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Performance Test Standards
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Private Pilot Performance Standards; Annotated PRACTICAL TEST STANDARDS (PTS) ...FAR 61.43 Flight Tests; …PTS Oral/flight Test; ...Are You FARs Ready?; ...Universal Aspects; ...The Practical Test; …Areas of Required Knowledge Are:; ...The PTS; ...Applicant Summary; ...Private Pilot Requirements;...As a Licensed Pilot; ...
PRACTICAL TEST STANDARDS; ...Basic Maneuver Tolerances:; ...Preflight and Cockpit Management; ...Engine Starting; ...Post-start; ...Taxiing; ...Run-up; ...Pre-takeoff; ...Before Takeoff Check; ...Takeoffs; ...Normal and Crosswind; ...Soft Field; ...Short Field Takeoffs; ...Traffic Patterns; ..Landings on Final; ...Post Landing Checklist; ...Parking and Tiedown; ...Safe Operation; ...Go-Around;  ...Steep Turns; ...Ground Reference; ...Pilotage and Dead Reckoning; ...Slow Flight; ...Minimum Controllable; ...Power off Stalls; ...Power on Stalls; ...Spin Awareness (Discussion); ...IFR Maneuvers; ...Unusual Attitude Recoveries:; ...Communication, ATC & Radar; ...Emergency Procedures; ...Emergency Landing; ...Equipment and Survival Gear; ...Systems Malfunction; ...Night Flight (discussion); ...Diversion to Alternate; ...Lost Procedures; ...Airport; ... VOR Tracking; ...Diversion to Alternate; ...Emergency Equipment; ...Pilot in Command Time; ...Paper Work:; ...Aircraft Logbooks; ...Student Logbook Requirements; ...In Possession for Checkride; ...Ground Review; ...Flight Review; ...Private Pilot Legality; ...Private Pilot Currency; ...Private Pilot Sharing of Expenses; ...Additional Endorsements; ...Performance Sheet ASEL; ...Private Pilot Endorsements; Aeronautical Knowledge; ...FAR 61.35(a)(f) and 61.105(a) Aeronautical Knowledge; ...Flight Instruction/Proficiency Requirement; ...Take Practical Test; ...Completion of Prerequisites for a Practical Test; ...Test after Failure; ...Saying; …High Performance Aircraft Endorsement; ...Did You Know?Definitions; …

Private Pilot Performance Standards
75% of Applicant failures are due to instructor failure. The Applicant must know that he is pilot in command as well as in compliance with the eligibility rules. The DPE, Designated Pilot Examiner is supposed to ask questions in such a way at to avoid rote answers in preference for his correlative abilities. The instructor must certify that the Applicant is ready for and capable of passing the test. The CFI is responsible for everything, the application, the logbook, and the flight performance

The PTS is a sampling process of performance. The performance sample must be done within the performance limits of the test aircraft. Smoothness, accuracy, and judgment are the test criteria. The DPE Designated Pilot Examiner is looking for the pilot to demonstrate aircraft mastery in the performance of maneuvers as specified in FAR 61.43. Failure in any one PO (Pilot operation) fails only that PO. At any point either the DPE or applicant can end the test. Only items failed or not tested need to be completed when the test is resumed.

Any PO that requires DPE intervention or includes failure to use proper and effective clearing or scanning is a failure of that PO. Repeated exceeding of performance tolerance and failure to initiate corrections promptly are failures as well. The applicant should never stop a maneuver that is out of tolerance. Correcting any out of tolerance situation immediately is not a failure unless the DPE calls it a failure.

The latest series of FAA question banks were established February 16, 1999. Do not use any earlier test bank since the ORDER of the answers have been changed as well as some of the questions. Private pilot has 915 questions and 13 different tests. Instrument Rating has 942 questions with latest update in terminology. Commercial has 963 questions with some changes in order and wording. 100 questions to be completed in three hours.

Instructor’s endorsement is a professional approval of an applicant’s ability to fly safely over the full gamut of required performance. The actual checkride is but a series of snapshots to affirm the instructor’s judgment. To make the checkride valid the examiner begins with his plan of what will be done. Expect to be asked to do something that you have never done before. This is an important element of the test that tests your ability to adapt to the unexpected.

The instructor won’t sign your certificate unless he is reasonably certain that you will pass the test. The test, oral and flight, is divided into areas of operation and tasks. All operations and tasks must be tested. The examiner may vary the order of the test to promote efficiency and validity. The reference for each area is listed in the PTS.

If a student fails to learn, someone has failed to teach. It the instructor's fault that an area of knowledge is weak or a flight skill is deficient. An instructor must demand the study time needed to detect and correct any weakness. The checkride is more of a test of the instructor’s training program than of student performance.

The practical test is the last hurdle to certification. The test is to determine if you have the training and proficiency required. The test is a presentation of tasks to be evaluated by oral questioning, observation or in combination. Only question/answer references are those listed in the PTS. Seldom used material is to be found by use of reference to POH, AIM or A/F Directory, etc. The FAA highest priority is that the test be fair. I have always found it so for the past twenty-five years.

I have never known a DE not to give a student a fair shake on the flight test. Often they will give a second chance if performance does not meet PTS requirements. Two-time-Tommys don’t get many applicants. If, after going over the PTS you find an area where your procedure is different talk it over with your instructor and again with the DE before flying. There are often several interpretations of just what is wanted during the flight test. By the time you take the test you should be able to perform to the DE’s expectations what ever they may be.

The applicant must be free of distractions that will affect flying. Use mnemonics to reduce distractions and facilitate use of checklists. Expect the examiner to review knowledge of FARs, POH, V-speeds and planning. Expect questions on aircraft systems, engine operations and aircraft performance.

Specified areas of operation where knowledge and skill are to be demonstrated through oral performance and the performance of specific TASKS done to show competency.

Following the groundwork, which is mostly oral, the required tasks will cover a typical flight from beginning to end. Included will be TASKS, KNOWLEDGE AREAS and appropriate MANEUVERS. Every aspect of the PTS has a related AC reference shown in the PTS. Every TASK includes objectives related to what is to be done, the conditions and the acceptable minimum performance standards. An applicant shall be tested on all TASKS and

AREAS OF OPERATION in their entirety,
--Control –coordinated—correct--smooth
--Positive exchange of control—verbal transfer and acceptance
--Stall/spin awareness—yaw required—altitude required for recovery
--Collision avoidance—It takes more than luck to become an old pilot.
--Wake turbulence avoidance—Avoid flying under the Big Boys.
--LAHSO operations—Better no to do because of unforeseen factors.
--Incursion avoidance—Plan and diagram routes , read back clearances, get help.
--CFIT Controlled flight into terrain—when in doubt climb.
--ADM Aeronautical Decision Making—avoid series of bad decisions
--CRM Crew resource management—Get help inside and outside the cockpit—fly the plane first
--Use of checklists—before and after every phase of flight
--Use of distractions—fly the plane first—"wind the clock" --
--Inside/outside—Divide your attention—variable proportions to situation
--Metric equivalents (200’ = 60 meters as base) –may be asked on checkride—in PTS
--Other areas

–Age 17+
--English command
--Passed written
--Required training
--3rd medical
--Instructors endorsement in logbook
–Endorsement as knowing missed written questions
–Application endorsement

–Airworthy and certificated aircraft
--Registered as category, class and type
--Dual controls
--Aircraft capable of doing required maneuvers.
–Aircraft and engine logbooks with maintenance endorsements

–Teach to standards
--Teach safe flying

–Determine standards are met.
--No separation of oral and skill portions.
--Test correlative ability
--Evaluate scanning and collision avoidance.

–Perform to standards
--Mastery of control
--Proficiency and competency to standards.
--Good judgment
--Meets minimums

--Doesn’t meet standards of any one element of test.
--Applicant or examiner may stop Test.
--Applicant can be credited for elements passed.
--Any action or lack of action requiring examiner intervention.
--Failure to clear or scan by applicant.
--Consistently exceeding performance tolerances.
--Failure to take corrective action when exceeding performance tolerance.
Examiner will record specifics of failure areas and those not covered.

Aircraft Documents

Maintenance records
--Airworthiness inspections
--AD compliance

Pilot’s Operating Handbook –Airplane Flight Manual
–Reliability of charts and graphs
–Margins of safety in planning flight
--Range, time in air, reliability of maintenance
–Weight vs balance computation

Provided by Pilot
--Flight Plan Form
--Flight log sheets—diversion possibles info
--AIM, AF/D, charts—must be current

Personal Records
Identification picture
--Pilot certificate
--Medical certificate
--Form 8710-1
--Computer test report
--Logbook with endorsements
--Examiner’s fee

Certificates and documents
--privileges, limitations, recency requirements.
--Medical class and duration--duration
--Logbook and records—optional vs required

--Locate and explain
--limitations, instruments, placards, POH/AFM
--Weight and balance, equipment

--Day VFR instruments and equipment (mnemonic)
--Determining airworthiness—owner, operator, A&P, AI, pilot
--Obtaining special flight permit—A&B endorsement, FAA authorization
Locate and explain
--ADs (Airworthiness Directives—one-time and recurrent
--Compliance records—signature, work done, date, certificate
--Maintenance/inspection records and with complete endorsements
--Record keeping—half the value of an aircraft is in its records.

Knowledge of weather reports, charts, forecasts based on
--METAR, TAF and FA--reading and interpretation
--Surface analysis--best routing for flight
--Radar summary
--Winds and temperatures aloft
--Significant weather prognostics
--Convective outlook
--AWOS, ASOS and ATIS--use for local real time weather
--Make weather go/no-go decision

Cross-country planning
Applicant to present and explain planned VFR cross-country
--Current charts
--Identifies airspace, legend markers and terrain—airports en route
--Selection of checkpoints—even spaces starting with destination
--Selection of altitudes for weather and equipment—mark crossing airways
--Computes headings, times and fuel required.—consider making initial figures on Z’s at checkpoints
--Uses navigation system, facilities and radio as appropriate—avoid GPS as student—use pilotage—learn to read the ground
--Applies weather NOTAM and AF/D information as available
--Makes flight log records and can file/close flight plans as required.
–Makes radio frequency log for entire route—plane contacting flight watch—give position reports.
--Take dual cross-countries in marginal conditions when possible

Able to know and explain airspace on charts such as:
--Basic VFR minimums
--Classes (A through G) rules, pilot certification and aircraft equipment
--Special use and other airspace.
--Get into a Class C airport and into Class B airspace—easy once you know how

Aircraft Performance and limits
Able to use POH data, charts tables and graphs to determine:
--Potential adverse effects beyond limitations—Over gross—rearward C.G.
--Performance capabilities—What is service ceiling?—G-load for flaps?
--Computes weight and balance considerations.
--Demonstrates use of charts for takeoff, landings, and cross-country—See how close you can come to POH numbers
--Density altitude effects on performance .—Do it or simulate it.

Systems of Aircraft
Able to explain all of aircraft systems by diagram and function
--Controls and trim
--Flaps purpose and limitations
--Engine operation and propeller—fuel pump--octane-leaning--
--Landing gear—Judging tire wear
--Fuel, oil, and hydraulics
--Electrical—Flying with master off?
--Avionics—failure symptoms—what to do--when
--Pitot-static, vacuum/pressure and associated instruments
--Environmental—always fresh air—meaning of an headache
--Deicing and anti-icing—how to defrost or de-ice.

Aeromedical considerations
Able to explain symptoms, causes, effects and prevention of:
--Middle ear, sinus and tooth pain
--Spatial disorientation
--Motion sickness
--Carbon Monoxide poisoning—ever smell a headache coming?
--Stress and fatigue
--Dehydration--carry water on every flight
--Alcohol, drugs and medications
--Scuba diving cautions

--How and what to inspect for defects—bald is not beautiful
--Use of checklist
--Verifies airworthiness

Cockpit organization
Constant improvement in checklists and:
--Loose items secured but available—tie down luggage
--Passenger briefing for belts, harness and emergencies.

--Seats, belts, doors
--Key, prime, C.H., mixture
--"Clear", window, area check, brakes

Knowledge of priming, mixture, jump-starts, hand starts
--Positions aircraft, use of checklist
--RPM, mixture, Frequencies, X-ponder standby, ATIS

(Not PTS)
Starting Fire Emergency
# 1
(Aircraft now owned by insurance company.)
–Brakes are on during start
–Engine running with smoke and fire
--Mixture out, throttle in (uses up fuel, blows out fire)
--Fuel selector off, magnetos and master off
--Exit aircraft to rear.

#2 --Engine has not started but fire, smoke out exhaust
--Pull mixture but keep cranking engine to draw in flames
–Selector off, mags and electrical off
--Open door while still cranking, exit to rear of aircraft.

Pre-taxi + radio
--Route, Rehearsal, Controls
--Incursion avoidance

--Power, brake check, yoke positions
--Into wind, conserve space

--Divides attention
--Into wind, controls, brakes
--Power, Magnetos, and C.H.
–Radios set,

Pre-takeoff + radio
--Configuration, X-ponder on, re-position, mixture
--Clear final and bases, call-up, clearance

Normal takeoff climb,
–Controls set for wind direction
–Clears bases and final prior to taking runway
--Positions aircraft on centerline with yoke set for wind
--Smooth full power application with appropriate rudder and yoke pitch.
--Lift of at minimum speed and accelerates to Vy and climb attitude at Vy +10 + 5 kts
– Holds centerline extension with wind correction throughout
--Complies with local rules for turns and noise abatement
–Uses checklist

Normal crosswind takeoff
–Controls set for wind direction, yoke held back
–Clears bases and final prior to taking runway
--Positions aircraft on centerline with yoke set back and for wind
--Smooth full power application with appropriate (right) rudder in anticipation and yoke pitch steady.
–Nose wheel off ground with yoke and held steady.
--Aircraft lifts off and initiates climb without increase in back yoke
–Completes checklist

Normal crosswind approach and landing
#1 Crab option
–On approach the aircraft is ‘crabbed’ into the wind and approaches the runway at an angle.
--At a normal approach speed the aircraft is rounded out and into the flare.
--Rudder is then applied and a wing lowered into the wind to correct any drifting.
--Properly timed touchdown occurs with the nose aligned on centerline and no side load on the gear.
–Completes checklist

#1 Wing-low slip option
–Throughout the approach the aircraft is flown with nose parallel to the centerline and a wing low.
--This is half a Dutch-roll with the wing low adjusted to keep on the extended centerline nose straight with rudder.
--This particular flight condition is uncomfortable to passengers unfamiliar.
--Airspeed and flaps can be adjusted for best control throughout the approach.
--On ground contact the yoke is held full over and back into the wind.
–Completes checklist

–Smooth is more important than fast.
–Initiated at any point or altitude, no radio call required
–Full power with arm locked to keep nose level, stay low to ground 
--Remove flaps and confirm flap position and C.H., climb at Vy
–Survival rate in the air is far better than during a ground accident.
--Accident rate for student go-around relatively high. Training!!
Completes checklist

Soft-field takeoff, climb
--Controls set for wind direction, flaps according to POH
–Clears bases and final prior to taking runway
--Positions aircraft on centerline with yoke full over for wind
--Smooth full power application with appropriate rudder and yoke keeping nose wheel well clear of ground
--Aircraft lifted off ASAP and held in ground effect the yoke is leveled, pulled so lift off occurs without side loading
–Aircraft is held down in ground effect for acceleration to Vy + and configuration for climb
--Rudder is applied to crab along the runway with coordinated controls to correct for wind drift
–Completes checklist

Soft-field approach and landing
–Assumption is unlimited runway length
--Stabilized, full flap, power on approach
–Selection of landing area
Option #1
–Leave power set above idle and ias per POH, 1.3Vso, +10/-5kts
–Round-out, flare, hold off as close and long as possible without drift
--Leave power on, remove flaps, hold nose wheel off
–Add power to keep moving with nose wheel off while clearing soft surface.
–Completes checklist

Option #2
–Make normal approach, round out and flare.
--Reduce power in the flare but prepare to pitch up with added power prior to touchdown.
--Process requires great skill and timing to get the soft touchdown at the right moment.
--Leave power on, remove flaps, hold nose wheel off
–Add power to keep moving with nose wheel off
–Completes checklist

Short-field takeoff, maximum climb*
Rolling start
--Clears approaches
--Entry to the runway is aimed at the very end with a rolling turn to the centerline.
–Once aligned the engine is brought to full power but held relatively flat to reduce drag.
–As the airspeed reaches near Vx the nose is pitched up for a Vx climb per the POH
–At 50’ the nose is lowered to get Vy climb speed
--I have found that a 10 count gives 50’.
–Completes checklist
#2 Locked brakes
--Clears approaches
The aircraft is aligned and stopped with the runway at the very end to get as much runway as possible
--The toe brakes are held and the engine brought to full power before brakes are released.
–Aircraft nose wheel is barely lifted off the ground for maximum acceleration
–As the airspeed reaches near Vx the nose is pitched up for a Vx climb per the POH
–At 50’ the nose is lowered to get Vy climb speed
--I have found that a 10 count gives 50’.
–Completes checklist
*Climb speeds will vary according to aircraft weight.

Short-field approach*
--Essentially just a final add-0n to a normal approach
--On short final configured with full flaps and power, pitch is increased to increase sink angle and rate.
--Intent is to go over 50’ obstacle at best descent angle as a speed that will allow rapid flare and touchdown.
--Flaps will be removed on touchdown and brakes immediately applied.
--See POH for type specifics.
–Completes checklist
* Speeds and distance will vary according to aircraft weight.

Forward slip to landing and go-around*
--A pilot with flaps who requires a slip to make the runway needs a proficiency check.
--A forward slip turns the aircraft sideways into the wind and to the runway.
--The side of the aircraft into the wind acts as a brake and greatly increases the rate of descent.
-- The slip can be removed and coordinated control returned by taking off rudder application.
–A smooth slip to a landing is a joy.
–Completes checklist
*Check POH regarding slips cautions

Rejected takeoff
–Airspeed alive call, "Yes"
--Positive acceleration, "Not enough"
--Power off, braking applied, clear runway.
–Communicate situation and intentions
–Accident survival rate of remaining on ground far better on takeoff.
–Completes checklist

Steep turns
–Clears area
–Makes entry no faster than Va
--Maintains 45-degree bank +100’, + 5-degrees of bank, and 10-degrees of heading on recovery

Rectangle entry and reversal
–Clears area
–Selects suitable area as rectangle based on winds
--Plans right/left pattern with 45-degree entry into downwind le
–Makes required wind-drift corrections for constant distance ground track
--Divides attention inside and outside
--Maintain altitude + 100’ and 10 kts.

–Clears area
–Knows to enter at right angles to line with tail wind
--Knows bank angle will be determined by ground speed.
--Knows ground speed will vary according to wind.
--Knows that you are after constant radius turns so bank will vary.
--Reversed bank direction along centerline in equal angles.
--Divides attention inside and outside
--Maintain altitude + 100’ and 10 kts.

Turns around a point
–Clears area
–Knows what is to be done
–Selects suitable point
--Enters at appropriate altitude and distance from point.
–Tracks constant radius by correcting for wind drift.
--Maintains inside and outside reference
-- + 100’ altitude and 10 kts.

–Pilotage and Dead Reckoning
–Follows by reference to landmarks
--Matches landmarks to chart symbols
--Uses computed headings, ground speed and elapsed time
--Corrects and adjusts for en route variations
–Verifies position by landmarks
--Makes ETA + 5 minutes
–Altitude + 200’ and heading + 15-degrees.

Radar services
–Knows the ways to get radar service frequencies
--Knows the wording to use to get desired help from radar service
–Maintains appropriate altitudes and heading as directed by radar.
--Limitations, hazards, other

Electronic Navigation
Systems like VOR. LORAN and GPS
–Knows how to verify, receive, orient and track VOR signals
--Understands altitude and distance limitations of VOR system
–Able to operate LORAN or GPS equipment for normal and emergency situations
–Maintains appropriate altitudes and heading as directed by radar.
--Limitations, misuse, 

–Aware of need for diversion skills
--Prepares for situations that may occur
--Selects airport and direction
--Makes estimate of heading, speed, fuel and time involved.
--Flies at safe altitude and heading + 200’ and 15 degrees

Lost procedures
–Climb, Communicate, Confess, Comply
–Makes positive identification of landmark
--Uses radio, radar and nav-aids as possible
--Uses radio and transponder emergency codes

Slow flight maneuvers
–Clears area
--Initiates above 1500’ (460 meters) AGL
--Splits attention inside and outside

--Makes transition smoothly clean or dirty
–Speed where stall results from decrease, an increase of load or AofA
–Performs coordinated smooth four basic maneuvers as specified w/wo flaps by examiner
--Maintains + 100’(30 meters), 10-degrees heading and bank, and 10 kts.

Power-off stalls
–Clears area
--Selects minimum AGL of 1500’ for finish of maneuvers.
--Established descent in configuration specified by examiner
--As specified induces a stall by pitch at specified altitude, heading + 10-degrees or bank less than 20-degrees as specified
–Recognized and recovers with reduced AofA, power, wings level for minimum loss of altitude.
--At Vx or Vy retracts flaps, climbs to altitude, heading and airspeed specified.

Power-on stalls
–Clears area
--Selects minimum AGL of 1500’ for finish of maneuvers.
–Configures for takeoff/departure configuration and 65% power minimum
–Pitches to stall attitude either for heading + 10 heading or bank less than 20-degrees for specified turns.
–Recognized and recovers with reduced AofA, power, wings level for minimum loss of altitude.
--At Vx or Vy retracts flaps, climbs to altitude, heading and airspeed specified.

Spin Awareness
–Aerodynamics for spin requires stall with yaw.
–Flight situations are slow speed turns with lack of rudder coordination
--Recovery from unintentional spins. Opposite rudder by TC and forward yoke.

–Examiner clears area
Straight and level
--+ 200’, 20 degrees and 10 kts.
–Knows where to scan instruments
--Rudder and light touch

Constant airspeed climb
–Recovers level + 200’, 20-degrees and 10 kts.
--Anticipation of rudder, yoke, power
–VSI and AI light touch, scan

Constant airspeed descent
–Recovers level + 200’, 20-degrees and 10 kts.
--Anticipation of rudder, yoke, power
–VSI and AI light touch, scan

Turns to headings
--+ 200’ and 10 kts.
--On new heading within 10-degrees
--Standard rate, rudder

Unusual attitudes
--Relates sounds and instrument readings to recovery requirements
--If slow, level wings and nose, apply power, and configure.
--If fast, reduce power, level wings and nose, configure.
|--Levels wings, nose while increasing/decreasing power and checking configuration.
--Smoothness is important criteria along with sequence.

Communications, navigation, facilities and services
--Knows universal frequencies and light signals by purpose and uses
-- 108.0, 121.5, 121.6 through 121.9, 122.0, 122.1, 122.2, 122.95, 122.75, 122.85, more?.
--Knows how to read charts for facilities and services, AIM, AF/D
--Uses specific procedures for agency services such as read backs and acknowledgement.
--Knows limitations of altitude and distance
--Tracks radial + 200’, 20-degrees and 10 knots.
--Locates position by cross-radials

Traffic Patterns
–Knows standard and finding charted pattern directions
--Practices arrival and departure collision avoidance
–Knows standard and non-standard pattern entries for controlled and uncontrolled airports.
--Maintains spacing, wind correction, altitude +100’ and appropriate airspeeds

Airport runway and Taxiway signage.
--Emphasis on preventing incursions
--Acknowledgement and read back.
--Uses signage, lighting and ATC assistance when in doubt.
–Uses diagrams to plan routes via instructions

Emergency approach and landing
–Airspeed selection
--Selection of crash area, wind direction
–Pre-crash preparation of cockpit
–Landing and exiting to rear
--Systems and equipment
--Survival gear

Systems and Equipment
--Power and operational problems
–Carburetor icing, oil pressure, fuel, electrical, vacuum, pitot/static
--Gear, trim, flap, door, window
--Icing, smoke, fire, other…

Emergency and survival gear
–Checks of departure and arrival by others,
–Flight plans and radar contact
--Position reports
--Clothing, footwear selection
–Water and rations
--Survival kit/gear
--Whistle, mirror, lighting, fire, 
--Com radio

–Requirements and preparation
--Physio9logical aspects
--Airport, aircraft lighting
--Night charting and navigation differences
--Night cautions and emergencies

–Use of checklists
--Directional control
–Observes and obeys signage
–On clearing runway
--Use of checklists, radio
--Taxiing procedures and cautions
--Parking and tie-down
--Post-flight check
–Uses checklist

FAR 61.43 Flight Tests
a) Perform pilot operations...
1) Executing maneuvers within performance capability and limitations, including use of the aircraft's systems.
2) Executing emergency procedures and maneuvers appropriate to the aircraft.
3) Piloting with smoothness and accuracy
4) Exercising judgment
5) Applying aeronautical knowledge
6) Mastery of aircraft with no procedure or maneuver in doubt.

b) Failure of required operations = failing flight test. Must pass any areas failed.
c) Applicant or examiner can end test. Applicant credited for those parts of the PTS passed.

PTS Oral/Flight Test
Meet with examiner before the tests and ask relevant questions.
Examiners weight
Cross-country plan
Weather contingencies
Cost of checkride
Bring Form 8710, your logbook, aircraft logbooks, POH, Aircraft papers, Equipment lists
Post-it the required inspections in the logbooks
Know the required inspections

Are You FARs Ready?
Requirements of 61.87 logged as satisfactory proficiency and safety.
Review of logbook entries insures compliance with long term requirements.
Recent sign-offs to conform with time constraints of flying privileges.
Private pilot applicant must have logged 40 hours of time with 20 hours of flight training
10 hours of solo, three hours of instrument instruction
Three hours of night flight training including one 100 miles night flight
Total solo cross-country of five hours.

Universal Aspects
Soundness of judgment
Division of attention
Airspeed and altitude limits
Safety awareness
Smooth and accurate aircraft control
Ability to explain
Where to find information
Situational awareness.

Tests now follow logical sequence of flight from preflight to shutdown. There is an applicant’s checklist of what to bring to the test along with an examiner’s checklist of things to be covered. The introduction tabulates the references to be used by the examiner. Responsibility for teaching and testing of the test standards is explained along with special emphasis on aircraft operations critical to safety. The standards of performance are delineated between satisfactory and unsatisfactory.

Each test, once begun, will result in:
Pass - with white temporary certificate
Fail - with "pink" Notice of Disapproval of Application
Letter of Discontinuance - Applicant has 60 days to finish test.
Any subsequent test must be completed before expiration of written test deadline. (24 months after taken)

The following is an effort to give the pilot to be, a comprehensive but not complete analysis of the PRACTICAL TEST STANDARDS. In this one place you will find everything on the test but often greatly understated because of space constraints (Chronologically challenged instructors never admit knowledge limits). Where practical, brief and often incomplete topical explanations are made suggestive of what might be required during the test. Many aviation texts will give an expanded complete explanation. If particular items fail to bring recognition and understanding then go back to the books or your instructor. Refer to the contents of this material as it exists in other areas.

The Practical Test
Determines if applicant has had required instruction
Determines if applicant can safely perform required tasks

The practical test is a two-part test. The oral part requires oral operating and semi-technical knowledge of the aircraft systems, navigation, weather, preflight requirements, and POH computations. The oral test will concentrate on what you are expected to know as obtained from the sources you are expected to use. Use the test as a learning situation. You will learn those areas of your training for which you are not as well prepared as you should be. Explain what you know as simply as you can. Stick to the basics as you know and understand them. Ask the examiner to reword a question that you think will give you difficulty.

No examiner asks a test question to which he has not pre-decided the best answer. You must make your answer concise and complete enough to satisfy the examiner. Avoid using technical terms where it is possible to use plain language. Stick to answers that offer the safest way to operate the aircraft. You will not be failed for knowing what you are supposed to know. You can be failed for any guessing or showing of poor judgment. Only knowledge will provide the degree of self-confidence required. Any test is easy if you have the answers. You have many more answers than there are questions...your problem is to match your answers to the questions. Take and pass your written test as close to the flight test as you can to reduce study time and enhance retention.

The flight test involves use of checklists, preflight, aircraft control, use of, radio, pilotage, weather facilities, radar, navigational facilities, and emergencies. Everything in the PTS must be tested. How long any part or item takes will depend on how well and quickly you please the examiner.

The test requires the performance of a multitude of tasks separately and in combination. Effective division of attention is a central skill of safe flight so the examiner will present situations when you can demonstrate your ability to scan the variables, note the critical and discriminate accordingly. Distraction is a part of the test. Minimum standards must be met with smoothness, accuracy and good judgment predicated on good flying conditions. If control is ever in doubt, tolerances exceeded, or prompt corrective action not taken, minimums will have been exceeded. Failure to clear or scan area before a maneuver will be disqualifying.

Areas of Required Knowledge
(Required logbook endorsements with date and time)

Flight Procedures
Aircraft Performance
Radio Navigation
Flight Planning
ATC Procedures
Airport Operations
Physiology of Flying
Aircraft Systems
Services Available

Everything about the Practical Test is a given. If you have studied the PTS you know what is going to happen. You may not know when or just how but you can be sure of what. There is more to being prepared than just knowing answers. You need to know the 'why' of the answers.
--Know the airplane.
--Know how to draw the systems. Know the dimensions. Know the basic performance numbers.
--Know basic weight and balance, range, fuel consumption, structural limits.
--Emergency procedures
--Know how to make an emergency descent, your best options on engine failure. Plan ahead as to what you are going to do so that you won’t go rushing into a dark hole. Memorize critical procedures.

--Make only checklists that you will use.
--Use aircraft and systems within performance capabilities and limitations.
--Perform emergency procedures
--Show good judgment
--Show knowledge of aircraft/ATC procedures
--Control aircraft in maneuvers within minimums

The best way to learn the systems of an aircraft is to learn to draw them. Study a pictorial diagram for a couple of minutes. Close the book and make your best drawing. Open the book to finish and correct the drawing. Repeat the process until you can draw a complete diagram. An examiner will be ‘impressed’ with this ability and probably not pursue the subject any further.

The private pilot of today needs to know more than the commercial pilot of just a few years ago. With the automation of weather services, the pilot must be knowledgeable of weather and weather chart interpretation to the level required of the FSS technician two years ago. Two years from now all the technician will be replaced by computers. The aging of our aircraft fleet makes it vital that today's pilot be knowledgeable of maintenance factors never required when old planes were just replaced with new. The radio skills required by the high- density operations of ARSA and Class C go far beyond just getting into and out of a controlled airport. While the flying skills are much the same, the knowledge skills required have greatly increased.

You must know the safe altitude for performance of any maneuver both with respect to your aircraft and its occupants and with respect to those on the ground. Safety requires practice. Pre-maneuver checklists such as STOP and CAPS will prevent you from blowing the safety part of the PTS checkride.

S = safety
C = Clearing turns
A = Altitude
P = Place (to land)
S = Speed
T = Tolerances (altitude, heading and speed
O = Objective
P = Procedure

Applicant Summary
You must have an application for a rating form, FAA Form 8710-1, a waiver form as required, a medical certificate, and radio license (for foreign flight). FAA Form 8710-1 must be in ink or typed and signed in last 60 days to verify total logbook times. The CFI must print name under signature and CFR must follow certificate number. The latest Examiner’s Update information is that you cannot fail the checkride because of the manner in which you filled out the application.

You must be prepared with a selection of required papers, endorsements and forms. Be sure to have valid picture identification such as your driver license. Present appropriate "notice of disapproval" or "letter of discontinuance" if test has been failed previously. The written test score lists missed question areas. Your instructor must verify all missed areas as taught again. In addition to your current medical certificate your student pilot certificate must have all the proper endorsements for solo in aircraft types and cross-country flight. It would be nice if all endorsements were the responsibility of the instructor but it is up to the applicant to determine that all endorsements are completed. You can blame everything else on the instructor but it won't change the outcome of the test. Have photo identification and verification of residence.

Your logbook must have the required flight instruction signed off as to kind of instruction and types of hours flown. Bring money. It is money that makes an airplane fly. You are expected to have current charts, plotter, computer, flight logs, pens and pencils. A hood is required flight test equipment. You should have a current copy (use mine) of the AIM, the FARs, Airport Facilities Directory, and the Practical Test Standards. Be sure aircraft has its proper POH and take it is with you for the oral test. You are expected to know what is in the Practical Test Standards, to know that the examiner is required to test every item, and to know that you must be able to perform or discuss every item of the test. What you don't know you must be able to reference quickly either in the AIM, PTS, POH or FARs.

The aircraft must be preflighted, airworthy, with all required papers, logbooks, and endorsements. Post-it all required aircraft and student endorsements so they are easily located. Know how to read AD code for required maintenance. You are to know the operating limits of the aircraft, its performance, its systems, inoperative placards, and emergency options. Be familiar with all charts, graphs and operational numbers from the POH. Don't show up with a dirty airplane. Your appearance, hygiene, attitude and preparedness will make a difference.

Private Pilot Requirements
At least 17, read, write, and speak English, 3rd class medical, written test, oral test, flight test. 61.103
Private Pilot Part 61 requirements
A total of 40 hours instruction/solo flight time including:
20 hours instruction:
10 hours of solo/PIC time
3 hours cross-country instruction
5 hours of solo cross country
150 no flight between three airports, and at least 50 no between any two of the airports.
3 hours night training with 10 landings
100 mile night flight
3 hours instrument time
3 hours test preparation.
3 takeoff/landings from ATC airport
Logged and endorsed as competent in these PILOT OPERATIONS
(Note: pink test failure slip lists pilot operations by number)

As a Licensed Pilot
Cross country time requires a landing destination and use of a navigational method. No distance is required except for more than 50 NM straight line when required for getting a rating such as private pilot.
--Pilot and medical certificates must be in personal possession.
--Complex and high performance airplanes require separate endorsements.
--Endorsements required for altitude, type rating, and tail wheel.
--Second in command time requires you be both required and qualified.
--24 month flight review required, new rating, or award program will count.
--Instrument currency requires 6 approaches, holding, tracking via nav.
--Instrument rating requires only 50 hours x-country time.
----40 hours of time of which 15 is with CFII.
----250 NM IFR flight with three approaches.
--Private pilot requires
----3 hours hood,
----3 hours x-country training,
----100 nm night flight
----150-nm x-country, each flight must have at least 50-nm flight from the point of departure.
--Passing level of different written tests will vary.

NOTE: All of the PTS material is greatly expanded in the instructional/learning material.
New Specifics:

--VFR minimums in all different airspaces.
--Indicate to examiner first indications of stall
--Explain FAR 91.312 on ADs and Minimum equipment
--Effects of over-counter drugs, stress, fatigue
--Completes appropriate checklist in every phase of flight.
--X-country assigned day before. Longitude/latitude coordinates included and headings within 15-degrees (15-degrees Good Grief!)
--Ground reference maneuvers to make first turn to the left with two complete patterns before changing direction.
--O.K. to fly V-speeds in slow flight and minimum controllable. Spin awareness testing increased.
--Emergency descents as though on fire.

Basic Maneuver Tolerances
Altitude + 200 feet
Heading + 10-degrees
Speed + 5 knots

Preflight and Cockpit Management 
Aspects using checklist
Passenger briefing on belts and emergency procedures from checklist on how to:
Tighten belts
Open door
Use of radio,
Aircraft watch
Verifies aircraft safe for flight
Preset trim

Engine Starting
Clear, start and after-start with checklist
Hand propping
External source
Uses checklist

Flap setting
Trim setting
Mixture leaning
Engine Instruments

Brake check, speed control
Knows and obeys signs, lines, and (lights)
Speed and yoke positions for wind
Radio use and acknowledgments and compliance
Uses checklist

Control check
Engine check
Instrument settings
Uses checklist
Airspeed, distances review
Emergency and departure review

Uses checklist
Takeoff configuration
Radio use and acknowledgments and compliance
Clearing approach

Before Takeoff Check
Emergency procedures review
Door, belts, smoke, engine
POH distances and performance
Departure plan review
Radio Watch

Rotation and liftoff
Drift correction
Airborne alignment check
Clearing turns

Normal and Crosswind
Vy + 10/- 5 knots

Soft Field
In ground effect to Vy, remove flaps (at 200’ old PTS)
Climb at Vy +10 and -5 knots

Short Field Takeoffs
Rotate at Vx or as recommended
Climb at Vx +10 or -5 knots to 50’
Above 50’ climb at Vy - 10 and +5 knots

Traffic Patterns
Local rules
Altitudes + 100 and speeds + 10 knots
The idea of a ‘key’ point on the downwind is no longer a FAA procedure. Use it but don’t say it.

Landings on Final
Over the fence Vref + 5 knots or 1.2 Vso (No exact POH figures)
Soft-field Approach
Approach at 1.3 Vso +10 and -5 knots + 1/2 gust factor
Short-field Approach
Approach at 1.3 Vso +10 and -5 knots + 1/2 gust factor
Touch down within 200’ past a point
Forward slips within 400 feet at approximate stall speed

Post Landing Checklist
When flaps, C.H., mixture, radio

Parking and Tiedown
Use of checklist

Safe Operation
Use of tow-bar,
Why recommended procedures
Post-flight inspection

Power to full
Hold heading and altitude
Milk flaps or to 20 degrees according to IAS
At Vy flaps up and climb at Vy +10 or -5 knots.

The go-around can be executed at any point in the pattern. The go-around on final is to be treated as an emergency. 90% of go-around accidents occur on final. Some go-arounds are not possible due to limited aircraft performance and density altitude.

Steep Turns
Va or POH entry speed, into 360 turn with bank of +10/-5 degrees of 45, + 100 feet, +10 knots. Perform in both directions or as directed

Ground Reference
Turns around a point
600 to 1000 feet, 45 degree bank, + 100 feet, + 10 knots,
Left turns with exit up-wind and course reversal into right turns or as directed. Uses course reversal to make two circles in each direction.

Rectangular Course
Entry MUST be on 45 to left downwind as though landing Departure will be as though leaving on left 45. Two turns usually in both directions. 600 to 1000 feet, left then right. When making reversal of direction you must fly around the course and enter on a right 45 and depart of right 45. Maximum bank 45 degrees +100 feet, + 10 knots, or as directed

Above 500’ and below 1000’
+ 100’ and + 10 knots
Reverse course and depart at entry point

Pilotage and Dead Reckoning
Course within 3 nautical miles
Altitude + 200’
Arrival within 5 minutes
Heading within 15 degrees

With the advent of the GPS the use of pilotage is at risk as an art. The navigational accuracy of the GPS does not include obstacle avoidance. There is no electronic form of navigation that can improve on just knowing where you are.

Slow Flight
No maneuvers below 1500’
1.2 Vs1 at +10 and -5 knots
Altitude within 100’ and airspeed within +10 and - 5 knots
Maintains specified angle of bank not over 30 degrees + 0 and -10 degrees
Climb/descents at 20 degrees +0 and -10 degrees
Selected headings obtained + 10 degrees
Climb/descent altitudes within 100’

Minimum Controllable
No maneuvers below 1500’
Stall horn whimpering at all times
Power added as required to hold altitude in 10-degree maximum banks
Headings + 10 degrees

MCA means Minimum Controllable Airspeed (in a particular configuration). You can do it with all the flaps, partial or none. You are flying on the edge of a stall for a prolonged period. The stall horn should be whimpering, the controls should be mushy. MCA teaches precise aircraft control at the slow end of the envelope. MCA differs from slow flight
that is performed at 1.3 Vso.

Power-off Stalls
No lower that 1500’
Stabilized approach landing configuration (full flaps)
Stall induced in back side of the power curve and heading + 10 degrees
Bank angle as directed but not more than 30 degrees (best at 20)
Recognize and announces control decay and buffet
Recovers at first sign of stall
Minimum loss of altitude
Vy reached before final flap retraction
Recovers altitude, heading, and airspeed as directed

Power-on Stalls
No lower that 1500’
Takeoff configuration
Induce stall with heading maintained + 10 degrees when inducing stall with wings level
Turning stall no more than 20 degrees of bank + 10 degrees
Recognizes and announces first control decay and buffet
Recovers immediately after stall occurrence
Recover to altitude, heading and airspeed specified (Vy).

Spin Awareness (Discussion)
Flight situations where spins may occur
Recognize a spin and apply recovery technique
Techniques specific to aircraft
power off and flaps up

IFR Maneuvers
Straight and level control + 200 feet of altitude, + 20 degrees of heading, + 10 knots.
Performs four basics under hood within tolerances allowed.
Headings and altitudes as directed

Unusual Attitude Recoveries
Nose up--Recover with pitch down, add power, level wings
Nose down--Recover with reduced power, level wings, pitch to level

Communication, ATC & Radar
Acknowledgment and compliance
Uses appropriate ATC procedures
Emergency and NORDO procedure
Practice and performance
Maintains + 200 feet and + 20 degrees heading, + 10 knots airspeed

Emergency Procedures
Use of checklist
Emergency descent
Situations where required
Advantage of using flaps
Speeds within 5 knots
Recognizes need for and performs descent from 3000 feet to 1500 feet in most rapid manner within safety limits. Airspeed + 5 knots of acceptable speed or POH.

Emergency Landing
Best glide + 10 knots

Equipment and Survival Gear
ELT, battery life, FAR requirements, operation

Systems Malfunction
Use of checklist
Power loss
Rough or hot engine
Carburetor or induction icing
No oil pressure
Fuel starvation
Electrical malfunction
Instrument malfunction
Control malfunction
Door/window problem
Fire in cockpit or engine

Malfunctions are a part of flight training introduced by instructors by simulation of what might occur in an in-flight situation. Simulation of an engine failure is a multifaceted opportunity for the instructor to expose the student to checklist use, area orientation, airspeed control, decision making and system symptoms. Occasionally a malfunction will announce itself with a thundering silence; more often malfunctions approach on cat's feet. A series of very minor events accumulate until a crisis exists. Regardless, the pilot is responsible. Good judgment if the best malfunction preventative.

1. Check for proper maintenance
2. Check systems before flying actual IFR.
3. Preflight for every flight
4. Know the weather, especially that's coming.
5. Know your limits
6. Plan your flights
7. Monitor PIREPs and enroute weather
8. Prepare for every instrument approach before departure.

Night Flight (Discussion)
Use of checklist
Chart reading,
Hazards, and precautions
Lighting systems of plane and airport
Illusions and physiology
Chart reading
Age effects on vision

Diversion to Alternate
Accurate immediate turn to estimated heading, finds ground speed, ETA, fuel conditions, flies + 200 feet, + 15 degrees

Lost Procedures
Maintains original heading
Identifies available landmarks
Uses Navaids and contacts ATC for assistance
Considers precautionary landing as an option

Markings, symbols, colors, local rules,

VOR tracking
Tunes and idents station
Holds altitude within 200’
Locates position using radials
Intercepts and tracks a radial
Recognizes signal loss
Makes station passage
Altitude + 200 feet, uses radials to find position, intercepts and tracks selected radial, notes loss of signal and acts accordingly, describes station passage. Always idents VOR.

Diversion to Alternate

Where am I, Where am I diverting to, what direction is it, Turn the airplane that direction, How far away is it, do I have enough fuel to get there? Do I need to climb to clear higher terrain, Are there restricted or controlled airspaces along the route, is there anyone I have to talk to along the way. Am I on flight following, notify changes. Do I have a VFR Flight plan? Call Flight watch and notify of changes, get new weather whether VFR flight plan or not.

As with anything else in aviation, take a logical order. First you have to decide what you want to do and how to do it. Then you check for the things that will kill you. You proceed to the things that will get you in trouble, and then go and communicate with the people who will get annoyed at you if you don't.

Makes initial estimate and turn to heading
Altitude within 200’ and course within 15 degrees
Estimates ground speed, estimated time of arrival, and fuel requirement

On every Private Pilot Checkride the examiner will ask the prospective pilot to divert from the original destination to a new one.
--Check to confirm you are able to fly hands-off..
--Know where you are. ,.
--Pinch your sectional at present position with one hand and desired destination with the other..
--Use your chin to make a crease line between the two points.
--Practice this with old charts.
--Estimate desired heading by comparing with VOR compass rose.
--Correct for wind
–Use ATC, GPS, ADF or VOR.
--Give ETA based on estimated distance and groundspeed.
--Figure in fuel.
--Advise ATC of what you are doing.

Emergency Equipment
ELT operation and ground activation

Pilot in Command Time
There are five different ways to get logable pilot in command (PIC) time according to FAR 61.51(c)(2)

1. Sole manipulator of the controls in an aircraft rated for.
2. Sole occupant of aircraft
3. Certified Flight Instructor acting as CFI
4. Applies to ATPs
5. Applies to two pilots required for aircraft

1. Your student license must be endorsed for each type of aircraft flown and for cross-country flight.
2. Your logbook must be endorsed for ground instruction given, flight instruction given, and solo flight along with written test results for each type aircraft.
3. You must have endorsements for flights between airports; each flight over 50 miles must be individually endorsed
4. The solo endorsement must be renewed every 90 days.
5. You must have an endorsement for spin awareness training, night instruction, and for an application for rating.

Aircraft Logbooks
Maintenance records of aircraft and engine must be available to the examiner. FAR 91.3 The pilot must be able to explain and interpret all of the maintenance records. AROW Airworthiness, registration, POH or pilot operating handbook (equivalent), and weight/balance papers must be in the aircraft.

A legal entry may not be a helpful entry. A good logbook will have a master reference sheet. Use a computerized AD list indexed to log book to confirm compliance. Logbook is good place to keep monthly VOR checks. Owner performed maintenance must be logged.

Student Logbook Requirements
Student solo license endorsements for each type aircraft
Student solo cross-country license endorsement
Logbook signoff for ground instruction
Pre-solo aeronautical knowledge and instruction endorsement
Logbook signoff for aircraft test each aircraft
Logbook solo requirements endorsement
Logbook solo endorsement
Day solo endorsement
Logbook local airport solo endorsement
Individual signoff for EACH x-country
Signoff for review of questions missed
Aeronautical knowledge and instruction endorsement
Take Practical Test endorsement
Test after failure endorsement

FAR 61.59(a)Covers fraudulent on intentional statements or entries.
FAR 61.51 Covers requirements for logbook entries.

In Possession for Checkride

Medical/Student certificate
Sectional (Must be current)
Aircraft engine logbook (Get from maintenance)
Aircraft airframe logbook (Get from maintenance)
Aircraft manual
Radio Station license
AIM (Borrow mine)
A/F directory,

Ground Review
All frequencies
Sectional use
Aircraft manual (one in aircraft-required)
Aircraft papers/logbooks

Flight Review
All slow flight
All stalls
All landings
Go arounds
Steep turns
Unusual attitudes

Private Pilot Legality
License in possession
Current medical
Flight review or additional rating

Private Pilot Currency
3 landings in last 90 days before carrying passengers
3 full stop landing for night currency

Private Pilot Sharing of Expenses
Only direct operating costs of rental and fuel

Additional Endorsements
High performance aircraft (over 200 hp)
Complex aircraft (Gear and flaps)
Tail wheel

Performance Sheet ASEL
Weight and balance
CG at gross takeoff______CG at gross landing____
Shift weight from______ to _____
New CG ______

Sea level, 30C degrees OAT, 50 foot obstacle_______
4000 feet, 30C degrees OAT, 50 foot obstacle_______
Discuss effects and factors of density altitude performance

3000’ PA, standard OAT, 50 foot obstacle _________

Cross Country
Distance______; time_______; fuel______; remaining____; remaining w/reserve_____; fuel stop??___
Best endurance?_________
Range at 75% power?______
Range at 65& power?______

Private Pilot Endorsements
An instructor’s endorsement indicates that he feels you have been instructed in and are competent to perform a given maneuver. At that time. Your logbook is a legal document. You should use post-its to mark required instructor endorsements so they are readily available to the examiner. Mark the type tests, first solo, any 90-day, spin awareness, cross-countries, night flight W/landings, written test review, and test recommendation. You are supposed to know the requirements. The application must be properly filled out. Preferably typed. The examiner is under the FAA gun to submit proper paper work so you should not offer anything that will cause him a problem.

It is the instructor's reputation that is on the line when he makes the written statement certifying that the applicant is prepared to pass the practical test. The checklist for the PTS is at the back of the PTS booklet.

AC 61.65C covers endorsements that certify that you have found a student capable of making safe solo flights and has demonstrated proficiency in the maneuvers of FAR 61.87. All solo flights should be made under limiting conditions. Personally I want to know when a student is going on an unsupervised solo and I want a phone call when he returns.

Aeronautical Knowledge
The Written
For FAR 61.35(a), 61.105(b) and 61.107(b)
I certify that I have reviewed _______ home study course on the applicable areas required by FAR 61.105(b) and find ___ prepared for the private pilot for the aircraft aeronautical knowledge test.
Date, signature, printed name, CFI number and expiration date.

I certify I have given _____ the ground and flight training required by FAR 61.107(b) in a single engine airplane and find ____ prepared for the private pilot airplane single engine practical test.
Date, signature, printed name, CFI number and expiration date.

FAR 61.35(a)(f) and 61 105(a) Aeronautical knowledge
I certify that I have given (name) the ground instruction required by FAR 61.105(a)(1) through (6). The new version lists thirteen items of required proficiency.

Flight Instruction/Proficiency Requirement
FAR 61.107(a) flight proficiency
I certify that I have given (name) the flight instruction required by FAR 61.107(a) (1) through (10) and find him competent to perform each pilot operation safely as a private pilot. All the required ground instruction must be given and logged in a reliable record.

Take Practical Test
FAR 61.105 and 61.125
Private or commercial pilot must receive and have logged ground as well as flight training from authorized instructor or a home-study course on aeronautical knowledge. Ground training can be logged on a pre-printed training record or a PC Form/record. the amount of time spent on each required item is not required.

FAR 61.39 (a) (5)
Completion of Prerequisites for a Practical Test
I have given (name), flight instruction in preparation for a (type test) within the preceding 60 days and find him competent to pass the test and to have satisfactory knowledge of the subject areas in which the applicant was shown to be deficient by his airman written test.

Test after Failure
67. FAR 61.47 Re-testing within 30 days after first failure
I have given (name) additional (type) instruction and find him competent to pass the (type) test.

Finding the time to do it right the first time is much easier than finding the time to do it a second time.

High Performance Aircraft Endorsement

(Some students learn in complex aircraft.)
I certify that I have given _____#_____the instruction required by FAR Section 61.31 (e) and find him competent to act as pilot in command of high-performance airplanes.

Cannot be limited to aircraft type. A person needs only to receive instruction and an endorsement for either an airplane with more than 200 horsepower or an airplane with retractable gear, flaps, and a variable pitch propeller, or both to qualify as PIC in any high performance airplane. A high performance aircraft is any aircraft with more that 200 hp with retractable gear, flaps and a constant speed propeller. A complex airplane is any aircraft with retractable gear, flaps and constant speed propeller. All complex airplanes are considers high performance but not all high performance airplanes are considered complex.

Did You Know
Finding the time to do it right the first time is much easier than finding the time to do it a second time.

Weight--The attractive force of gravity
--Service pick-up--Weight increase due to age of aircraft
--Total lift--Determined by the airfoils, speed, angle of attack and density altitude.
--Center of Gravity--Point at which balance occurs, the mass center, and point of weight concentration
--Loading Range of C.G. --Set limits of C.G. shift allowed based upon landing safety and elevator authority
--Aft C.G. Limit--Based upon ability of aircraft to recover from most critical maneuver.
--Arm--Is a measure of distance as on a balance beam + is aft and - is forward of a selected datum point.
--Moment--Obtained by multiplying the weight times the arm. Inches x pounds = pound inches
--Useable fuel--Fuel that has access to the operating engine.
--LEMAC --Leading edge of the average (mean) wing chord
--Standard Weights--People 170 pounds, gasoline six lb. per gallon, oil 7.5 lb per gal.
--Station--Location of a point on length of aircraft in inches from datum.
--Useful Load--Carrying ability in people, baggage, useable fuel, (oil)
--Empty weight--airframe, engines, fixed equipment, hydraulic oil, unusable fuel, and (oil) {Full Oil is part of the empty weight on most aircraft after 1976}

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