight time. Added to cost of learning to fly.

The Way We Learn
--There are as many different ways to learn a particular flying skill or knowledge as there are minds.
--The basic natural drive of humans is to add to any initial accomplishment ever more if it is satisfying.
--At some point the accumulation flying skill and knowledge becomes obsessive if it brings recognition.
--The art of teaching flying is not just of substance but the manner in which the substance is presented.
--The students individually and collectively are the ultimate variable of background, desire, ability and wealth.
--The teacher must be able to adapt the material and presentation to get the most satisfying student reaction.
--Any success I have had in flight instruction is directly related to the post-flight pleasure of my students.
--Therein lies the most important part of initial flight instruction, the learning law of primacy rules.
--That which is first learned is first recalled when under stress and most difficult to forget if incorrect.
--I have found that there is an overriding emotional attachment to the first aspects of learning anything.
--The unlearning process involves first of all intellectual removal and then emotional replacement.
--Just giving the reasons for changing or removing a specific bit of knowledge or procedure is not enough.
--The deficiency is replaced by improved information; more efficient procedures and more positive results.
--In the background will always reside the dangerous threat of a reversion back to the first learned
--All revisions of first learned material must be constantly reinforced again and again and again.
--Learning by the individual involves rearranging the present material into the body of existing knowledge.
--New skills and material that fold without conflict into prior knowledge have the best chance of retention.
--The more interpersonal relationships with other pilots and airplanes the more receptive will be the student.
--I must mention that erroneous concepts from such relationships have also created their share of problems.
--Lectures, books or the internet are not necessarily the best way to teach/learn for some students.
--Immediate feedback by question, chat and personal interchange are very desirable
--Any presentation is made more effective with pictorials or line drawing illustrations.
--Note taking is not as beneficial as may be thought but learning takes place kinesthetically even in sand..
--Notes are seldom read again but the writing helps memory.
--Notes and thinking may be remembered best by the way you fold the information into your knowledge bank.
--In any group situation there will be those who will disagree with the point of information proposed.
--The fact that you are in disagreement will help you remember all the better.
--A war-story memory enhancement by the presenter may inspire your own war-story memory enhancement.
--Some pilots learn about flight situations best by the diagrams used to explain the words.
--In my teaching I go one step farther by having the student walk and talk through maneuvers.
–For those of you who would enjoy my presentations were things more arranged. You’re out of luck.

Flying with Your Attitudes
People who fly live with two differing aspects of attitude. Your ability to recognize the aircraft’s attitude changes as it goes through the four basics of flight consisting of climbs, level, descents and when in combination with turns.

Your ability to recognize your personal attitude toward your flying life is of equal importance. You are flying with personal attitudes related to the cost, time, and effort required. You have come into flying with attitudes toward ATC, FARs, instructors, FBOs, responsibility, checkrides, airports, terrain, your flying and airplanes,

Both attitudes affect your flying. Flying with one wing low on climb-out is a function of both attitudes. But staying on the taxi line center is a personal attitude. How you fly is a reflection of your attitude. Your attitude makes you the pilot you are. The attitude your aircraft has in flight is you. The facts of how you fly mirror all of your attitudes.

What flying gives us is an opportunity to enjoy and achieve every day the very best of what life offers. We can use our flying skills to enhance what we are. The way we react in attitude to our flying world and the way flying makes us react in both behavior and attitude is why pilots are such special people.

The pilot’s attitude toward safety, consideration, organization, planning, accountability and anticipation are equaled in very few professions and surpassed by none. We are special and the better we fly aircraft attitudes the better we can make ourselves. The joy of getting the best attitude performance from an aircraft gives you an attitude for best performance in yourself as well.

On every flight we have a choice in selecting how well we fly the attitudes of the aircraft. What we expect, what we accept and what we get will affect all aspects of the flight and our life. After all, flying is a way of life. To paraphrase, "Pilots have a special attitude about them.

Learning to Be Free
---Learning to Fly is Based on Becoming Free 
---Failure to use a checklist is an automatic violation of the FARs 
---I never cease to be amazed by the discoveries made by the inexperienced during preflight 
---There is no end to the skills and nuances of skill required in learning to preflight. 
---Mastery of any single skill is but one step of many thousands that lie ahead. Preflight 
---There is a multiplicity of skills required just in walking to the aircraft. ---Factors for consideration are the sky, ground, tower, flags, windsock and airplane 
---Knowing what to look at and for what requires a looking, seeing and understanding skill. 
---Just looking without seeing is a skill deficiency. 
---You are looking for and seeing differences and abnormalities 
---You are touching, moving and feeling while listening and comparing. 
---You smell, but I know of no instance where the sense of taste is required or recommended. 
---The adequate preflight is a mix of order, sequence, thoroughness and efficiency 
---One quarter of all aircraft problems and accidents have been related to inadequate preflight. 
---The preflight properly performed will consist of detection of all that is wrong or could go wrong 
---Mastery of the preflight will set you free to taxi 
Pre-start, start, run-up and pre-takeoff 
---Just getting into the aircraft and adjusting the seat is a skill waiting to be mastered and appreciated. 
---The seat needs to be adjusted for distance, height and security. 
---The belts and harness must be to FAR standard and secured 
---The starting procedure is performed per the checklist. 
---Included must be preparing the trim for the ground to airborne transition ---The doors are closed and yoke positioned for wind direction before the engine is started. 
---The taxiing begins with ATIS, radio communications and brake check ---Taxiing is one of the last required skills to be mastered especially at slow speeds in tight spaces. 
---With nearly half of all accidents during taxi and incursions an ongoing problem ---Knowing where you are going, how to get there, and continuing situational awareness are primary factors 
---Special attention should be given to run-up positioning and clearing runway approaches before takeoff 
---The run-up, itself is strictly based on checklist-performance criteria 
---Once again mastery of a multiplicity of skills will set you free to initiate the takeoff. 
Takeoff, climb, cruise, descent and turns 
---Just getting from the run-up area to the runway is more complex than most would expect 
---Ground and airborne traffic influence what you do and when you do it. 
---Skillful application of power, brake, and yoke as required by wind direction and velocity enter the picture 
---The shift of rotational and lift forces in the transition from ground to air is an abrupt occurrence 
---The change in control effects from that of a tricycle into an airplane requires a sensory and emotional shift 
---Unlike most perceptions it is the aircraft and not the pilot that determines when the liftoff actually occurs. 
---Once again mastery of a multiplicity of skills will set you free to enjoy a smooth lift off by the aircraft.  
---The preset trim will bring the aircraft close to Vy climb speed, fine trim will usually be needed (C-172)
---The common forms of climb are Vx, Vy and cruise 
---Fixed pitch propeller aircraft normally climb at full power for cooling 
---Changes in pitch control both the speed and rate of climb obtained with trim required for every change 
---The skill you have in making adjustments in rudder pressure will make the climb hands-free 
---Transition from climb to level cruise requires anticipation, anticipation and anticipation. 
---You need to know how to lead the forward yoke pressure to lower the nose, ---You need to know how much trim correction to put in to stop the climb 
---You need to know how much pressure to put on the yoke to prevent any acceleration to give a climb 
---You need to know at what cruise speed to reduce the full power back to cruise 
---You need to know how to make the minor adjustments to make all the above come out as planned. 
---The more efficiently you transition to the desired cruise speed the freer you will be in the cockpit 
---Descent comes in several different forms and each form requires changes in power, speed, rate and trim 
---Anticipation and the use of descent formulae will give the best use of altitude for speed and distance 
---The use of advanced GPS programs tells you exactly what you need to put you where you want to be 
---A well performed smooth descent give you a relatively free use of altitude for performance 
---Turns are either level, climbing or descending performed as standard rate, steep or 30-degree 
---Before a turn is made the pilot must clear the area of the turn by looking at least 90-degrees to the side 
---The initiation of the turn involves coordinated use of rudder and aileron 
---The 30-degree angle of bank is the most stable of turns where the yoke is as in level flight 
---Banks more shallow than 30-degrees require yoke pressure into the bank to keep the bank in place. 
---Banks more steep than 30-degrees require yoke pressure away from the bank to keep the bank in place. 
---Due to all the left turning effects of the propeller the left turn has different pressures than the right turn 
---The left climbing turn increases the influence of the propeller so that right rudder becomes necessary 
---Every bank recovery to level flight requires very specific rudder application to keep the ball centered. 
---The rule of thumb for bank recovery is to initiate recovery within one-half the bank angle in degrees. 
---Anticipate that all turns require ‘some’ back pressure and removal of bank requires some forward pressure. 
---Anticipation of pressures will give smooth entry and the smooth recovery will set you free. Attaining Mastery 
---Mastery of anticipation will give mastery of performance and free up your heads-down time 
---A checklist can be designed around your fingers of one hand for simplicity and confirmation by touch 
---Use of the same sequence every time does not excuse the use of a checklist ---Most every basic procedure or maneuver can be performed in five steps made into a checklist 
---The last item on a checklist is the thumb up for checklist complete. 
---Make a checklist for every line above but only one at a time. 
---Doing your runup in the part furthest from the runway entrance gives you more room to clear approaches 
---Some skills and performances can be improved and made smoother by doing it in less time every time. 
---Something as simple as keeping track of your trim wheel changes can give you time for free 
---Waiting to accelerate when leveling off will actually save you time and effort in leveling off 
---Know that your climb speed changes as you gain altitude requires trim adjustment as well 
---Depending on the radios in use there will always be a more efficient way to anticipate and preset them. 
---Know how to set up your arrival for uncontrolled airports for both safety and efficiency 
---Do not allow ATC to take away your PIC prerogative, ask for what you want. 
---The more you master the more free you will be as a pilot. 
---A pilots freedom is dependent upon his mastery of the widest range of flying skills

Pilot Self-Assessment
Highlight and make a copy
Circle or Check mark ONE of the three choices
1. On reincarnation which is your choice?
          shark, eagle, cat
2. Choose your vacation
          sail solo, African safari, tour historic Europe
3. Your choice of being…
          astronaut, talk show host, scientist
4. Choice of challenges 
          9th inning relief pitcher in trouble,
         18th hole of masters with ten-foot put to win
          Final question to win a million
5. When you do laundry …
          Use basket for later folding
          Leave in dryer for later
          Fold just after drying
6. On buying groceries…
          If hungry get just what you want
          Use list to pick up
          Plan and buy weeks worth to fit plan
7. Other would say that you are
          Always late,
          Sometimes late, but busy
          Never late
8. Your accident history is
          Prone, your share, pretty careful
9. What makes you laugh most
          Thrown pie, comedian, political satire
10. You are…
          Life of party, a networker, great listener
11. Your attitude about others you know
          Trust no one, trust friends, happiness is having friends
12. It’s 3 a.m. and a red stop light never changes
           look and go, wait for green, report to police
13. To help remember things you…
           make notes, make a to-do list, do things and make a list to cross off.
14. You like to play games…
           alone, with partner, as a team member
15. What do you want
            Whatever I can get away with
            More than my close friends have
            Just what is earned or owed
16. If you start a task you…
            Use an excuse to stop, 
            Work until new task shows, 
            Cannot stop until finished
17. When traveling by car you…
            Always drive, prefer to drive, don’t care who drives
18. If lost while driving…
          Use your superior skills to get found
          Consult a map
          Stop for directions
19. What best describes you…
           I am the best at whatever I do
           I am fun to be with
           I am set in my ways
20. When I drive I am always…
           Just over the limit because I’m good,
           Just over the limit because it’s too slow
           Just at the limit
21. World would be better if…
           People were like me
           Everyone would mind their own business
           We could all be friends
22. When I see a hitchhiker I …
           Drive by without a second thought
           Drive by with guilt feeling
           Give him a ride
23. When flying with an equally experienced pilot who corrects you…
           Argue that your choice was better,
           Listen and never fly with them again
           Listen and try to learn something new
24. On seeing a flying mistake you will…
           Point out the mistake and show how to do it
           Quietly mention it to the other person
           Keep it to yourself and say nothing
25. When you feel strongly about something you…
          Try to make others see it your way
          Give your opinion given the opportunity
          Keep it to yourself and say nothing
26. With friends you would rather
          Tell others about your flight to a busy airport
          Talk about airplanes you know
          Listen while other pilots talk about recent sol x-country
27. Which assignment would you rather do…
          One that gave to freedom to explore
          One in conjunction with committee
          One with strict guidelines and instructions to follow
28. The situation would you most enjoy is one that you had…
          … total control and authority
          … group members contribute talents equally
          … another person in charge to give orders
29. You most enjoyable job would be where you do…
          …something different every day
           ...more mental labor than physical work
          …mostly the same thing every time with no surprises
30. A complete navigation record, weight and balance and using performance charts is
          …Good for student but later unnecessary
          …Good practice but not necessary on every flight
          …Essential for safe flight every time
31. If a nearby person complains about your music, you…
          …tell them that they can move.
          …invite them to join you|
          …turn the music down
32. A pilot is best described as a …
           Thrill seeker, a romantic hero, just someone with a job
33. A pilot is one…
          …with above average talents able to excel in any area
          …who wants a more than average life
          …who is average and who found a better way of living
34. You should get into flying because it is…
          …not what everybody else does
         …able to lead to big bucks
35. When a flight instructor gives you constructive criticism you…
         …Feel the instructor is being picky
         …Realize that your technique is not perfect but allowable
         …Try to learn for a person with more experience
36. In flight training your objective is to…
          …know enough to pass the next checkride
          …impress the instructor
          …learn everything there is to learn
37. On getting your Private, what should have happened?
          Your hometown TV should have interviewed you   
          You get to show your certificate to your friends who are not pilots
38. What would give you the most pride?
          Getting a good grade, but doing so without your best effort
          Wasting time because you had nothing else to do
          Completing a difficult task even when it takes 100% effort
39. You are most accused of forgetting…
          Where you put things
          Names, phone numbers, birthdays
40.Why are you in Flight Training
          Flying suits my personality
          I want a challenge to see if I measure up
          I want a high-paying career

After completion go back to index and bring up Page 6.61.  Click on Edit on the top task bar and the word find in pop-up window.  In the Find box type the word
Scoring and in the top right of the find box click on "Find Next".  Scoring will appear in  large bold type at the bottom of the pageScroll down and determine your score.

On getting Old
If my body were a C-172, this is the time I would be trading it in for a LSA model.
I've got bumps and dents and scratches in my fuselage and

My paint job is getting a little dull and spotted where it doesn’t wrinkle or budge.
Glasses, worn since 16, now I can often see better without them.

I’ve amplified all the noise with hearing aids that do not work when I set the wrong frequency.

My glasses are out of focus and it's especially hard to see instruments and charts up close.

A wallet magnifier is now standard equipment.
My ground maneuvers are not as graceful as they once were. Hesitation and uncertainty rules the way.

My driving would be better if I could make only right turns.
The fun and enjoyment of flying is not there when you have concerns about flying in the first place.
I slip and slide and skid and bump into things even in the best of weather while still on the ground.

Getting into the plane is a chore where my groans and grunts mainly serve only to keep me awake.
My excess weight strains my systems and even staying awake is a problem.
It takes me three steps to reach my maximum shuffle speed

Getting one foot in front of the other to keep from falling on my face..

Statistically over 60, I am a candidate for a fall until I get seated.
Getting out of the door and seat belt requires that I have something to hold on the way.
My fuel rate burn is inefficient, anywhere from six to twelve gph depending on how lean I am.

My favorite well-worn joke is, " Memory is the second thing you lose".

Now I can tell you everything about an airport except its name.

But here's the worst of it --
Every time I sneeze, cough, sputter or stand.....either my sump drain leaks or my exhaust backfires!

Now more important to know the nearest restroom than the nearest airport.

The irony of life is that, by the time you're old enough to know your way around, you're not going anywhere.

Continues on The Beginning student Page 1.1
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