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PTS NEED to KNOW Material
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Passenger Briefing ; …STARTING ENGINE; …Engine Starting; …Engine Failure; …TAXIING; …PRE-TAKEOFF CHECKLIST; …RADIO USE/LIGHT SIGNALS; …Controlled Airport Radio; …Uncontrolled Airport radio; …Light Series; TRAFFIC PATTERNS; …AIRPORT-RUNWAY LIGHTING-MARKING; ...Weather Briefing Card; ...Undisturbed Preflight; ...Flight Planning:Leaning; ...Exhaust Temperature Gauge; ...Little Things that Make a Big Difference; ...What's It All About Alfie?; ....Do FARs and Training Improve Safety?; ...Technology Is Here to be Taught;  ...Level Flight; ...How Many Hours to Solo; ...What to Do When You Don't Know What to Do; Finding Airports as a Skill; Where is that airport? ..Night Location Is Difficult for Many; ,,, Remembering the Little Things Makes a Difference;  ...Making choices Is the Most Used Constant in Aviation; ...What’s So Important About; ...Whitt and Wisdom; ...What is an FAA Reference to Every Student and Pilot; ...Glossary

REFERENCES: AC 61-21, Airplane Handbook and Flight Manual

Your SOP is CRM(
Standard Operational Procedure is Cockpit Resource Management)
--Preflight yourself, the weather, the flight and the airplane.
--Your standard operational procedure is crew resource management

Inspects using a checklist, verifies conditions meet safe flight standards

P 1. Has knowledge of inspection requirements, items, reasons, and detection of defects.
P 2. Uses checklist as reference during inspection. All fluids, controls, security, structure, hazards.
P 3. Verified plane is capable of safe flight.

EX Fuel, contamination, oil, controls, structure, security, required instruments, ice, water, and cabin items
The proper fuel for a C-150 is aviation 80/87 with red dye which indicates performance octane. The higher number is octane at full power. This fuel is relatively high in lead content. Lead acts as a lubricant. The lead vaporizes when the engine is hot. At low power operations the lead may not vaporize and can form small beads in the lower spark plugs. This can short out the plugs and cause a rough engine. Leaning the mixture causes the engine to run hotter and can vaporize the lead beads. Leaning is used to adjust for most economical engine operation.

The 100 LL (Low lead) currently available has other additives, other than lead, that can cause shorting of the spark plugs. These additives are more difficult to burn off by leaning. There are additives that can be added to 100LL to make it lubricate and perform like 80/87 fuel.

We drain sumps for sediment and water each of which is heavier than gas. We can use higher octane fuel if lead fouling of plugs is prevented by leaning. Some aircraft are allowed to use auto fuel which vaporizes differently. All fuel has water in it as does air. Under certain conditions this can contribute to carburetor ice. Fuel is flight insurance. Fly by time and allow ample margins.

A pilot needs to be certain that the fuel quantity is measured and with the aircraft level. A slightly off level aircraft can easily have three gallons less than full in each tank. An aircraft's fuel capacity will vary according to position on most all ramps. The C-210 is notorious for this problem up to 60 gallons.

If the engine is cold or hot the oil stick can be in accurate. Oil creeps up a cold dip stick and a hot engine may contain oil not showing on the stick. Oil should be checked prior to every engine start. Metal in the oil is a sign of possible damage. Use full oil on long flights. Some oil consumption is normal, excessive use requires an engine check. Oil samples can be tested for metal particles. The analysis can show how the engine is wearing.

Flight controls are checked for security, movement linkage, and position. Piano hinges and locknuts are checked. Any flight failure of controls in flight must be reported to the FAA. Trim position should be noted both on trim wheel and with elevator at neutral. Trim should be set for takeoff. Failure to set trim can cause excessive control forces at liftoff.

Any evidence of structural damage, untoward looseness or movement, unexplainable fluids, odors, or visual defects can, in the opinion of the pilot, render the aircraft unairworthy, The pilot makes this determination prior to each flight.

Depending on flight conditions certain basic instruments are required for flight, engine, navigation and communication. If any required instruments are missing it is up to the pilot to determine the legality of flight. For day VFR a compass, altimeter, fuel gauge, oil temperature, oil pressure are required. Night VFR requires position lights, beacon, power source, and a flashlight. Class Delta airspace requires a radio while a Classes Bravo and Charlie requires radio, and an encoding transponder.

All chocks, chains, and locks need to be removed. These keep the plane from being damaged by strong winds. Making chains too tight can cause damage. Failure to remove any of the items can cause loss of control while starting to taxi. Failure to remove control locks is disqualifying.

Any water in the fuel must be completely drained prior to flight. Failing to fill tanks is a common cause of water accumulation in fuel. Water condenses from the air space of the tank. Water from a fueling source may take 15 minutes to reach a drain sump. Water should be removed from windows for visibility.

Excess water in the fuel can cause engine failure. No flight should take place until all ice or frost has been removed from all flying surfaces. Ice cannot be effectively removed except by applying some form of heat. The rough surface caused by frost or ice prevents the smooth flow of air necessary for flight. Frozen water in the control linkage system can prevent control movement. Cold grease in the throttle cable can make changes difficult to impossible.

All cabin items must be clear of all controls, unable to affect instruments (such as compass), and secured in the event of turbulence. The FAR's require that the pilot have all available information including weather, terrain, frequencies, airport elements, aircraft performance, and limitations. The soundness of judgment is integral to all items of the test. See instructional material on night flight and radio. In a preflight, everything that looks wrong, is wrong.

REFERENCE; AC 61-21, Pilot’s Operating Handbook,Approved Flight ManualCOCKPIT MANAGEMENT PARAMETERS

Briefs passengers on safety belts and emergency procedures. Uses Checklist.
First standardized on U.S. in 1978 aircraft. Required as of 1984. Should result in 35% reduction in fatalities if everyone wore them. 23% of fatalities were not wearing shoulder harness at the time. FAR 91.14 requires pilot briefing on use of belts and harness but no requirement that you make them wear them.

P 1. Prepares for flight in ordered sequence without useless repetition of motion. Has materials available and a planned place for everything.
P 2. Security of loose items confirmed.
P 3. Briefs passengers on use of belts, doors, windows and environmental controls, emergency procedures, uses checklists.
P 4. Organizes flight materials in sequence of use.
P 5. Uses all appropriate checklists.

EX Safety, efficiency, organization, preparation, availability. Seats, belts, doors, and brakes -

The safety of any flight depends upon how well the pilot utilizes what has been prepared. Sectionals must show the entire route and be arranged and folded so that they are in sequence. A WAC chart capable of showing the entire flight is desirable. C H E C K L I S T S must be sequential, convenient, and USED. Do not put behind the seat anything you might need on this leg of the flight. Have your manual, computer, plotter, and scratch paper beside you. Have pens and pencils hanging, clipped and stuck all over. Stick your radio log where it can be seen and won't fall or blow away. Have your sectional always open and ready. The navigational log should be available as cross check and reference. Arrange lapboards so that they are lengthwise and when turned over can be read. Use pen clip to keep C H E C K L I S T items in sequence. Use 3M yellow stick pads to keep track of ATIS, X-ponder codes, etc. Write down all ATC assigned frequencies and codes. Read back for confirmation.

Have a C H E C K L I S T for every change in aircraft configuration. Preflight, pre start, start, post start taxi, run up, pre takeoff, takeoff, post takeoff, climb, level off, checkpoint, descent, pre landing, landing, post-landing, and shutdown. At the very least a C H E C K L I S T must include all that is covered in the aircraft manual. Have reminder tags for opening and closing flight plans. Have a time card to keep track of takeoff time, checkpoint times, ETA's and fuel changes.

All aircraft since 1976 are required to have shoulder harness. Seat belts must have metal to metal connectors. Pre-l976 aircraft may be expected to have retro-fit shoulder harness. It is not enough to see that everyone has a belt/harness on for takeoff. The PIC must make certain they know how to release themselves.
--If every seat had shoulder harness serious injury and fatalities would be reduced by 35-percent.
--Only 23 percent of those involved in serious injury and fatal accidents were wearing a harness.
--Only the front seats were required to have shoulder harness since 1978.
--Every forward facing seat must have a shoulder harness since January 1985.
--91.14 requires pilot briefing of passengers.
--Once you have worn a custom inertial or fixed belt you will never be satisfied with the diagonals.
--Be sure that all baggage is properly tied down.

Many light aircraft have seats that fail to lock. On takeoff acceleration this can cause an accident. Wriggle side to side as well as back and forth. Doubly confirm that seat is locked by pressing down on locking bar instead of relying on the spring loading. A rigid behind the seat lock may be used.

Some doors have double locks or unfamiliar mechanisms. It is the pilots responsibility to assure that doors are secure but he should also be certain that passengers know how to open them.

See instructional material related to checklists.

Passenger Briefing
--FARs require passenger briefing prior to every flight.
--Not just how to put on the belt but how to undo it as well.
--How to operate the door handle to open the door
--Options available should the engine quit.
--How to prepare the cockpit for an off-airport landing
--Wait for the plane to stop and then get out.
--Leave room for others to get out.
--Leave the aircraft in a 45 angle to the rear.
--Don't light a fire yet.
--At the end of the briefing say, "Briefing completed".

Reference AC 61-21, AC 61-23, AC 91-13, AC 91-55; Airplane Handbook and Flight Manual
External power source, clearing, checklist
P l.. PRE START CHECKLIST Pilot knows basic elements required for engine start. Checklist is available, used, primed according to conditions
P 2. Clearing Positions aircraft to avoid starting damage to anything in the area. Clears in all directions, window open, area scan
P 3. Controls, brakes, power set, on, low. Checklist sequence for start.
P 4. POST START CHECKLIST Available, used, completed sequentially.
EX CHECKLIST, key, mixture, prime, pump, throttle, propeller, magnetos- start, brakes, CHECKLIST, normal, hot, flooded, jump, hand. CHECKLIST, radio, flaps, beacon, oil pressure, power setting, amps, suction, ATIS.

The key is not put in until ready to start. It is possible for the magneto to be grounded (shorted) even with the key off and out. Some keys can be taken out in other than the off position. Most aircraft have a start position on the key switch that is spring loaded to return to the both position when released. Make sure this spring works. If the battery is weak the starter relay may not be activated or the bendix spring may not engage the flywheel. If this occurs get assistance.

Mixture is used to mix fuel and air at 1 to 16 weight ratios for best performance. If the mixture is too rich the engine loads up, loses power and as the combustion chamber is too cool the additives in the fuel can cause the spark plugs to short out. This usually occurs on the lower plugs and causes a rough engine. This condition can be corrected by leaning the ixture. Much of this fouling can be prevented by leaning during all ground operations. Running the engine at advanced power in a lean condition raises the temperature so as to melt any fouling on the plugs.

Most engines (over 115 HP) have an accelerator pump as part of the throttle. This allows priming or filling the carburetor by pumping the throttle. However, if more than two pumps are used it is possible to over fill the carburetor and cause fuel to enter the engine compartment. On starting this fuel can ignite and cause a fire. For this reason a primer pump is provided that allows fuel to be injected into the intake manifold adjacent to the cylinders. This is the preferred method of priming especially in colder weather. The primer has a 'keyed' lock which if not set properly can greatly affect smooth engine operation. Always check that the primer is locked. You should always rotate the primer clockwise while seeking the locking pin. Turning plunger counter-clockwise can unscrew it from the retaining ring and create a massive fuel leak behind the panel.

Not having the primer in can cause the vacuum created from the intake stroke to suck additional fuel through the primer lines causing an excessively rich condition. In normal cruise this just tends to provide slightly less power and consume a lot of extra fuel. At lower power settings, the excessively rich mixture can cause the engine to run rough or even die completely.

All low wing aircraft, as well as some high wing, are required to have an auxiliary electric fuel pump in addition to the engine driven pump. an inoperative fuel pump is a no-fly requirement. This is an additional checklist item for start, takeoff, tank changes, emergencies, and landing.

After priming the throttle should be set so as to allow the engine to start at low RPM. The first few moments of operation do not have proper lubrication and so increases wear. If oil pressure fails to rise 30 seconds after starting the engine should be shut down. The checklist oil pressure check should be done at start, run-up, climb and periodically such as at checkpoints as a regular process.

Prior to every start the area around the propeller must be cleared. The clearing must be both visual and by saying "clear". Due consideration must be given to what is behind the plane as well. Certain runup areas have restrictions posted.

Normally foot brakes are used in holding the aircraft position while starting but a hand or parking brake can be used if their release is part of the checklist. A common accident cause is having the plane roll forward after starting because of concentrated attention in the cockpit. This is particularly likely to happen at night. The proper functioning of the brakes should be checked immediately after starting.

C H E C K L I S T should be used after starting and should include RPM, radio, flaps, suction, ammeter, brakes, and oil pressure. (Oil pressure is listed last since it takes a few moments to register in colder weather.) It is a good practice to lean the mixture after starting since this reduces additive fouling of plugs. The common use of 100LL fuel has greatly increased the probability of additive fouling, thus increasing the need for good leaning practices.

Flying is too expensive to waste time due to inefficient starting procedures. The performance part of starting should demonstrate efficiency, anticipation, and smoothness. Hurried, jerky, repetitious, and unplanned movements should be avoided. The most common fault in the starting procedure is failure to use the checklist before, during and after.

Starting with the engine hot requires using the manual recommended procedure. This usually suggests using no prime since there will be fuel fumes in the engine. The first try is the best opportunity.

Flooding occurs through over priming. Raw gas can usually be smelled or seem coming from the engine compartment. It is wise to wait for the fuel to evaporate. The engine can be turned over with the mixture full lean and the throttle advanced until the proper starting mixture is reached. The flooded start should be avoided since it is hard on the starting system. In any event, if the engine does not start within a six blade cycle of the propeller it is wise to stop and start over. The starter can overheat, expand in its casing and burn out.

The most common battery used in aircraft is 12 volts but in later and larger aircraft 24 volt systems are becoming common. The battery should be allowed to rest after every 30 seconds of cranking. Poor terminal contacts is a common cause of hard starting. Many aircraft have an auxiliary terminal which allows for jump starting. This should be done by line personnel with a qualified pilot in the cockpit. Great care needs to be exercised by all concerned. This is especially true if the jump start must be done from the engine compartment.

Hand propping of the engine is very dangerous. The best answer to this is "don't" If an explanation is required...It is usually possible only on smaller engines. The plane should be chocked and the tail tied down low to increase propeller ground clearance. A qualified pilot must be holding the brakes and the engine properly primed with magnetos on. The hands should be held flat against the blade and pulled down while the person moves his body well clear. Four tries are usually sufficient if it is going to start. If the FAA finds out, you could be in trouble due to interpretation of the required equipment rules. Item: An aircraft with a starter that requires hand propping is not airworthy.See instructional material.

Engine Starting
Engines must be female. Each one has its own particular mode of being coaxed into starting. Engine starting procedure may vary critically with atmospheric temperature and engine temperature. The priming technique involved is, likewise, a variable. The pilot's operating handbook specifies steps to be used in starting a specific engine. Usually the POH will not explain the reasoning behind selected procedures. Fuel injection starts are best made following the POH.

Priming with the primer is preferred to pumping the throttle. The primer squirts fuel directly into the cylinder intake port or induction system. Lycoming engines usually have a throttle pump which can be used to fill the carburetor. More than two pumps of the throttle can flood the system and cause fuel to become available for an engine fire. When the engine fires the fuel ignites in the engine compartment. The primer has a 'keyed' lock which if not set properly can greatly affect smooth engine operation. Always check that the primer is locked.

A fuel fed engine fire can be with the engine not having started or having started. In the event of such a fire, pulling the mixture and running the engine at full power is the first option. The idea is to get all the fuel out of the engine compartment and perhaps blow out the fire. Shut off the fuel selector as well and get out. Little or no damage is the common result of such an event.

If the engine has not started, pull the mixture, shut off the fuel selector and continue using the battery to crank the engine. This tends to suck any fire up into the exhaust system where it can do no damage. Be prepared to bail out.

Engine Failures
The preflight and runup may not uncover an engine problem. However, the pilot must fly always under the assumption that a failure may occur. Pre-decide your options before you begin your roll. As the flight progresses, move your options. It is important to always know where you are and have an option in mind.

Every flight route has two entries to a downwind for your pre-selected option. The more nearly normal you can make your power-off arrival the better your chances of a successful landing.

REFERENCES: AC 61-21, Airplane handbook and flight manual
Brake check, controls free, checklist
P 1. Shows knowledge of safe taxi procedures by speed, power/brakes, clearances, controls, eyeballs. Positions controls for wind direction.
P 2. Clearances and Routes. A clearance allows everything but an active runway. Stay on the yellow lines. Acknowledge and follow clearances.
P 3. Brake Check Function before and immediately after moving.
P 4. Controls direction and speed without excessive use of brakes. You cannot taxi too slowly. You should hold controls as though for 40 kt winds. Use minimum power required. Brake only to stop and turn sharply. Skill is demonstrated by smoothness and anticipation.
P 5. Avoids other aircraft and hazards.
P 6. Completes appropriate checklist in sequence.

EX speed, power, brakes, clearances, controls, markings
Most aircraft accidents occur while taxiing. The desirable speed is as a fast walk but may be slower. Excess power is required to initiate movement but is then reduced immediately after brakes are checked to allow movement with minimum power and brake use. Since the brake pads are very small, application should be minimal and smooth. Avoid riding, pumping, and abusing. Power changes must be smooth and in anticipation of requirements. Considerable power and braking may be required for sharp turns. The aircraft cannot be turned if it is not rolling however slightly.

Taxiing is a last acquired skill since it requires unlearning. The flight controls are held in such a manner as to prevent strong winds from overturning the plane. This requires positioning as though diving away from following winds and climbing into head winds. ATIS wind should be used until the wind sock is visible. Observe the wind direction as a number on a properly set heading indicator. Then hold and change the flight controls accordingly. Skill in this requires divided attention in and out of the cockpit. This is one of the performance factors integral to the entire test.

Since taxiing is done at reduced power it is necessary to anticipate carburetor ice. If the engine has had insufficient time to warm the heat application may be ineffective. Develop a sensitivity toward unexplained drops in RPM. Icing is most likely to occur at low rpm.

ATC clearances to taxi allow movement everywhere except on active runways. Acknowledge all commands or clearances that have the word "hold" in them since ATC needs to know that you plan to stop. If ever in doubt, request taxi assistance. Landing aircraft should taxi clear of the runway by crossing the hold bars. Departing aircraft should never cross the bars of an active runway without a clearance from the tower.

An Invalid Taxiing Instruction by ATC
5-13-04 Had an unusual event today. Student called for taxi clearance and ATC gave a clearance that was not possible from his location. ATC gave runway assignment and taxi route that is used nearly 90% of the time. But this time we were clear the other side of the airport from the assigned route. I stopped student from replying and had him tell me what his clearance said.He knew his route was via Echo and the Clearance was to go via Alpha. What he didn't know was how to tell ATC that they had given an invalid clearance.

Afterwards, I thanked the controller for giving me a completely new twist in giving taxiing instruction.

I don't know why I always get blamed for the things I do. But in response to the request below I will give some techniques I have used to improve my survival odds above those of just plain dumb luck.
Jay wrote:
"I'd be especially interested in comments from Gene Whitt, who said ATC has been trying to kill him for 40 years, and anyone who might recognize the airport from the runways described."
Gene's reply
It takes more than luck to be an old pilot.
--I always clear the final and bases before taking a runway.
--My preferred departure request is always a "270 on course to my destination.
--This puts me above the pattern altitude quickly and clear of the usual arrival paths.
--The "On Course" request is a far more specific notice to other pilots of my intentions and path.
--When I an at anything other than pattern altitude I always inform ATC, not that it means anything to them, I am talking beyond ATC to any aircraft on the frequency.
--When I arrive at an airport I never report at a reporting point. I call-up 1-2 miles to one side of the point and always at an altitude that is other than ending in thousands or five-hundreds. Usually at 2300 or 2700 above airport elevation.
--I do not arrive on IFR approach corridors
--When choice exists I will take the smaller runway.
--My preferred arrival is a base entry
--My most interesting arrival was a base entry over the numbers at pattern altitude with a 270 short approach to the runway.
--If a conflicting aircraft fails to give altitude I query ATC to find out altitude.

There are others but this should give some ideas of how to survive at a Class D airport.
Gene Whitt
See instructional material on taxiing.

REFERENCES: AC 61-21, Airplane Handbook and Flight Manual
Checklist, reviews airspeeds, distances, emergency procedures, departure procedure, checklist.
P 1. Position: Utilize minimum space, face wind, hazards, divided attention
P 2. C H E C K L I S T Shows knowledge of how the proper takeoff check will include specific items, why these items are important and how a malfunction is hazardous. Checks engine, controls, gauges, switches, (State position/reading)
P 3. Positions aircraft in run-up area by local requirements, wind and space utilization.
P 4. Seats, belts, doors, windows, security Physically check, push, move etc. Divide attention inside and outside the cockpit.
P 5. Reviews takeoff performance airspeeds, distances, emergency options, and departure procedure.
P 6. Moves from run-up area to runway area so that takeoff will provide both a clearing of the approach area and a minimum of time after clearance. assures no conflict with traffic prior to taxiing into position.
P 7. Getting clearance and including the On takeoff final checklist of Time, X-ponder, emergency alternatives.
P 8. Takeoff: Confirms engine and aircraft performance desired is achieved prior to liftoff. Sets flaps and controls
P 9. C H E C K L I S T completed.
EX Run up area, run up, instruments, cockpit preparation, performance preparation, pre-takeoff, post-takeoff.

You should leave as much space for other aircraft as possible. Do not allow the wing to be over the hold lines. Face the wind since this improves engine cooling and makes possible release of flight controls. Make sure that propeller blast will cause no problems. Attention is carefully divided between in and out of cockpit.
C H E C K L I S T - Controls are quickly, smoothly checked for yoke position/control movement. Trim position is checked. All power additions and reductions should be done smoothly. Power is advanced and magnetos checked. Changing from two magnetos to one should cause a drop in RPM due to a decrease in combustion efficiency. If the drop exceeds allowances or the engine runs rough clearing a fouled plug may be necessary.

For clearing fouled plugs, raise the RPM to at least 2000 and lean the mixture until a slight drop in RPM occurs. A few seconds in this position will normally vaporize any fouling. If excess drop or roughness persists cancel the flight. An inoperative spark plug will be cool.

Correct functioning of the carburetor heat is indicated by a slight drop in RPM due to enrichment caused by the unfiltered less dense hot air. If the engine has not had time to warm or if the day is as hot as the engine a drop may not occur.

During the run up of the engine all engine gauges should be touched and noted as being acceptable. Oil pressure and temperature should be in the green. Ammeter should be registering and checked under load. Suction pressure should be between 4.5 and 5.4. Flight instruments should be rechecked and set.

Altimeter is set and then noted for error from airport elevation. The suction operates the gyros of the attitude and heading indicator. Heading indicator should be set by carefully noting the numbers on the compass that the lubber line is between and then set accordingly. Saying the number aloud may help avoid mistakes. The attitude indicator usually need not be reset. The turn coordinator is electrically driven.

The magnetic compass can be affected if ferrous metals are allowed near it. It has adjustment screws which allow for radio and aircraft effects. These adjustments are done on a compass rose and readings noted on the deviation card by the compass. From the North turns initially indicate the wrong direction on the compass. Any acceleration East or West shows a turn to the North that has not actually occurred. ANDS is the memory device for this.

The airspeed, altimeter, and vertical speed are part of the pitot static air system. The pitot has ram air while the static air hole admits undisturbed air. Pitot heat, alternate air and breaking glass in VSI are some in flight procedures used to correct problems. Use of cabin air as a static source causes altimeter and airspeed indications to increase slightly. (An emergency source of static air may be obtained by breaking glass in VSI.)

After all elements of the pre-takeoff list are completed pilots get caught with getoffitis and neglect cockpit preparation such as closing window, reviewing departure clearance, desired initial heading, first checkpoint, next frequency, positioning emergency checklist, and availability of charts and papers. Use the examiner as a lapboard if necessary. Don't put any possibly needed papers or computers behind you.

Due to greenhouse effect, the closing of the cabin usually occurs just before departure. Doors and windows can accidentally open in flight. This usually occurs on takeoff due to differential cabin pressures. No harm will occur if flying the airplane is attended to. Doors will open only a few inches and windows usually have limit hinges. The possible startling effect of noise and wind is the greatest hazard. If in flight closing is difficult, return for landing.

The FAR's require that all belts and harness be used on takeoff and landings and kept on required crew members while in flight. All passengers must be advised as to how to fasten and unfasten belts. All loose items in the cockpit should be secured in pockets or straps in the event of turbulence. Set all flight controls for the desired takeoff performance, obtain clearance and taxi so as to clear the runway approach area. It is not necessary to acknowledge takeoff clearance since the controller can see your movement.

A clearance for immediate takeoff is best refused unless you are ready and in position to determine the safety of doing so. Acknowledge all ATC instructions to hold. Normal takeoffs are initiated with back pressure to minimize nose wheel contact and permit lift off at Vso. This reduces wear and tear on the aircraft. Vy, best rate of climb, is obtained by lowering the nose. Climb at Vy gives the most altitude in terms of time. If insufficient speed and runway exist for safe takeoff or an unexpected event occurs in the cockpit, be prepared to abort the takeoff.

Use takeoff C H E C K L I S T to note time, X-ponder, and emergency alternatives. Place your emergency checklist in a ready position. Once airborne and an emergency occurs at an altitude insufficient to permit returning for landing then land in most suitable area within 30 degrees of heading. No return to the same runway should be attempted unless sufficient altitude for a 240 degree steep turn exists. Every pilot should practice this with power off at a safe altitude and then allow his own additional altitude as a margin of safety. You should have an After Takeoff CHECKLIST
See instructional material on training.


References: AC 61-21, Ac 61-23; AIM
Acknowledges and complies with instructions
P 1. Shows knowledge of procedures for use of radio and light signals.
P 2. Uses appropriate frequencies, limitations, emergency, reception problems,
P 3. Uses standard phraseology for airport, approach, FSS, other
P 4. Acknowledges properly and complies with instructions.
P 5. Uses appropriate NORDO procedures.
P 6. Interprets and complies with ATC light signals.
EX Limitations, 121.5, 122.2, 123.6, 122.1/VOR, 122.0 traffic area, 122.95, failure, approach control, Classes of airspace, DF, uncontrolled airport, Light signals. Since radio failure is no longer a common event the pilot skills in use of light signals is poor.

Controlled airport radio
There are several essentials to good radio work.
The first essential is:
Know who you want to talk to or, at least, how to find out whom you should be talking to. Every airport and ATC facility has a name, use it. Over the years the FAA has changed the names of airports back and forth between the location and a local personage several times. You can often judge a pilots age and experience by what he says on the radio.
The second essential is:
Know how to set the desired/required frequency into the radio in the most useful sequence. Write all the expected sequences down before you start the aircraft. This means that you should have a set of memorized frequencies in common use, a chart with required frequencies, and a current A/FD with the frequencies. Flying without frequency knowledge is as bad as flying without looking where you are going.
The third essential is:
Know where you are going to be when you start talking, or know enough to know that you don’t know where you are going to be. In either case be as precise as you can. Don’t state your position until you are over it. Use the time getting there to practice what you are going to say.
The fourth essential is:
The way you say what you say. If you are having orientation problems, say so by including the word Unfamiliar immediately after your aircraft identification. Don’t try to ‘fake it’. If you want help, say so. The busier the frequency the briefer you want to be. Just the essentials. If a place or procedure is offered by ATC with which you are unfamiliar, say so. Request to overfly field above pattern altitude for directions from ATC.

VHF aircraft radio is limited to line of sight but as FM, is static free. Most radios have 360/720 frequencies allocated for communication and navigation. The frequency should be monitored before use to avoid dual transmissions which cause receivers to whistle. A stuck mike switch can jam the frequency.

At night when the tower is closed or before it opens you should use the published tower frequency for all air/ground operations. Arrivals should overfly to determine active, enter on a 45 at pattern altitude. If parallel runways exist, only the major one should be used and standard left patterns followed even if right patterns are normal with the tower open.

Basic communication requires
Name of who is being called,
Who you are,
Where you are with pertinent data,
What you want.

FSS, Flight Watch, and Approach Control callups are slightly different. Good phraseology requires that punctuation not be used. Words like miles, feet, runway, and over a position are best omitted. Plan what you are going to say before keying the mike.

121.5 is the emergency frequency and is constantly monitored by ATC facilities. Aircraft should also monitor. Including it in the shutdown CHECKLIST is a good practice. Use it only in an emergency. If you are already on a frequency and in contact do not change unless directed. The ELT when activated by shock transmits on 121.5 as a warble. Emergency transmissions should say each word or phrase three times. Include identification, location, nature of problem, intentions.

122.2. is a common FSS frequency for use when a discrete frequency is unknown or unavailable. The blue rectangles at FSS airports and at VOR's list discrete, duplex (122.1/VOR freq. Note: as of 10-1-91 122.1 and listening on the VOR is being discontinued in most U.S. locations) Since an FSS may have up to 12 available frequencies the call up must say what frequency is being listened to. "Fresno Radio, Cessna 1234X listening 122.2" Since so many frequencies are available select the one giving the best line of sight potential. VOR's and RCO (remote communications outlets) have land lines allowing long distance use.

RCO Change
:in 1999 The AFD will list RCO/RGOs together. The Remote Ground Outlet (RGO) is usually at smaller remote non-tower airports. These are specifically for clearances, cancellations and FSS contact prior to takeoff or after landing. I have found the one at Truckee handy when I am too low to make FSS contact via their normal frequency for the area. Now at Truckee, CA.

123.6 is the airport advisory frequency or AAS from the airport FSS at a field without a tower but having a FSS. This frequency is used for takeoff, traffic advisory, and landing. Ukiah and Red Bluff are current, but to be closed, examples. "Ukiah Radio, Cessna 1234X listening 123.6 Cloverdale at 2000 landing advisories Ukiah"

122.0 is the Flight Watch frequency used nation wide as a weather information service. It is a good frequency to monitor in flight. Flight Watch has area wide remote radios which require you to give the name of your nearest VOR on call up. "Oakland Flight Watch Cessna 1234X Squaw Valley over" Pilot reports (PIREPS) can be exchanged as well as enroute/ destination weather.

Airport Class D airspace extends to 4.1 nautical miles and 2500 feet. FAR's require communications to enter, leave and within unless specifically exempted. The Automatic Terminal Information Service (ATIS) should be obtained before contacting Air Traffic Control (ATC). The ATIS is given alphabetical phonetic code names for identification. Prior to taxi and after clearing runway Ground Contact is required. "Concord Ground Cessna 1234X East Ramp taxi with (ATIS)" "Concord Tower Cessna 1234X Clayton at 2000 landing with (ATIS)" Every ATA has 122.95 as a standard unicom frequency for fuel services. If more than one Fixed Base Operator (FBO) is on the field then other frequencies may be used. Many towers operate part time as indicated with an * after the tower frequency. Operational times are on the tower frequency tab of the Sectional. When the tower is closed left (standard) traffic is used for the runway in use even if is the right.

In the event of radio failure try to determine if it is receiver or transmitter by squawking 7600. Communicate in the blind ("Travis Approach Cessna 12234X transmitting in the blind Rio Vista at 2000 planning landing at Concord") to the nearest radar facility. If the receiver is functioning they can determine your intentions by asking questions to which you respond on the IDENT feature of the transponder. If the receiver is out, transmit in the blind all your positions, altitudes, and intentions just in case the transmitter is operational. ATC can work traffic around one plane without a radio. At a controlled airport enter the Class D airspace at twice pattern altitude, determine the longest active runway by wind or traffic. Depart from overhead so as to arrive on a 45 degree downwind entry to the runway, turn downwind, base, final and watch for the green light gun signal.

The basic procedure for Approach Control, Class B airspace, Class C airspace and, TERSA's, is the same except Class B airspace cannot be entered without clearance. Class C airspace requires only that communication be established. If the proper frequency is unknown call a FSS for aid or use the tower frequency tab of the sectional. "Bay Approach Cessna 1234X over" This callup is necessary because work procedures may require the controller to delay recontact with you until he has finished some other operation. On contact give ATC your position, type aircraft, intentions or request. Be sure to write down the squawk before trying to enter it into the transponder. Set the transponder on standby (stby) before resetting the assigned code; then place to ALT. Acknowledge the squawk by repeating the code as is done with all headings, frequencies or traffic. "Radar Contact" should be acknowledged. On being given a squawk turn the transponder to standby (stby) before resetting the code. IDENT only if commanded.

A Direction Finding (DF) steer can be obtained from a properly equipped FSS just by making a request. With the advent of radar the DF is seldom used. The DF equipment has the capability of line of sight detection and orienting to your transmitter. ATC will ask you questions regarding your aircraft equipment, flight conditions, fuel, and intentions. You will be directed to set your heading indicator and to fly specific headings while occasionally keying your transmitter. You may be given VOR frequencies and asked to give OBS readings FROM a VOR. By simple procedures the operator can determine your position. Further fixes can direct you to almost any destination. Always repeat back headings and instructions to avoid misunderstandings. Avoid doing this during heavy traffic or at night.

Uncontrolled airport radio
Start listening well away from the airport. Overfly above pattern altitude if you are uncertain of pattern or procedures. Adhere to AIM recommended procedures. Doing otherwise can lead to enforcement proceedings if something happens. IFR inbounds can be expected not to follow standard procedures.

Report all legs of pattern entry and the pattern itself. Include your altitude and direction where practical. Acknowledge whether you have any reported or unreported traffic in sight, or not in sight. Advise when you have cleared the runway after landing. Make a full 360 prior to taking the active on departure. Adhere to airport abatement procedures and advise traffic of your departure intentions.

Uncontrolled airports may be either UNICOM, in which case the frequency is on the sectional, or not, where the frequency is automatically 122.9. There is no FAR requirement to use the radio at uncontrolled airports but common sense dictates that the radio be used. These are pilot controlled airports which should be addressed from at least 10 miles out. "Rio Vista UNICOM Cessna 1234X Antioch bridge at 2000 request landing advisory Rio Vista", all subsequent calls are addressed to traffic giving airport name as first and last items. Be accurate in giving all pattern positions and altitudes.

Uncontrolled airports put the burden of traffic control and communications on the pilots. The see and be seen concept is the primary collision avoidance system. The more frequently and accurately you give your location, position, and altitude the safer your operation. At pilot controlled airports it is important to give traffic, and procedure advisories to other pilots. This is especially true if non-standard procedures prevail. Initial contact either with UNICOM or traffic should be at least 10 miles out. If unable to determine recommended 45 degree to downwind entry overfly at twice pattern altitude to determine favored runway. Report on 45, downwind, base final, and clear of runway. If the uncontrolled airport has no assigned altitude use 1000' AGL. Be aware that non-radio cropdusters or ultralights may be using the field.

Besides the problems of orientation and communication at an airport there exists aircraft positioning. Common faults during arrivals at airports consist of not arriving on downwind at pattern altitude, failing to be properly trimmed, failing to initiate downwind turn far enough away from airport, failing to make downwind turn parallel to runway, and failing to correct for wind on downwind. Not infrequently, all of the above will occur with one arrival for the wrong runway or even the wrong airport.

Once in the pattern it is vital that the pilot recognize the priorities of flying. Fly the plane first, navigate, communicate. Get airspeed under control, fly the proper altitudes and patterns, space yourself for traffic, communicate only if the first two elements are correct. Your ability to divide attention in and out of the cockpit is one of the test criteria. Altitude on downwind should be held within 100 feet and approach speeds within 10 knots. These are maximum allowable variations. 20 feet and 4 knots are instructional maximums for recommendation to take the test.

Light Series
The light gun is used by ATC towers, in the event of radio failure, to move and sequence aircraft. In general all GREEN signals permit progress except a flashing green in the air means return. All RED signals mean don't or stop except on the ground the flashing red means clear the runway. A flashing white has no meaning in the air and means to return on the ground. With prior arrangement, light signals may be used to leave or enter a controlled airport.
One way to learn the light signals is by their peculiarities:
Steady red
means to stop on the ground and to stop in the air which can only be done by circling.
The other red light means to move (leave) in the air and on the ground. The flashing red on the ground tells you to move clear from the runway or where ever you are. The area is unsafe. In the air the same flashing red means the airport is unsafe for landing which is another way of telling you to move out of the area.
The alternating red and green suggests extreme caution air or ground.
It is the only light other than the steady green, that means the same both in the air and on the ground.
Steady green
means to takeoff or land.
The flashing green clears you for taxi, and in the air, to return to await landing clearance of steady green.
The flashing white only applies to ground movement and tells you to return from whence you started. A steady white has no meaning any time.

A good procedure for practice is to face the tower during run-up and ask ground control for a light series. The sires may be continuous or you can ask for specific series such as "return to parking", "move from present position", etc. It is better to practice this way than just to see lights.

REFERENCES: AC 61-21, AC 61-23; AIM

P 1. Shows knowledge of pattern elements, procedures at all types of airports. Uses and follows Clearances, commands, acknowledgments, call ups, rules, regulations. Is aware of hazards of wake turbulence and wind shear.
P 1. Aircraft control, speed, orientation, approach slope, P 2. Uses appropriate traffic pattern procedures and spacing
P 3. Uses standard spacing in the pattern, collision avoidance
P 4. Complies with local pattern requirements and emergency potentials.
P 5. Corrects for wind to maintain safe ground track and runway alignment, division of attention.
P 6. Orients flight path to comply with local runway parameters.
P 7. Maintains altitude + 100’ and airspeed + 10 knots in pattern.
P 8. Uses and completes checklist

EX Controlled, uncontrolled, pattern, procedures, collision avoidance, drift, pattern altitude, communications, speeds. While the AIM in 4- 3-3 puts forward a standard procedure, every local airport jurisdiction adds variations to the standard as to pattern altitude, direction, distance and avoidance areas. Often these variations do not appear in the A/FD. A pilot should make it a point to become familiar with as many local airports as practical. Being familiar includes talking with locals and reading all available bulletin boards.

An airport with an operating control tower creates a Class D airspace communications requirement and if IFR conditions exist has an active Class Delta airspace. (Some airports without control towers can have active Class Echo airspace if a qualified weather observer is available. An AWOS or ASOS counts as an observer. All movements in Class D airspace must be below 200 kts, (new) are authorized by clearances which with one exception (takeoff) must be acknowledged. Takeoff clearances not to be acknowledged. If an ATIS exists it should be obtained before contact with ATC. Standard entries are from 45 degrees to downwind and require no request. Downwind is entered and flown at designated pattern altitude as required by local authorities. Where local ordinances and FAR come into conflict due to cloud conditions, abide by the FARs. Pattern altitude is maintained until turning base. Base or straight in arrivals may be requested or given by ATC. The use of a CHECKLIST for descent, pre-landing, landing, post landing, taxi, and shutdown is a test requirement.

The size of the downwind, base, and final is a variable depending upon the performance capability of the aircraft, wind conditions, and pattern altitude. For light aircraft a cruise speed entry to downwind will give extension as the aircraft slows and maintains pattern altitude to the base turn or key position. The base turn may be adjusted to correct for being high or low. Test standards require that the final be at least 1/4 mile long. Corrections of headings and adjustments for ground speeds are made according to wind conditions.

Allowance must be made where pattern altitudes are other than the 1000' noise abatement standard. Standard departures are at 45 degrees from runway heading. While straight-out, crosswind, and downwind departures may be requested a preferred request would be, "on course (destination)". Since all communications are recorded and kept 15 days, such departure requests serve as mini-flight plans and provide ATC with a more precise route for traffic advisories to other aircraft. While ATC may request a turn at any time speed and altitude permits, most pattern and turn altitudes are set by local governmental agencies.

ATC may request changes in pattern for purposes of expediting traffic or safety. If given a command, execute the command and then make your acknowledgment on the radio. Aircraft may be told to slow down, expedite, change runways, go around, make 360's, 180's, or 270's, circle, extend, make short approach, follow, report, say position, say altitude, advise, etc. Frequently, it may be to the pilots advantage to request any of the above if he feels it will help his situation. On a pilot initiated go-around no communications are necessary.

Planning the airport arrival ahead of time prevents problems. Get the ATIS, if any, and listen for inbound/outbound communications to get an idea of traffic density and conflicts. Use the ATIS to help you select a call up point well outside the Class Delta airspace. How far out depends upon the performance of your aircraft. Where possible use some visual reference point for your 45 degree to downwind entry. Otherwise use the left/right rear 45 degree runway numbers from the heading indicator for aid. Base and straight-in approaches require 2 mile reports so plan a visual reference point for these callu-ups. If no reference points exist make an estimate by counting runway lengths. ATC reduces its load by expediting your arrivals and departures; you should help by planning and communicating.
See instructional materials on airports with towers

REFERENCES: References; AC 61-21, AC 61-23, AIM 2-1-1 through 2-3-14
Determine if applicant:
P l. Knows different airport markings and lighting
P 2. Identifies/interprets markings and lighting
P 3. Taxiway center lines, holding bars, yoke positions

EX 1. Airport markings and lighting, numbers, white, orange, green, red, aids

2. In the recent past the AIM has made numerous changes in the airport marking system. Most airports are behind in catching up to the changes in the AIM. I suggest you study the AIM as referenced above and correlate this with several airports to see how compliance is performed.

Item:: The tower for the rotating beacon at Santa Monica is one that once served along a beacon lighted airway before WWII.

Most airports have some combination of windsocks, tetrahedrons, runway T indicators or ATIS to give wind direction. The pilot should use these as well as waves, dust, and smoke. Standard patterns are to the left but a segmented circle, usually around the windsock may show otherwise. An amber light at night at the windsock indicates right traffic. Civil airports may have white, green, or white/green beacons. Military airports have green/white-white beacons.

Runways have white center lines. Taxiways have orange center lines. Hold lines are multiple solid/broken lines. The taxiway center lines are supposed to give safe clearances to the side. Where no lines exist the entire liability rests on the pilot. Two way taxiways often have additional colors.

Night taxi lighting, if any, consists of blue lights at sides of taxiways and green recessed lights on the centerlines. Orange lights indicate hold bars. White lights outline the sides of runways with red/green at the ends. The red/green end lights depend upon your position. Green will show as you approach for landing, red will show at the far end of the runway. Flashing strobe lights are sometimes used to help you find the end of the runway. Many airports have VASI lights both day and night to assist you on the glide path. Red over white, you're all right, red red for low, white white for high.

If you think brighter lights will help you find the field or land just ask the tower, if open. Where airport lights can be controlled by keying the CTAF (Common Traffic Advisory Frequency) the intensity may be controllable by the number of times the radio is keyed.) Instrument runways have several white stripes just past the numbers. Precision instrument runways will have distance markers as well. The number on the runway corresponds to the nearer 10 degrees of magnetic course. The sum of the digits at either end of the runway are equal. Runway 32 (3+2 = 5) and the other end is Runway 14 (1+4 = 5)

Some runways can be used from only one direction. Others require special approach/landing procedures because of terrain. Do not fly to an unfamiliar field for the first time at night. If you are unable to complete a landing in three tries, go elsewhere.

The interpretation of the runway information on the segmented circle at uncontrolled airports can be confusing. The base of the L is the base leg going toward the stem. It may be extended to the right or left. One way to think of it is by calling the base of the L the base leg. By flying in on the base leg to the stem you can determine if the turn to final (stem) is right or left. It should be noted that the orientation of the small ends of the windsock and the tetrahedron are opposite. You land with the small end of the windsock and the large end of the tetrahedron toward you.

Weather Briefing Card
1. Pilot qualifications
2. Aircraft number and certification
3. Departure point
4. Departure time and enroute time
5. Route
6. Destination
7. Altitude
8. Weather briefing

Standard Briefing
Adverse Conditions
VFR/IFR Advice
Present conditions
Winds at 12, 9, 6, 3

Aircraft Charts
Best glide
Weight and Balance
Front seat
Rear seat
Flight Plan
--Nav intersections
--Com frequencies
--Aircraft inspection
Post flight

Undisturbed Preflight
Distraction and return during a preflight inspection can either result in a complete inspection or a partial. Distraction can kill you....literally!! It can happen anytime. Someone asks you a question, or some small thing occurs that takes you away from the preflight. Without a fixed pattern of inspection, it's very possible to return to the inspection at a different location. THAT can mean trouble. You can miss something you otherwise would have noticed. Forming a fixed pattern for inspections helps a great deal in several ways.

The first I just mentioned. The second, and a bit harder to see on the surface, is psychological, especially for those who fly the same type aircraft all the time. By fixing the inspection pattern, your mind will
adjust to pointing you toward the items you are checking in a specific order. As you move around the airplane, you will add items you might have neglected on the last inspection and your habit pattern will place that item neatly in order for the next inspection. This process continues until you reach the "perfect" inspection. Over time, a mental signal will go off if you miss something. That's important, and worthy of forming this habit pattern.

My story is quite simple. I was distracted one day at an air show in the middle of a preflight by someone wanting an autograph. I had to walk away from the inspection to comply. There was a discussion, and my mind was occupied with other things for a period of time. Had I returned to the inspection at a different point than where I had left, (and I mean skipping just one item, not a general area) I might have missed the rather large stuffed animal someone had kindly jammed into my carb ram air shaft on the 51.

The development of good habit patterns is something I believe is one of the most important, if not THE most important aspects of flight training! It's incumbent on every flight instructor to make sure that students begin developing these habit patterns from day one!
Dudley Henriques
See instructional material on training.

Flight Planning
--Under present conditions it is important that you check NOTAMS prior to every takeoff.
-- for airport, winds and radar pictures
--A weather briefing is not official unless it is recorded and stored for 30 days.
--The difference between DUAT and DUATS is that is plain language weather info.
--Enflight stores briefing and user name and code Wxpert sets up flight planning, routing according to time selected. Takes 4 seconds.
--Enflight TAFs and Metars are color coded from green to red according to nature of weather conditions. draws route on chart that you can print.
--AOPA will let you print all charts free with taxi diagrams of airports.
--A flight plan with the FSS costs $35 DUATS costs .25 cents. Difference is, "VFR not recommended".
--Weather teaching should emphasize selection of weather to have while flying.
--Reading TAF and METAR does not help in reading weather outside the door.
--Prior to every takeoff say, "Today is the DAY" so you can anticipate the day an engine failure occurs.
--Surprised how President Bush used very similar phrase in talking about the next terrorist event (1-29-02) However he is/was a pilot.

Presume you usually lean for taxi. Lycoming suggests that there is no need to enrich during runup since you are not going to full power. However interesting lessons can be learned by leaning for taxi.

--Should you be a bit too lean, there will be no rpm drop when you check the carburetor heat. Just put the mixture in a bit and check again to get a drop in rpm.

--Checking the magnetos with a well leaned engine will not produce the usual rpm drop, either.

--Should you initiate a takeoff with a lean mixture the engine will let you know that a more rich mixture is

Exhaust Temperature Gauge
Brian wrote
The EGT is useful in properly leaning the mixture. With power set, the more you lean the mixture, the higher the EGT, until a peak is hit. Beyond that peak, the EGT drops, and eventually the engine looses power. You usually lean to peak EGT, then enrich the mixture enough to lower the EGT back down
two notches.

Corky wrote:
The Cessna Training Manual actually calls for the airplane to be leaned below peak EGT. They state that you should reach cruising altitude, pull the mixture out until the needle peaks, keep pulling it till it begins to lower, then turn the mixture in until you've achieved 25 to 50 degrees below the peak you saw. The gauge in our 172 had two needles, one that you could set as a guideline, the other recorded ETC. It also said that you could lean until the rpm began to drop, and then lean further till you got a specified rpm drop. I forget exactly what that rpm drop is supposed to be. Could be as much as 150 rpm. This also would be leaning past peak, even if you did not have an EGT gauge.

In the POH for the Cessna I trained in, it also stated that you could lean the engine out during climb. In this case you leaned for maximum rpm, which is another way of saying leaning for best power, which is a
setting on the rich side of peak. You can be obsessive about this and lean every 30 seconds or minute, or just lean once in a while. Gene says: Rich mixture in climb on fixed propeller aircraft is a cooling factor.
If you lean during climb, you must watch the temperature.

One more way of leaning during the climb is to note the EGT temperature during the takeoff, and lean to that temperature as you climb. That way you will never over lean during the climb as the mixture is always over rich for full power (with the mixture full forward, sea level) and as you climb and the air thins, the mixture becomes more rich which has the effect of cooling off the EGT. So leaning during the climb simply restores the mixture close to the takeoff mixture setting, if you adjust to the takeoff temperature. Gene says: In climb watch the engine temperature. Heat is the greatest enemy of your engine.

During local airwork training we did not bother with leaning, I only learned about that when we were headed out on cross-country. My instructor was reluctant to go into it in a big way, he taught the "lean till it stumbles then richen it out till it didn't" routine. I noticed that when descending, if the mixture was full rich, that EGT gauge was bottomed.

Little Things that Make a Big Difference
–Start your flight planning four days before.
--Get an ‘Outlook Briefing’
--Get a ‘Standard Briefing’ same day
--The farther into the planning you get the more difficult ‘no-go’ becomes.
--For out of area cell phone contact get the 866 number for the FSS instead of the 800 number.
--For Oakland it is 866 469-7828 works only on out of area cell phones.
–Being able to use DUATS is part of the PTS but the FSS has a tape of your weather briefing.
--The FSS can be visited but not a freely as in years past.
--When in the air the best weather is via the local airport’s AWOS or contact Flight Watch on 122.0
--Don’t for get to talk to other pilots along the way. Good way to make friends.
--Most current weather can be on local ATIS about 10 to the hour, from FSS at five after hour.
--When filing a flight plan, leave your cell phone number so they can contact you when you forget to close.
--Use radar services as much as you can but learn to talk the talk for best service.
--Initial contact with radar is just a ‘hello’, nothing more.
--When answered give accurate position, altitude, intentions, requests and read-back.
--You and your qualities are recognized by the questions you ask and the answers you give.
--Know what you know, ask when you don’t know. Ask even if you’re not sure.
--You are more likely to get what you want when you talk like you know what you are doing.

What’s It All About Alfie?
It is not just procedures.
2. Every maneuver has a distinctive sound and feel sequence when done correctly.
3. You need to think about what comes next when learning, you know when you don’t need to think.
4. You will know when something is not as it should be just by watching the nose.
5. The nose does everything before the airspeed indicator.

Do FARs and Training Improve Safety?
---Without a plan, flying in the U.S. succeeded with government supervision and training programs.
---In 1964 government regulations began an organized training program to teach pilots.

---By 1968 the program and plan including CFI refresher clinics began to show positive results.

---In June of 1968 Gene Whitt starts flying lessons.

---By 1971 every FAA region had some form of educational/safety program showing safety improvements
---In nearly every year since 1971 there has been improvements in General Aviation safety.
---Primary emphasis has been in flight instruction with FAA guidance.
---Only one out of every 400 U.S. citizens can fly airplanes
---You have only one chance in a million of being killed in an airplane
---Flying nation wide has been safer for every year of my flying career.

Technology Is Here to be Taught
---The teachers of flying are not keeping up with what is happening
---Instructors teaching instructors is way to go.
---Technology will ease workload in the cockpit once understood
---Major hazard is head-down time when problems develop.

Level Flight
--While the initial standard may be lower, you should perform all maneuvers toward a student goal of 5-5-50. This means within five degrees of heading, five knots of airspeed and fifty feet of altitude. Pilots 2-2-20

--Level aircraft using wingtip and horizon then hold nose in position while trimming. Don’t reduce power until you have reached level cruise speed. Let go of yoke and watch the nose. Any rise or fall of the nose is indicative of improper trim setting. Position nose again and re-trim until nose holds level flight. Put hands up by windshield. Nose should go down. Place hands overhead behind you. Nose should go up. Only way to fly.

--Put aircraft into 30-degree bank and trim nose-up half a turn. Let go yoke and use rudder to keep angle of bank. Aircraft should be able to maintain altitude and bank without your touching yoke. Left or right no difference. This ability is designed into the aircraft. Aircraft will attempt to level itself at less than 30 degrees of bank. Aircraft will attempt to roll on over at more than 30 degrees of bank. Knowing the how to use the inherent stability of the aircraft makes flying safer. Practice flying with just rudder.

--Work on 30 degree banks with 90 degree turns continuously alternating from left to right. Always clear when the wing is above the horizon. Lead recovery by 15 degrees and try to get bank reversals to occur on selected headings.

--When doing alternate turns without stopping, clear your turn in the other direction before the wing drops

--Work on leaning procedure every time you level off. It should be done at any level flight altitude. Make use of mixture as common as use of carburetor heat. Just don’t get the two crossed up.

--Make going to slow-flight a matter of time. Learn to have the aircraft transition from level cruise to hands-off slow-flight in a matter of seconds. Any such transition can be done in half the normal time you usually take with practice. Time how long it takes you. Now, work to cut it in half. Works.

--Apply flaps without looking at flap indicator. Use 3-4 count for every ten degrees of extension. Air loads speed up retraction so use different count. Practice milking up flaps on ground before doing so in the air.

--At altitude, make opportunities to fly minimum controllable. The true test of flying skill is finding your own lower speed limits and knowing what it takes to maneuver when there.

How Many Hours to Solo 
No one approached the question from an instructor's perspective on news group rec.aviation.student. 
---I do Not teach towards solo. 
---I DO teach toward making a safe and competent pilot 
---I teach at an airport with dual parallel runways where ground movement is more difficult than air movement. 
---Prior to solo my students know the arrival, ground and departure procedures for the four airports in each quadrant from their home field. 
---In the process they have a 25 mile radius circle within which they know where they are, how to get where they want to go and most importantly what to say on the radio in the process coming and going 
---Immediately prior to solo we fly early in conditions that allow the tower to direct us to use as many of the eight possible runways. Takes 45 minutes and my students can then handle every change in wind and runway that ATC has to offer. 
---Solo is anti-climatic. 
---Next solos consist of dual and then immediate solo to the four nearby airports three of which are towered and one of these Class C. . 
---My night flight is first destination over 50nm away and then full-stop taxi-back landings with a stop and go to all the airports we have flown to before. The taxiing time is the best part of the lesson. 
---First dual cross country has one where I help in the planning and everything works 'perfectly'. ---Second dual cross country is planned by the student and nothing works perfectly. 
---Third cross country is solo in least familiar direction. 
---Proficiency for checkride takes three to five hours. 
---How many hours to solo and license? Hours are not a criteria. I do not now, nor have I ever considered hours as a factor in my instruction. My judgment of success is, "It is a poor student who does not exceed his teacher." 

  What to Do When You Don’t Know What to Do
  ---CCCC ---This is an emergency situation 
---Climb, Communicate, confess and comply 
---Your last used frequency is a good first try 
---You could make a blind call on 122.1 and listen on VORs in the area ---121,5 may get you some help if the monitoring required by ATC is there ---122.2 is a relatively universal FSS frequency again if you can get an answer 
---122.0 is a good call between 6a.m. and 10 p.m. for Flight Watch 
---Try to find any paper with a frequency written on it 
---The less experienced pilot is reluctant to reveal any inadequacy, while… ---The experienced pilot recognizes the relative values of pride and help. 

Finding Airports as a Skill 
---Use any prominent charted landmark as a directional and distance reference 
---Talk to locals on the ground or in the air as to what they use to reference the location 
---Look for charted roads that lead to airports 
…Use VOR radials to take you to the airport 
---Once you find an airport make a collection of non-charted references for future use 
---Find a collection of at least three things in the area that will help you next time. 
---Use a pictorial reference that gives you things that will help you find the airport. 

Where is that airport? 
---If you don’t know the identifiable points leading you there
--- Airports in different circumstances will be difficult to find. 
---The position of the sun, visibility and ceiling can individually or collectively make difficulties
---What makes you know where an airport is has to do with your awareness of landmarks. 
---You want to learn where to look for a radio call-up using landmark distance not direction distance 
---In many parts of the country compass directions are contradictory to local road names and directions 
---The coast of California is a huge curve so that going south will soon put you over the Pacific Ocean 
---Los Angeles is east of Reno; From the Bay Area you go easterly to Monterey and North to Reno 
---My first question to a new pilot is, “Which was is North?” 
---Would you believe that there are cultures in which the concept of directions does not exist 
---An airport does not have to be where you think it is or where you are looking 
---If you do not scan to both sides of the cockpit as well as in front you may just fly by 
---Seasonal changes make a difference as to how valid certain landmark aids may be 
---Being low makes finding an airport more difficult than being high 
---Arrive in vicinity of airports by at least twice pattern altitude 
---Water in all forms, pond, lake, shoreline, stream can be useful as a marker or landmark 
---Seasonal changes in natural water requires extra attention 
---Seasonal changes in foliage such as leaves and grasses require visual adjustment 
---Roads are most useful at night

Night Location Is Difficult for Many 
---Where you look is another way of knowing where to look 
---There is a time to look out in different directions 
---The turning final is seen differently than short final as seen. 
---Nothing is seen more differently than the flare 
---Looking where you think an airport is can fixate your vision away from the airport 
---All the occupants in the cockpit tend to look in the same direction.
Remembering the Little Things Makes a Difference 
---Power settings and configurations for desired performance 
---A landmark that tells you where you are 
---Every thing you can remember has potential importance 
---Wasteful repetitious actions are indicative of not using a checklist ---Smoothness is very much in your touch… 
---The way you hold the flight and engine controls makes a difference ---Looking outside is done differently than inside 
---Fixation in either case has inherent dangers 
---Knowing what to look for is critical importance all the time 

Making choices Is the Most Used Constant in Aviation
… One of the more difficult choices is not to fly because of… 
   ---Aircraft problems, weather, illness, currency, cost 
   ---A more common choice is selection of route, procedure and altitude       
    ---Other choices are fuel, weight and balance,

What’s So Important About 
---Knowing where you are? 
If you don’t know where you are 
   --- How are you going to know what to say on the radio. 
   --- How do you know a safe altitude according to FARs, night, etc. 

Whitt and Wisdom 
---There is no point in having wanted to learn to fly without being willing to take the first flight. 
---If there is anything small, shallow, arrogant, or ugly about a person, flying is an excellent cure. 
---It is what you do when you have nothing to do, that reveals your quality or lack as quality as a pilot. 
---A conceited pilot never gets anywhere because he thinks he is already there. The best pilot I know was unable to do anything with his skills. He sells home alarm systems 
---The easiest level of learning is through the mistakes of others
---A good instructor knows what he can’t teach and advises the student accordingly.
---Talent does what it can, genius does what it must.
---Good fortune takes preparation
---The best teacher is also a student
---The smart thing to do is to begin trusting your intuitions
---Smart flying is a constant struggle for self-improvement
---Put a speed bump between your brain and your mouth
---Ignorance is content to stand still with its back to the truth
As an older pilot I am prone to be unrealistic in my self-evaluation of my flying skills. 
---I plan to join the UFOs, United Flying Octogenarians.

What is an FAA Reference to the Student and Pilot
A reference Identifies the publication(s) that describe(s) the TASK. Descriptions of TASKs are not included in these standards because this information can be found in the current issue of the listed reference. Publications other than those listed may be used for references if their content conveys substantially the same meaning as the referenced publications.

These practical test standards are based on the following references.
For example…
---The Airplane Flying Handbook is a regulatory text to the same extent that the PTS is a regulatory text.
    Every Practical Test Standards Text.
    FAA-H-8083-3 Airplane Flying Handbook
    FAA-H-8083-15 Instrument Flying Handbook
    AIM Aeronautical Information Manual
    AFD Airport Facility Directory
    NOTAMs Notices to Airmen
    Other Pilot Operating Handbook
    FAA-Approved Flight Manual
    Navigation Charts

What this means is that ignorance of anything contained in these references is never an excuse or reason not to know what is there to know.  Worry. A NOTAM may be issued while you are airborne tomorrow.

Complex Airplane
— An airplane that has a retractable landing gear, flaps, and a controllable pitch propeller.

Dihedral — The upward angle of an airplane’s wings with respect to the horizontal. Dihedral contributes to the lateral stability of an airplane.

Directional Stability — Stability about the vertical axis.

Dynamic Stability — The stability of an aircraft which causes it, when once disturbed from straight and level flight, to return to a condition of straight and-level flight in progressively diminishing oscillations.

High-Performance Airplane — An airplane with an engine of more than 200 horsepower.

Induced Drag — That part of total drag which is created by the production of lift. Induced drag increases with a decrease in airspeed.

Keel Effect — The steadying influence exerted by the side area of the fuselage and vertical stabilizer acting laterally about the longitudinal axis.

Lateral Stability — Stability about the longitudinal axis.

Longitudinal Stability — Stability about the lateral axis. A desirable characteristic of an airplane, whereby it tends to return to its trimmed angle of attack after displacement.

Maneuverability — The ability of an aircraft to be directed along a desired flight path and to withstand the stresses imposed upon it.

Maneuvering Speed (VA) — The maximum speed at which you can use full, abrupt control movement without overstressing the airframe.

Parasite Drag — That part of total drag created by the form or shape of airplane parts. Parasite drag increases with an increase in airspeed.

Pressurized Airplane — Any airplane in which the cabin area is sealed off and pressurized.

Spin — An aggravated stall which results in the airplane descending in a helical or corkscrew path.

Stability — That property of a body which causes it, when its equilibrium is disturbed, to develop forces or moments tending to restore the original condition.

Stalls — A rapid decrease in lift caused by the separation of airflow from the airfoil surface, brought on by exceeding the critical angle of attack.

Static Stability — The characteristic of an aircraft that, when disturbed from a condition of rest, will tend to return to the condition of rest.

Sweepback — The backward slant of a wing, horizontal tail, or other airfoil surface; the backward slant of a leading or trailing edge of an airfoil.

Airfoil Vortices — Circular air flow made by movement of a foil capable of creating lift. As a lifting surface moves a low pressure is created. The air flow from the high-pressure area to the low-pressure area around surface ends roll into rotating vortices. called wake turbulence. The degree of turbulence is determined by wing loading, weight and speed of movement. The vortices from medium to heavy aircraft can be of extremely high velocity, and hazardous to smaller aircraft.

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Continued on 2.4 PTS Airport and Ground Reference Pattern