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PTS Airport and Ground Patterns
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NORMAL AND CROSSWIND TAKEOFFS; …NORMAL AND CROSSWIND TAKEOFF; …NORMAL /CROSSWIND APPROACHES AND LANDINGS; Crosswind Approach and Landing; …SOFT-FIELD TAKEOFF AND CLIMB; … SOFT-FIELD APPROACH AND LANDING; … SHORT-FIELD TAKEOFF AND CLIMB; …SHORT-FIELD APPROACH AND ACCURACY LANDING; Special Landing Situations; FORWARD SLIPS TO LANDING; …GO-AROUND; … STEEP (CONSTANT ALTITUDE) TURNS; Descending Turns; … RECTANGULAR COURSE; … S-TURNS; …TURNS AROUND A POINT; ...Turns about a Point; …Student Question; …2003 Taxiing Changes; ...Runway Incursion Prevention; ...AC 91-73A Checklists Annotated Condensed for General Aviation; ...Towered Taxi Procedures Checklist; ...Towered Arrival Taxi Procedures Checklist; ...Non-Towered Departure Taxi Procedures Checklist; ...Non-Towered Arrival Taxi Procedures Checklist; ...(AC 91.73A Information Duplicated on 4.88); ...Emails with FAA Official; ...Flying as Though You Lived Below; ...

REFERENCES: AC 61-21; Airplane Handbook and Flight Manual
Vy + 10 and - 5 knots
P 1. Know elements of normal and crosswind takeoff and climb, positions flight controls, flaps, clears, runway alignment,
P 2. CHECKLIST, center line, smooth power, gauges, directional control, rotation speed, Vy attitude within 5 kts., trim, (flaps/gear if any) alignment, completes C H E C K L I S T

EX Takeoff elements, clearing, alignment, rotation, climb, airspeeds, configuration, emergency. May need to discuss crosswind if none exists. Complete pre-takeoff checklist. Windows, belts, doors, tower frequency, transponder ON, time check, trim set, emergency CHECKLIST. Review communications, departure course, first checkpoint, next frequency. Monitor tower frequency. Contact tower before leaving runup area; get time check. "Taxi closer and hold; taxi into position and hold; cleared for immediate takeoff", are common ATC directives. Acknowledge and comply with the first two if approach is clear. Refuse any clearance for immediate takeoff unless you are really ready.

When cleared, turn plane to clear base and final approach areas while taxiing smoothly to align with the runway center line. Apply smooth full power, applying back pressure to relieve weight from nose wheel. Use right rudder to maintain runway alignment. Set nose attitude that will give lift off at Vso. When airborne lower nose to Vy attitude, accelerate, and trim.

At 300' check engine instruments, runway alignment, and possible parallel runway traffic. Position heading to maintain alignment. Plan turns at above safe/required altitudes with headings wind corrected to give desired crosswind ground track. Keep hand on throttle until above 1000'.

If departing straight out from one of two parallel runways it is wise to make at least a 10-degree turn away from the adjacent runway. This should be done regardless of wind conditions. Standard departures are at 45 degrees. A crosswind departure is at right angles. A downwind departure parallels the runway at least until mid-field. A 270 degree turning departure over the airport usually requires that crossing the airport exceed the pattern altitude by 500'. If it is possible to misconstrue the direction of your departure it is wise to include your destination as an indicator. Expect to be judged during the test on use of after-takeoff checklist on EVERY takeoff.
See instructional material on takeoffs and departures.

References: AC 61-21, POH, Flight manual
Vy + 10 and - 5 knots
P 1. Knows all elements related to normal and crosswind operations. How are things the same and how are they different.
P 2. Holds yoke properly for wind and flaps according to POH.
P 3. Clears area, taxies into positing and alignment on centerline.
P 4. Smooth power changes to appropriate settings.
P 5. Rotates at recommended airspeed, after liftoff accelerates and climbs at Vy
P 6. Pitch and climb set for Vy climb +10/-5 knots.
P 7. Gear and flaps set as required by POH.
P 8. Takeoff power maintained to safe maneuvering altitude.
P 9. Direction and crab maintained as required on takeoff and climb.
P 10. Knows and follows noise abatement procedures.
P 11. C H E C K L I S T, center line, smooth power, gauges, aileron deflection, yoke position, directional control, rotation to crab angle, Vy attitude within 5 kts, trim, (flaps/gear if any), alignment, C H E CK L I S T.

EX Takeoff elements such as elevator deflection, yoke pressure, lift off rotation, crabbing, alignment, climb, airspeed, ground track wind allowances in turns and headings.

Complete pre takeoff checklist. Windows, belts, doors, tower frequency, transponder ON, time and wind checks, emergency options, C H E C K L I S T , a i l e r o n -d e f e l e c t i o n -f o r- w i n d . Review communications, departure course, first checkpoint, next frequency.

Use normal takeoff procedures from previous section except be sure to maintain aileron deflection and yoke pressure sufficient to avoid premature lift off. Premature lift off may cause the plane to slide/skip sideways on the runway, raise the upwind wing, and make the aircraft uncontrollable. Hold the plane on the runway until sufficient airspeed is available to permit quick movement of the yoke and ailerons. This movement must be sufficient to get the aircraft airborne, in ground effect, crabbed, level, into the wind with rudder, and without returning to the ground. Five knots above Vso is deemed sufficient. Hold Vy and use crab to keep ground track in alignment with the runway.

Be aware that where parallel runways exist more or less crab angle may be desirable to assure clearance from the adjacent runway. Adjustments must be made to the crosswind, downwind, and base legs to adjust for proper ground track.

Airport patterns must be adjusted on the downwind and base by crabbing to maintain ground track. The turns must be adjusted as to lead time and angle to correct for the wind factor. Winds can cause illusions of speed over the ground that are not translated into airspeed on the indicator. Fly the airspeed.

Common errors are failing to maintain proper aileron yoke position, letting aircraft settle back down after liftoff, improper application of rudder at liftoff, failing to maintain/vary crab angle to maintain alignment, failing to maintain airspeed during crosswind turns.
See instructional material on airport procedures.

REFERENCE: AC 61-21, Handbook, Manual
Recommended speeds or 1.3 Vso + 10 and - 5 knots plus gust factor, within 400 feet past selected touchdown point
P 1. Knows all elements related to normal and crosswind operations. How are things the same and how are they different.
P 2. Uses conditions of wind, airport and obstructions to select best approach and touchdown point.
P 3. Uses recommended approach, configuration, speed, pitch and power as required.
P 4. Has stabilized approach at recommended Vref approach speed and no more than 1.2 Vso +10/-5 knots + gust factor.
P 5. Smoothly performs the flying required by the airport pattern. Maintain the approach speed from the numbers to flare within 5 knots. Make smooth, timely flight corrections.
P 6. Makes touch down within 400' beyond selected point with no drift and the longitudinal axis over and aligned with the runway centerline.
P 7. Maintains crosswind correction and directional control throughout the approach and landing.
P 8. Completes the appropriate checklist.

EX Be able to explain all elements, including airspeed, flap use, and traffic safety. Discuss how you must fly to obtain a desired ground track by compensating for the wind. Tell how airspeed control makes it possible to achieve landing accuracy.

The key word is smooth. The best complement that can be paid a pilot is that he is smooth. To be smooth you must both plan and anticipate every step you will perform in the landing process. It is helpful to verbalize as you proceed. CHECKLIST

"Downwind mid-field, pre-landing fuel, mixture, gauges, altitude, track. Abeam the numbers, Carb Heat, power 1500, hold heading and altitude. Trim down three. At 60 knots, 1500' and pattern altitude, 4 count of flaps, yoke forward, trim up one.

CLEAR, slightly forward into the turn, rudder, back pressure at 30 degrees, slightly forward to level. 60 knots, 4 count of flaps, yoke forward, trim up one. CLEAR, 60 knots rudder, slightly forward into the turn, back pressure at 30 degrees, slightly forward to level. 60 knots, 6 count of flaps or as required, 60 knots, 60 knots! 1500 RPM,
Roundout and begin to reduce power in 100 RPM increments as yoke is logarithmically brought full back and up throughout the flare. Hold the yoke full back until the nose falls by itself.
Post landing CHECKLIST. Clean up the flaps and cockpit.

With the foregoing as a base it is relatively easy to correct errors in the approach. Try to keep the power of 1500 RPM and the 60 knots airspeed as constants. Use the flight path and flaps to set up your final approach glide path. If you are ever low add full power for up to 30 seconds while holding 60 knots with forward pressure; then back to 1500 RPM. If after full flaps you are high, reduce power in increments. If still high speed may be reduced to 55 or even slower if aircraft is light.

Any drift on final must be corrected by side slip. Keep the nose parallel to the center line with the rudder and lower the wing to slide the plane into line with the center of the runway. This is half a Dutch roll. Since wind velocities vary with altitude so must your slip corrections be varied. You should not see the runway at moment of in a full stall landing. Keep your eyes on the horizon for visual indication of ballooning.
See instructional material on landings

Aside: Only the FAA would consider grouping the explanation of the normal and crosswind procedures under the same heading. Here is my addendum for the crosswind landing. Gene

Crosswind Approach and Landing
References: AC 61-21, Airplane Handbook and Flight Manual
Recommended speeds or 1.3 Vso + 10 and - 5 knots plus gust factor, within 400 feet past selected touchdown point

P 1. The oral explanation may take place of actual execution. To demonstrate ability to fly a ground track airport pattern which compensates for wind.
P 2. Able to correct and hold final approach path, within 5 knots of approach speed, in a slip.
P 3. To allow no drift during flare, and to fully apply ailerons on the ground. Touch down to be within 400' of a given point.
P 4. Maintains directional control and yoke position throughout approach, landing, and taxiing.

EX Be able to explain how the pattern, turns, configuration, and coordination of controls differ from a normal landing.

The basic element of crosswind landing skill is the automatic application of "Dutch roll" on final. Without this training as a base little can be achieved. The next most important element is being able to fly the airport pattern as a ground reference maneuver to make possible a safe entry into final approach. You should, as you copy an ATIS, diagram the wind direction and velocity as a vector toward the landing runway. Basic knowledge of winds also tells us that wind velocities normally decrease with altitude. There is a wind at 1000' that differs from that at 500' that differs from that at 50' that differs from that at 5'.

In the airport pattern on downwind it is vital that you do not allow the wind to drift you inside the normal pattern. Such a situation will necessitate tighter than normal turns to final. This is the situation that leads to the so called deadly downwind turn. If this occurs, don't attempt to salvage the situation, go around. A cross wind velocity of up to 15 knots can be handled with 20 degrees of flap. Beyond 15 knots don't use any flaps. In the C-150 once the nose leaves the ground the engineering geometry allows the wheel and faring to align with the wind. Regardless of the rudder position the wheel is centered into the relative wind. This means that during any landing, while it is better not to let the nose wheel touch before the mains, no critical loss of control is likely to occur because of the nose wheel. (Not so with Pipers)

In a crosswind it is better to have a slightly longer than normal final approach. A 90-degree crosswind give you an effective zero head wind. With limited or no flaps your angle of descent will be less than normal. It becomes desirable to maintain power at 1500 since the prop blast adds to the effectiveness of the rudder. If, after holding full rudder, you are unable to keep the line of rivets on the nose parallel to the runway center line you must increase the rudder effect available by increasing airspeed and possibly power. If the nose rivets cannot be kept parallel to the runway center line then the crosswind exceeds the landing capability of the pilot and plane. This happens. Go somewhere else or even request landing on a cross taxiway.

Common faults during crosswind landings are several. The common fault of coming in too close on downwind at a small airport is accentuated in a crosswind situation. Turn downwind and hold that leg twice as far away as you think you should and you will probably be right. Extend your downwind leg and don't get blown in. Set up your final approach slip as far out as possible and hold it all the way to the ground. Leave your power in until just before touch down as an aid for dealing with gusts. Don't hurry just because you are close to the ground. Slowly reduce the power to settle the plane and hold the yoke well over. The closer the wingtip comes to the ground the less likely you are to be flipped by the wind. Keep the plane rolling straight with rudder.

Because of the geometry of a Piper nose wheel it is vital that the nose wheel not be allowed to contact the ground until the rudder is centered.
See instructional material on cross wind landings.

REFERENCES: AC 61-21; Airplane Handbook and Flight Manual.

In ground effect to Vy, then climb Vy +10 and - 5 knots

P 1. Pilot is able to explain the surface conditions that require specific control and power use that will allow the aircraft to lift off, accelerate and climb. Pilot knows soft-field procedure recommended in the POH and configures aircraft (flaps) accordingly.
P 2. Sets controls for wind and maximum lift while configured as the POH recommends and without stopping.
P 3. Clears area, taxis with speed to keep nose wheel from sticking. Smooth constant to full takeoff power throttle application.
P 4. Pitch attitude set to transfer weight from wheels to wings as quickly as conditions allow. If you don't have 40% of the required airspeed by half-way, abort.
P 5. Lifts off and remains in ground effect while accelerating to Vy.
P 6. Pitch attitude for Vy which is flown at +10/-5 knots during climb.
P 7. retracts gear and flaps on establishment of positive Vy rate of climb. (This retraction used to be at 200')
P 8. Takeoff power to safe maneuvering altitude.
P 9. Directional control and wind drift correction maintained throughout
takeoff and climb.
P 10. Complies with noise abatement requirements of airport.
P 11. Completes appropriate checklist.

EX Conditions, mud/snow over area, rolling lift off at Vso, stay in ground effect, Vy, climb, flaps up, alignment.
C H E C K L I S T, configuration, yoke full back, high pitch attitude, keep aircraft rolling from run up, at lift off stay within half wing span of ground until Vy =10/-5 knots, climbs at Vy =10/-5 knots before reconfiguration, climb Vy. Trim, alignment, post-takeoff C H E C K L I S T

Initial assumption is that the field is of unlimited length. From run up to lift off, surface is such that main wheels are getting great resistance. Yoke is held to keep nose wheel off ground as much as possible because of simulated surface conditions. Pitch attitude is held that will get airplane airborne at the slowest possible speed. Once off, the nose is lowered very slowly at first to stay within ground effect. In ground effect the plane can achieve its best acceleration to Vy. Once Vy is obtained climb is initiated and reconfiguration takes place. .

Common mistakes are failing to put in required flaps, not holding yoke all the way back while taxiing on to runway, not keeping plane moving, excessive braking, failure to keep sufficient pitch attitude, letting aircraft settle to ground after initial liftoff, failing to stay close enough to ground to remaining ground effect, trimming for climb and then
forgetting to raise flaps.
See instructional material on soft field takeoff.

D. Task: 
REFERENCES; AC 61-21, Handbook, Manual

P 1. Know requirements of soft-field operations as to aircraft capability and runway conditions.
2. Selects touchdown point based on aircraft/pilot capabilities, wind, surface and obstructions.
P 3. Uses POH Vref configuration, speed, pitch attitude and power.
P 4. Uses stabilized approach at Vref (POH gross speed adjusted for reduced weight) No faster than 1.3 Vso +10/-5 knots + gust factor.
P 5. Uses crosswind correction and directional control throughout the approach and landing. (PTS has this out of sequence)
P 6. uses only smooth, timely, proper control use during roundout and touchdown.
P 7. Smooth touchdown without drift and aligned with and other centerline of runway.
P 8. Uses proper configuration, control position and speed to keep movement until reaching firm surface.
P 9. Completes the appropriate checklist.

EX Able to explain how the approach and landing at a soft field is both Similar and different from a normal landing Able to discuss how the configuration of the aircraft at touchdown minimizes the effect of a soft surface.
Establishes and maintains stabilized approach for conditions, smooth appropriate control input throughout, no drift to either side. To demonstrate the approach to and a soft field landing. To maintain approach speed within +10/-5 knots. There is NO mention of an accuracy requirement. Earlier PTS guides indicated a field of unlimited length. Although this is written at the beginning of 1998, you will be well advised to weight this information against any later editions of the PTS.

The soft field approach is identical to normal until the flare. It is important to visualize the situation in which you have a field of unlimited length but of such softness that if the nose wheel should touch the ground it will dig in and flip the plane on its back. It is up to the pilot to make ground contact with the nose attitude and power application such that a nose over cannot occur.

The arrival at flare is with 1500 RPM, 60 knots, and full flaps. During the flare the nose pitch is smoothly increased while power is smoothly reduced to prevent ballooning. At the point of maximum pitch the power is increased to at least 1300. In this configuration and attitude ground contact should occur. Hold the yoke all the way back and up. If flaps are raised immediately the nose will remain pitched up longer. Power may be added to keep the nose wheel off the ground during taxi. Brownie points for clearing the runway without the nose wheel touching.

An alternative method of making a soft field landing is to leave the power at 1500 throughout the approach and actual landing. Smooth, controlled use of the yoke can allow the actual touchdown to occur in a very nose high attitude. Removal of flaps will increase the nose angle after touchdown. To make a good landing, you have to do your best to keep the plane from landing. The ideal situation is to run out of airspeed and altitude at the same moment.
See instructional material on soft field landings.

E. Task: 
REFERENCES: AC 61-21; Airplane Handbook and Flight Manual

P 1. Knows elements of short-field procedures. Can discuss the takeoff situation and aircraft performance required for a particular situation.
2. Knows and sets configuration and controls for wind and flaps according to POH.
P 3. Clears the area; taxies to takeoff position to use maximum length of runway in alignment with the centerline. (In the REAL world, there may be some advantage to getting maximum diagonal across the runway to take advantage of any available headwind component.)
P 4. Advances throttle smoothly to takeoff power.
P 5. Rotates at POH suggested speed, lifts off and climbs at Vref for POH obstacle clearance seed or Vx.
P 6. Sets pitch for obstacle clearance airspeed or Vx, and maintains speed +10/-5 knots, until obstacle is cleared, or until 50' above the takeoff surface.
P 7. Passing the obstacle pitch and speed is changed to Vy or Vref during remainder of climb at +10/-5 knots.
P 8. Retracts gear and flaps as suggested by POH.
P 9. Takeoff power is held until safe altitude is reached.
P 10. Maintains directional control and proper wind drift throughout the procedure.
P 11. Complies with noise abatements procedures.
P 12. completes the appropriate checklist.

EX C H E C K L I S T , configuration, rolling or locked brake start,
Conditions, 50' FAA tree, maximum acceleration with minimum drag, rotate just before Vx, climb at Vx to 50' to clear obstacle, Vy for best rate, alignment.

The C-150 does not use any flaps for the short field takeoff. The short field presumes a 50' obstacle which need to be cleared on takeoff. The manual gives ground run and distance needed to clear at differing conditions such as altitude and aircraft weight. No measurable differences have been found between a rolling departure and a locked braked departure. Both require that the maximum available runway be used. With the locked brake system, full power is applied before the brakes are released. The yoke is held so that the least aerodynamic drag is produced without producing excess nose wheel pressure. Rotate slightly before Vx and establish Vx immediately since this the best climb for distance covered. A count of 10 (seconds) is sufficient to gain 50' and clear the obstacle. If the aircraft is light a slightly lower Vx exists. If you plan to fly at a slower than gross weight Vx be sure to advise the examiner. The test does not allow for any climb below Vx speed. Once the obstacle is cleared accelerate to Vy. Use the manual to determine the proper configuration.

Common mistakes are failure to configure the aircraft before takeoff, not using full length of runway, rotating too soon, climbing at below Vx, waiting too long to accelerate to Vy, and failing to reconfigure aircraft.
See instructional material on takeoff/landing.

D. Task: 
REFERENCES: AC 61-21, Handbook, Manual

P 1. Knows requirements and procedures for short-field operations.
P 2. Knows how wind, landing surface, and obstructions determine the location of the best touchdown point.
P 3. Uses POH approach and landing configuration with pitch, airspeed and power as recommended.
P 4. Uses stabilized approach at +10/-5 knots of 1.3 Vso or Vref + gust factor as required.
P 5. Flies with smooth accurate control input during roundout and touchdown.
P 6. Touches down at stalling speed within 200' beyond selected point. Allows no drift and airplane is aligned with and over runway centerline.
P 7. Uses brakes as needed to stop quickly and safely.
P 8. Corrects for crosswind and maintains directional control throughout the approach and landing.
P 9. Completes the appropriate checklist.

EX Able to explain how the approach and landing is both similar and yet different from a normal landing. Able to discuss and diagram the effect of increased flaps and slower airspeed on the glide path and ground contact.
The applicant and examiner should discuss the performance requirements of the aircraft. These figures (Known by the applicant ahead of time) are then used to determine the desired touchdown point and aircraft stopping distance Vs obstruction clearance and runway available. The examiner may simulated a shortened runway by requiring a intersection turn off.

The short field landing differs from a normal one only during final approach and landing. On final, after full flaps, the approach speed is lowered at least 5 knots by raising the nose. TRIM. The slower speed will actually increase the angle of descent by shortening the ground covered. Once the approach speed and glide angle is established, adjustments are made with power. Ideally, as with any landing every yoke movement should be back and every power change a reduction. Aim short of your selected touchdown because even an approach 10 knots slow has some float left in it. Catch the center line for bonus points.

At touchdown, power off, flaps up and brakes. Don't over do the brakes because it is hard on the plane. Discuss this with examiner beforehand.

See instructional material on short field landings
Special Landing Situations
P To demonstrate no flap landing and the short approach,

EX To explain why the no flap landing is not preferred. To explain why the short approach is both a pilot and controller option.

The no flap landing is now a part of the Practical Test Standards requirement. The pattern entry and turn to downwind is as with the other landings. At the numbers the power is reduced to 1500 and the aircraft trimmed for 60 Kts. Since no flaps are to be used, the 60 kts glide angle will be relatively flat. The flat glide angle greatly increases the aiming difficulty. A power-off slip can be used to correct if you are high. Being low requires full power.

Common fault to no flap landings is failure to recognize being high or low until too late. Any excess speed greatly increases the aircraft's float during the roundout and flare. Be patient. Do not make any abrupt power or yoke changes. The hazard with being low in a no flap situation is that the decelerating approach may occur. This is caused when a power increase is allowed to raise the aircraft nose. This results in a decrease in airspeed. The decrease in airspeed will, after a momentary pause, cause the aircraft to descend at a steeper angle. Any power increase must be accompanied by forward yoke pressure (or trim) sufficient to maintain the 60 kt approach speed. The decelerating approach is deceptive both as to its causes and onset. It is most likely to occur in a no flap approach because of errors in selection of the glide angle.

The short approach is another landing procedure which serves a traffic control function. An aircraft on downwind may be posing a potential conflict with an aircraft on two mile final. The Tower requests/directs the downwind aircraft of make a short approach.

At the numbers the pilot will make a normal power reduction to 1500 or to off. Holding heading and altitude momentarily until speed decreases to the white arc, full flaps are applied. A descending turn is initiated directly to the final approach course. In a C-150 very little trim will be required to stabilize at 60 kts. The less power the shorter the approach.

G. Task: 
P 1. Knows aspects of slips, aircraft limitations, side Vs forward, and recovery.
P 2. Considers wind direction and velocity as an item of slip ability and effectiveness as an altitude and direction control. Uses this skills to clear obstructions and select touchdown point. P 3. Able to demonstrate a forward slip in a landing situation. To use the slip to lose altitude and acquire the landing approach glide path and touchdown point.
P 4. Maintains runway alignment with centerline and airspeed what will minimize float.
P 5. Makes smooth recovery from the slip with correct control sequence and application and then enters the roundout and touchdown.
P 6. Touches down smoothly at approximate stall at or within 400' beyond a specified point, with no side drift while aligned with runway center line.
P 7. Maintains crosswind correction and directional control throughout the approach and landing.
P 8. completes the appropriate checklist.

EX Be able to explain the forward slip entry and recovery. Discuss the circumstances where a forward slip might be required and how indicated airspeed is affected.

A slip is a cross control maneuver with power off and at relatively slow indicated speeds. The location of the static air intake will influence the indicated speed. The forward slip uses the side of the aircraft as a air brake which will cause controlled loss of altitude over a minimum ground distance. With the advent of flaps the skill of slipping became less important.

The C-150 and some other models have manuals that prohibit slips with flaps. It is possible for the disrupted air flow to blank out the elevator and cause the nose to pitch straight down. A forward slip should be performed with power off. To do otherwise defeats the purpose of losing altitude. The amount of rudder effectiveness available is the determining factor in how efficient the slip will be in losing altitude. A slip is most effective into the wind. A turn can be made while in a slip. The kinesthetic feel of a slip is initially very uncomfortable but grows on you with experience.

The initiation of the forward slip requires Carb Heat, power off, trim as desired for about 60 knots, turn the nose of the aircraft to a 20/30 degree angle from the desired flight path and punch in full opposite rudder as you lower the leading wing. As with all slips, the change in static air will make necessary forward yoke pressure to maintain the same indicated speed. The ratio of altitude loss to ground covered will be determined by wind, airspeed, rudder, braking effect of fuselage, and skill. In a strong wind a near vertical drop can be achieved. With a little practice the slip becomes a very controllable maneuver.

Until skilled in slips it is best not to hold the slip too close to the ground before initiating recovery. The recovery from a slip is accomplished by relaxing rudder pressure and resuming coordinated flight. Practice in slip recovery should occur at 200' initially. Lower recoveries can be made as proficiency rises.

Since this aspect of the flight test includes a landing, you should expect to make a no flap landing. This means that you can expect considerable float to occur even at 60 knots. If you are using a long runway, advise the examiner that your planned touch down point is well down the runway such as the second intersection. On a short runway it will be necessary to roundout and flare well before reaching the runway. Remember the main purpose of flaps is to avoid just this problem.
Forward slip is part of Private Pilot practical test.

C. Task: 
REFERENCES: AC 61-21, Handbook, Manual

P 1. Knows element and sequence required of go-around including those circumstances where a go-around might not be possible.
P 2. To properly decide on a go-around when situation requires without examiner prompting.
P 3. Uses full power, removes to partial flaps and sets pitch for climb at Vy +10/-5 knots.
P 4. Retract the flaps to approach (?) setting if applicable.
P 5. Retracts the gear after positive rate of climb is established.
P 6. Keeps takeoff power until at safe altitude and then power adjusted as appropriate for pattern.
P 7. Maintains directional control and proper wind drift correction during climb. Will smoothly and correctly control the flight path while cleaning up and initiating climb. Use of trim specifically mentioned.
P 8. complies with noise abatement procedures, as appropriate.
P 9. Flies the appropriate traffic pattern.
P 10. Completes the appropriate checklist.

EX Be able to explain the go-around procedure, possible causes, possible hazards, and the decision making judgments required.

Do not wait for the examiner to advise on a go-around. If the situation calls for a go-around, you exercise your judgment. Your ability to make decisions related to flight situations is a major part of the test. The second facet is to execute smoothly and safely.

The go-around decision should be automatic if touchdown cannot be accomplished within the first third of a runway. Another aircraft not clearing the runway calls for a go-around. ATC can also call for a go-around. Go and then ask why. It is better to execute your go around from a higher altitude than a very low one because the technique within a few feet of the runway is different and requires more precision. You should be able to execute the go-around while keeping your eyes outside the cockpit.

At a 60 knot approach speed, the normal go-around is executed by applying full power, this includes Carb Heat, yoke held locked forward, rudder, bringing up flaps to at least 20 degrees, getting climb speed and bringing up all flaps while climbing at 65 knots or best rate. Trim.

At less than 60 knots at the time the go-around is initiated requires more care. At application of power do not let the airplane climb. Hold level as you milk up the flaps. At these low speeds anticipate with plenty of rudder at power application. Do not initiate a climb until accelerating into 65 knots. Trim. Whenever the go-around is executed in ground effect the effort to hold level requires more attention.

The most common errors of the go-around are to allow the application of power to swing the nose and lower the airspeed. If another aircraft is on or over the runway swing to the right side for clearance. Hesitation is perhaps the greatest cause of go-around accidents.

See instructional material on go-around and landings.


A. Task: 

P 1. Knows requirements for making steep turns such as above 1500' AGL, Va entry maximum, in either direction and recovery techniques.
P 2. Performance altitude to be above 1500' minimum descent altitude.
P 3. Uses Va or POH entry speed for aircraft used.
P 4. Divided attention while rolling into a coordinated 360 degree; turn; maintains a 45 degree; +5-degrees; and rolls out on the entry heading, + 10 degrees.
P 5. Performs the task in the opposite direction, as specified by the examiner.
P 6. Makes a smooth (quick) entry while holding yoke pressure required while dividing attention between control and orientation.
P 7. Keeps altitude within 100' and + 10 knots.

EX Explain the aerodynamics and G-force factors of a 45-degree bank as opposed to greater or less steep banks. Discuss the function of power, speed, and rate of turn. Va or recommended entry speed, a 360 turns, rolls out with 10 degrees of initial heading, +5 degrees of bank, +100 feet of altitude, and +10 knots, does both left and right turns

The technique for making steep turns is different only to the extent that anticipation is the essential element. The entry should not be made gradually but, rather, quickly and smoothly. By locking the elbow on the door when applying back pressure you can fix the nose attitude and bank. If you leave your arm hanging and unlocked you are likely to inadvertently change pressure or bank. Doing these together in a quick and smooth sequence allows you to enter and stabilize the bank and altitude.

The bank is entered at cruise power. Lead any steep turn to the right with plenty of rudder. A steep bank entered at less than cruise power requires ever greater pressure and bank input. Two full down turns of trim will normally release most of the yoke pressure required in a 45 degree bank. Trim must be taken out when leveling off wings for recover. Because of the back pressure held in the turn a very positive forward pressure must be exerted when leveling off to prevent an altitude pop-up.

A 180 or 360 degree steep turn is relatively easy to achieve within the altitude parameters. However, once you are beyond 360 degrees at the same altitude your own wake turbulence becomes a factor. Beyond 360 you will hit your own wake as proof of correct performance. In the realm past the 360 you are most likely to have altitude problems. By holding the bank at 45 degrees the locked elbow pressure is constant. In the event you hit your own wake be sure to hold or slightly increase back pressure since the turbulence usually causes some altitude loss. It is best to correct slight changes in altitude by increasing or decreasing the bank by 5 degrees rather than by making yoke attitude changes.

Once the bank and altitude are established the horizon and sound become essential. Keep your eyes flicking from horizon to attitude indicator to heading indicator. Lead the turn roll-out by half the angle of bank and forward on the yoke. A common fault as roll-out time nears is to gradually shallow the bank with a resulting increase in altitude. Don't forget the rudder.

The 720 degree turn is not required for the test but being able to do it correctly makes the 180 and 360 seem that much more easy. Practicing steep turns at less than cruise power will improve the anticipation and yoke skills required in the maneuver. Also, the acceleration stall from this configuration is different and should be experienced.

The acceleration stall is not on the present flight test. The acceleration stall is normally experienced when the aircraft is in a steep turn at such a pitch attitude and power that altitude cannot be maintained. The bank adds a load factor that causes the aircraft to stall at a higher than normal speed. This is the only stall where just leveling the wings with aileron will initiate recovery
See instructional material on steep turns.

Descending turns (was part of test, now in commercial)
P 1. Knows that spirals over a point require constant adjustment of bank to correct for wind and wind angle while speed is constant.
P 2. Trims, uses power, adjusts bank for wind.
P 3. Initiates a spiral descent within 10 knots of a given airspeed. To remain over the area in a constant radius spiral with no bank exceeding 40-degrees.
P 4. To maintain orientation while conducting emergency procedures.

EX Explain the situation as over a potential landing area at several thousand feet and engine failure occurs. Discuss the necessity for remaining over the area while making descending turns. This requires variations in bank to compensate for wind direction and velocity.

This is perhaps the least practiced and most difficult procedure in the old flight test. The required division of attention between flying, orientation, checklist items, and radio/transponder can be overwhelming unless practiced. The pilot must be aware of the wind direction prior to initiation. As an EMERGENCY you must use your checklist. Make sure that you and the examiner have the same field in mind. At power reduction (engine failure) fly into the wind if known and trim down 5 times for 60 knots, or as directed. Use shallow banks and make reasonably wide circles. The most common fault is staying too close and making overly steep banks with accompanying high airspeeds. Unless otherwise directed, make your turns to the left for greater visibility. Remember as you descend the wind velocity is likely to decrease. As you get lower the normal tendency is to make your circles smaller, don't. Tighter circles lead to higher airspeeds. Just pulling back on the yoke to reduce a higher airspeed will tighten the turn. Keep the bank shallow. Try to plan your final turn to be a downwind leg abeam the imaginary numbers of the field. Throughout the procedure you should be using your emergency checklist.

It doesn't hurt to tell the examiner the what and why of what you are doing. Don't put in flaps until the field is certain to be made. In an actual situation, you can stop a wind milling propeller by entering an imminent stall. This can improve your glide ratio by up to 20 %. Leveling the prop with the starter will minimize damage. In an ADF equipped aircraft a descent over a radio station is a good practice exercise. Try 990 at Collinsville.

Ground reference between 800 and 1000 feet with plus or minus 100 feet of selected altitude and plus or minimums 10 knots of desired airspeed.

A. Task: 
The new procedure has to do with entry and exit. They are both now required to be at 45-degrees to the downwind. The exit will be as though departing the runway on a 45-degrees standard departure. The reversal requires you to fly to the other side and enter on the 45 to the downwind or devise your own way which may well be better.

P 1. Knows elements of divided attention, wind correction, control, and anticipation required to maintain ground track when entering and flying a rectangular course.
P 2. Knows problems of course selection, wind direction and velocity, steepest bank angle, and crab angles required.
P 3. Selects ground reference area to fly pattern and still have an emergency landing area always available.
P 4. Enters 45 to downwind for left turns, at selected pattern altitude + 100' and + 10 knots, with wind corrections for constant ground track, No bank to exceed 45 degrees. A course reversal may be required.
P 5. Uses wind drift correction during all straight-and turning flight to maintain a constant distance ground track around the rectangular reference area. Obeys FAR's and potential noise disturbance problems. Will fly a uniform course distance out side the rectangle.
P 6. Divides attention between control and ground track while maintaining ground track.
P 7. Exits at the point of entry at the same altitude and airspeed at which the maneuver was started. Reverses course as directed by examiner.
P 8. maintains altitude +100' and airspeed + 10 knots
EX Explain the relationship of a rectangular course to an actual airport pattern. Show by diagram how a given wind direction will require certain aircraft headings, banks, and turns to produce a desired ground track. Show how this differs from a calm wind situation and how flying in the opposite direction changes things. First pattern with 45-degrees steepest turns to left, + 100 feet and +10 knots

Half of the battle is to select a large enough rectangle with the long side at right angles to the wind. Of course, you always know the wind direction. Always chose as low an altitude as you and the examiner will be comfortable with. The lower altitude is easier to fly but errors become more obvious. A small field or one with a quartering wind just creates problems. Select left turns unless directed otherwise. By making your first entry downwind, the wind behind you, you make your first turn your steepest and more than 90 degrees. This is because the wind has added to your ground speed and the required crosswind crab angle. The stronger the wind the steeper turn required and the greater the crab. An alternative to the steeper turn is to begin the turn earlier. One way to keep the course distance constant is to put a reference mark on the side window. While flying the course pick points along the course which will help you maintain your distance. By having a wind at right angles your upwind and downwind legs will not require a crab angle. Up wind turns will be relatively shallow and less than 90 degrees. The common fault on the last upwind turn is to do it so soon that your crosswind course is too close to the rectangle.

If you have never made a course reversal while doing ground reference be sure to practice one before the flight test. The course reversal allows you to proceed directly from left hand turns to right hand turns around a course with minimum maneuvering. It is best initiated on the upwind leg. Fly for one minute past the last upwind corner. Initiate a 30 degree 90 degree turn either left or right, immediately followed by an opposite hand 270 degree turn. If the banks are all 30 degrees and smoothly performed you will be on the reciprocal course and track from your entry.

See instructional material on ground reference and course reversals.

P 1. Knows the references used to perform S-turns.
P 2. Determines wind direction and velocity.
P 3. Selects area with reference to FARs, noise abatement and emergency landing possibility.
P 4. Plans the maneuver so as to enter in left turns (This means you must start at the right end of the line)at 600 to 1000' AGL. Enters perpendicular to the reference line. Uses line at 90 degrees to the wind.
P 5. Enters downwind at pattern altitude making constant radius half- circle turns by correcting for wind drift.
P 6. Divides attention between control and ground track while maintaining coordinated flight.
P 7. Makes course reversal by performing complete circle and performs in S-turns right turns. Exits at the point of entry at the same altitude and speed at which the maneuver was started.
P 8. Maintains altitude, + 100' and speed, + 10 knots.

EX Able to explain the flight elements required for S-turns across a road. Discuss the wind-drift factors as they influence the upwind and downwind sides of the S. First turn to left at 600 to 1000 feet AGL, +100 feet and +10 knots

As with rectangles, the correct selection of line and 90 degree wind is important. Entry is made downwind. You should fully understand that this maneuver is the direct descendent of turns about a point from both left and right turns. The only added element is the bank reversal as you cross the reference line. The reversed bank will be the same angle as the entry bank.

As you cross the reference line look down the wing and select a point that is the other end point of the diameter. Keeping that point in mind and view, select other points around the semicircle arc. Fly the points to make the arc. Try to time the turn and arc so that your wings are coming level as you cross the reference line. Remember that the downwind turns will be steeper and the upwind turns more shallow. A common fault is failing to make the upwind semi circle large enough and letting the wind make the downwind semicircle too large. If you carefully select points along the reference line and points along the arcs as you fly it becomes easier. Don't try to fake the turns by excess rudder. Stay coordinated. As you reverse your banks watch out for altitude pop up. Anticipate with forward yoke pressure.

The bank angle used in the S-turn upon arrival to the bisecting line is opposite angle to use on passing the line. The reversal of these banks is training in pitch control and bank control with reference to the requirements of ground reference S-turns that exists in no other ground reference maneuvers.
If ever you have the opportunity, watch for a freight train along a straight stretch. S-turns over the engine or caboose as it proceeds will give you identically sized turns.

C. Task: 

P 1. Can discuss elements related to turns about a point.
P 2. Determines wind direction and velocity.
P 3. Selects point referenced to FAR clearances, altitudes, landing options.
P 4. Plans the maneuver so as to enter at 600' to 1000' AGL, at an appropriate distance from the reference point. Entry is made headed downwind in left turns. Tracks constant radius left turns for two full circles, 45-degrees; maximum bank,
P 5. Applies required wind-drift correction to track a constant radius circle around the reference point with steepest bank not to exceed 45-degrees.
P 6. Divides attention between control and ground track while maintaining coordinated flight.
P 7. Completes two turns, exits at the point of entry at the same altitude and airspeed at which the maneuver was started and reverses course as directed by examiner.
P 8. Maintains altitude, + 100' and speed, + 10 knots.

EX Best to explain by a diagram or circle on ground. Draw circle, put in wind arrow and divide circle into quadrants. Put in aircraft at cardinal points to show where different degrees of bank are required and where crab angle is required. It might be well to discuss what circle will look like if improperly performed. 600 to 1000 feet, approximate 45 degree banks within 100 feet and 10 knots. Completes two turns and exits at point of entry, reverses course as directed to perform in other direction.

Chose a single point that has a number of identifiable points in an arc around it. Enter downwind and abeam the point initiate your steepest bank. Fly to the points that constitute the arc. With coordinated rudder vary your bank as required. In a strong wind your wings may be level upwind. Depending on altitude and radius of the circle you may lose sight of the point. Briefly raise your wing as required to achieve your orientation. Most common error is making an e-g-g in a strong wind and making the circle too small. The course reversal is performed as before. Right turns are more difficult only because of the greater need to keep oriented. Don't hesitate to raise the wing briefly. You will probably do better if you select the point than if it is done by the examiner. At an unfamiliar point he won't be able to detect minor errors as well as if he were familiar.

What is being suggested is that you pick an object or point as the visual center of your maneuver. Now select a series of visual points that can be used as points on the circumference of your circle. A brown spot, bend in a ditch, green clump, bush, etc. This technique is a way to initially learn the process.

Your first attempts are best done in calm winds just to get the feel of it. Later go out in the strongest winds available. If you are having difficulty fly appropriate airport patterns in varied winds, you should go back to ground reference work to refine your ground reference skills.

Your ground reference experience in strong winds will determine how successful your strong-wind patterns will be. This must precede your strong wind-landings. It helps to think through what headings will give you the desired ground track, draw the pattern to be flown with a wind arrow and draw the T (airplane) to show where it must point. Strong wind patterns will NOT be rectangular no matter what the airport diagram shows. If you begin having trouble with strong wind patterns, the place to begin your corrective training is reviewing your ground reference skills.

Turns about a Point
--Enter on the downwind
--Estimate the radius
--Estimate the bank
--Estimate the wind correction angle.
Alternate Method (non-standard)
--Enter of direct crosswind
--Set initial crab correction abeam center point
--All other corrections will be less.
--Perform rest as though a turn on a point.

A turn on a point is a commercial maneuver. It might be demonstrated to a student as a comparatively more difficult way of going around a point. I have read of instructors teaching this before the easier 'turn about a point'. I question this method. A turn on a point requires a constant ground speed. This speed can only be obtained by changing altitude as the wind affects your ground speed. In a C-150 at cruise this altitude is about 720' and will vary for every speed that is faster or slower. To keep the wing on the point you must make ever-so-slight changes in altitude so that your wing stays on the point. Should the point move ahead of your wing you must speed up by losing altitude. Should the point move behind the wing you should slow down by increasing your altitude. These altitude changes should be done smoothly and altitude changes will be determined by the speed differential between the head and tail wind you encounter.

Student Question
Q: On a recent flight to an unfamiliar airport, I noticed a sign along the runway with the number four on it. Farther down the runway was another sign with the number three on it, and then one with the number two on it, and then the last sign had the number one on it. These signs had white numbers with a black background. What do they mean?
A: These signs are runway distance remaining signs. They are described in Chapter 2 of the "Aeronautical Information Manual" as "having a black background with a white numeral inscription and may be installed along one or both side(s) of the runway. The numbers on the signs indicate the distance (in thousands of feet) of landing runway remaining. The last sign, the sign with the numeral one, will be located at least 950 feet from the runway end."

2003 Taxiing Changes
Go to:
Click on "Advisory Circulars" # 91-73A
My impression as to the organization and layout of this AC is the story of the seven blind men who identified an elephant by touch. I tried to organize and simplify the AC for student use but it refuses to either simplify or untangle.
Airports are getting more complex.
--Taxiing should be a part of the overall flight-training program
--Standard Operating Procedures are necessary in all parts of PTS.
--The solution lies in training, planning, coordination and communication
--Taxiing requires anticipation however, anticipation can cause problems
--Your expectations may be different from what you get from ATC.
--Study and learn the airport layouts you expect to use.
--Use a highlighter to mark the diagram-preferred routes to different runways in different colors.
--There is no substitute for using an airport in many different ways every time you taxi.
Situational Awareness
--Know where you are
--Locate where you want to go.
--Request your own selected route
--Compare with ATC selected route(s)
–Watch out for intersecting runways
--When runways are parallel, get a clearance for crossing each one.
--When in doubt stop, unless on a runway, get help by radio.
Alternative Taxiing Suggestions
--If different go to the suggestive assertiveness level
--Suggest a compromise of towing the plane part way.
--If you understand and can follow ATC’s route, ask for another way for practice.
--Ask to cross an active runway twice, to and from.
--Try to confuse ATC by giving magnetic headings 180 off directions
--Complain about the absence of signage.
--Stop and ask that a truck be sent to guide you
--Ask that tower use signal light on taxiway lines for night assistance.

Runway Incursion Prevention
Developed in conjunction with the FAA as part of its effort to reduce runway incursions, the course is highly entertaining and informative.; Check it out ( ). Successful completion of the program earns you credit in the FAA Wings proficiency program.
Situational Awareness
--ATC anticipation
--Other factors
Standard Operating Procedures (SOP)
--Taxi briefings with expectations and restrictions
--Analyze and seek clarification if needed
--Taxiing with "Sterile cockpit".
--Open airport diagram
--Navigation lights on when in motion
--Anticipate appropriate frequency from list
--Verify clearance of hold short or a crossing
--Prior to any crossing scan runways and approaches
--Readback clearance of hold short or a crossing
--No short cuts of identification or verbiage.
--Use your lights to help other aircraft and ATC
--Night and low visibility don’t compromise your safety.
--Position and hold at your own risk over one-minute. Get off the runway.
--Don’t wait for ATC to warn you of traffic behind. Go-around
--Use flashing lights to signal or warn other aircraft.
--Compare clearance and anticipated route with airport diagram
--Know your location and give it to ATC on initial call.
--Write-out non-standard or complex taxi instructions
--Turn on taxi light when moving and turn it off when stopped.
--Taxiway edge lights are blue, runway edge lights are white
--Do not taxi on runway centerline when taking a runway at night.
--When taxiing keep your head out of the cockpit, hold diagram UP
--All scanning should include visual and oral combination
--Do not touch volume control when monitoring a frequency
--If unsure of position advise ATC and ask for ‘progressive’ taxi.
--All ‘head’s-down’ activity should be done when stopped.
--Use your compass, heading indicator and heading bug in all taxiing situations
--Listen to ATC and CTAF for any mention of the runway you intend to use.
--On the runway, you own it. Don’t let ATC hurry you off an exit.

AC 91-73A Checklists Annotated Condensed for General Aviation
Standard Operating Procedures Template
--Pilot in Command responsibility and accountability
--Use of technology
--Use of written taxi instructions
--Use of written taxi instructions for readback
--Use of standard phraseology
--Sterile cockpit when taxiing.
Checklist Procedures and Philosophy
–Format and terminology
–Do and verify
--Challenge and response
Checklists Necessary
--Safety checks of area
--Beginning and sequence
--Before start
--After start
--Before taxi
--Before Takeoff
--Out of 1000'
--At altitude
--Before Landing
--After landing and clearing runway
--Cleaning up and taxiing
--Parking and securing
--Emergency procedures
--Uncommon procedures

Preparing frequency list
--Passenger briefing
--Procedure review and cross-check clearances
--Crossing or holding short of runway verification
--Taxi into position and hold

--Risk of CFIT
--Special airport limitations
--Special security limitations
--Density altitude considerations
--Before taxi
--Before takeoff
--Descent/approach/missed approach

Sterile Cockpit
--Exterior watch
--Transfer of control

Towered Taxi Procedures Checklist
--Airport diagram in view
--Start checklist
--Airport diagram
--Navigation lights
--(Night) taxi lights
Listen on frequency
--Call with position
--Note intersections and runway crossings
--Runway crossing
--Visual clearing
--Radio confirmation
--Expedite crossing
--Park to clear approaches
At Active Runway
Hold short of runway holding position markings.
--Tower frequency
--Takeoff clearance
Taking the Runway
--Takeoff restrictions readback if any
--Clear runway, intersections and departure end

Towered Arrival Taxi Procedures Checklist
In Range and Descent
--Airport Diagram
–Frequency sequence
–(Night) Lights
Exiting Runway
–Taxiing clearances/instructions
--Intersections crossing
--Runways crossing
Before Crossing a Runway
--Scanning Runway
–Clearing approach corridors
--Expedite crossing and taxi clear of hold bars
--Shutdown checklist
--Post flight checklist

--Airports are getting more complex.
--Taxiing should be a part of the overall flight-training program
--Standard Operating Procedures are necessary in all parts of PTS.
--The solution lies in training, planning, coordination and communication
--Taxiing requires anticipation however, anticipation can cause problems
--Your expectations may be different from what you get from ATC.
--Study and learn the airport layouts you expect to use.
--Use a highlighter to mark the diagram-preferred routes to different runways in different colors.
--There is no substitute for using an airport in many different ways every time you taxi.

Non-Towered Departure Taxi Procedures Checklist
--Announce taxi intentions
--360-degree turn to clear traffic
--Announce departure intentions

Non-Towered Arrival Taxi Procedures Checklist
--Airport diagram
--Clearing runway call-up and taxi intentions
--Charts, manuals, equipment
--Contaminated runways
--Prevention of runway incursions
--Airport diagrams
--Complex intersections, construction and "hot spots".
Resource Management
--Weight and balance
--POH/FOM data and charts
--IFR procedures
--Approach briefing

Go-around/ Missed
--Missing the gate
--Clean-up profile

–Configuration for conditions
–Short approaches
--Rejected landing
--Anticipation of exit route and procedure

For more on pavement markings, see Question: How hard would it be to put three digit magnetic directions on taxiways and charts?

Emails with FAA Official;
----- Original Message -----
From: <>
To: <>
Sent: Monday, May 24, 2004 12:45 PM
Subject: Interesting web site
It's a very informative web site. You are to be commended for your
efforts. What are you doing for a living these days?
Milton Hill Jr.,PHD.
Airworthiness Specialist
FAA Flight Technologies Requirements Branch
(202) 385 4575

I teach flying and work on gathering more ideas for the teaching and
learning of flying.
Site is used as reference for AOPA CFI refreshers
Air Force uses it as a language reference for foreign pilots who are learning English.

You are the kind of guy that I would like a couple of hits on.
1. Is there any reason the magnetic directions of taxiways could not be
painted on the taxiways as a aid to incursion problems?
2. On the internet the following was posted.

1800ANYAWOS and the station identifier gets you the weather at that station. What it gets you to is porno. Should be stopped I checked on it shortly before giving it to a 16-year old student.

Milton Hill Jr.,PHD.
Airworthiness Specialist
FAA Flight Technologies Requirements Branch
(202) 385 4575

Sorry Gene, there's not we can do about internet issues since they are not regulated. However, caution is always advised when using the internet for any purpose.

The following attached document relates the recommended practices to prevent runway incursions and should be used by all pilots. The use of numbering schemes on taxiways may be misleading to some pilots and may result in additional concerns. (Gene’s emphasis)
(See attached file: runwayincursions1.doc)
Milton Hill Jr.,PHD.

Airworthiness Specialist
FAA Flight Technologies Requirements Branch
(202) 385 4575

"Gene Whitt"
<gwhitt@ix.netcom To: Milton Hill/AWA/FAA@FAA
.com> cc:
Subject: Re: Interesting web site
05/24/2004 06:16

I find your comment about my suggestion that taxiways have compass heading numbers on them rather interesting, too. Included in your response was the incursion piece that I am putting on my site.

A picture of a pilot using an airport taxi diagram appears with the following quote:

"The heading indicator is as useful on the ground as it is in the air. Use it together with the taxi chart to maintain orientation."

I hope to live long enough to have my name remembered with taxiway headings added on charts and the ground, as Whitt’s End additions.

My home field, CCR (Concord CA) has an experimental incursion location warning system installed using the Marker Beacon frequency. It cost quite a bit to install and is having operational difficulties. Not many pilots have their marker volume up. My suggestion would do much more for much less. Good pilots do set their HI prior to taxiing if only for yoke position in the wind. Would it be possible to use your good services here to try my suggestion as well?

Flying as Though You Lived Below
---In Switzerland airports diagrams route the pattern away from individual homes.
---Avoid trailer parks and medical type areas
---Excess pattern altitude is not illegal.
---Overfly roads where possible
---Locally regulated pattern altitudes are minimums.
---Vary your ground reference practice areas to spread the noise
---Your flight will be quieter to your neighbors if you use all the first part of runway and climb at Vy.
---Successful emergencies are usually measured in feet of distance and altitude.
---Understand that airports surrounded by houses will have noise sensors to identify aircraft.

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Continued on 2.5 PTS Slow Flight and Stalls