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Types of Landings
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Bad Landings; ...Certification Short Field Landing; ...POH Short Field Landing; ...PTS Short Field Landing; ...Variations on Short Fields; ...Short Shorts on Short Field Landings; ...Soft-Field Landing; ...Short, Soft, and Rough landings; ...Controversial Options for the Short Field Landing; ...POH Emergency Landing; ...Power off Landings; ...Power-off Accuracy Landing (PTS); ...Slip Landings; ...Nose-wheel First; ...Walking the Dog; ...Generic Landing; ...Salvaging the Landing; LAHSO Landings; ...Post-Solo Landings; ...FAA Landings; Under-Shoot Landings; Hard Landings; Bouncing to a Stop; Making Soft Landings; FAA Spot Landing (Opinion); High Speed Arrival to Short Approach; Opinion about the Touch and Go; Teaching in Weather; Landings in a Nutshell; ...Dudley Henriques on Landings
Bad landings appear to happen at the last moment, but if you look back honestly and carefully you can see the problem began minutes or miles before the threshold. ...and that is what the FAA and NTSB will do.
Certification Short Field
The primary criteria for landing distance used in certification has to do with ability to go-around from an aborted landing. A light aircraft must be able to climb at least 200 feet per minute (fpm). There are no 'rollout distance' requirements as for commercial aircraft. The shortest landing distance over a 50-foot obstacle is based on a 'firm' landing. Preferred threshold crossing altitude is 50'. This means that touchdown will be 1000' down the runway, hence the 1000' markers on IFR runways.
POH Short Field Landing
We have a set of factors so closely interrelated that to adjust one requires adjustment of all the others. Flaps, speed, and power only in combination can give the best clearance over the 50' FAA tree to the flare and ground roll. The approach will clear any obstacles. With full flaps, the correct speed and some power the C-150 will approach at about 11 degrees. The approach is as 1.2 times stall speed to touchdown speed of 1.15 times stall speed, and touchdown at 1.1 stall speed for the weight of the aircraft. Weight, speed, cleanup, and braking applied determines the ground roll. Flare will result in little or no floating during roundout if a precise Vref approach speed is used. Speed will allow stopping in shortest possible distance without loss of directional control or damage to the aircraft.
In strong winds a no-flap configuration is recommended. Don't ever allow a touchdown to occur if there is an uncorrected sidewise component in your touchdown. Go-around.
PTS Short Field Landing
The test short field has nine objective items. The first four apply to pilot knowledge of aircraft performance, the wind and landing conditions, airspeed and configuration, and the stabilized approach. The next four are related to the landing performance during roundout, flare, touchdown, accuracy, braking and directional control. Item nine is the checklist.
As with any landing, the short field landing is a matter of energy control. The less energy used in the landing the shorter it will be. Excess energy is an accumulative negative influence. If, for any reason, you are not at the desired speed, configuration, and glide path needed for your short field approach, GO-AROUND. A well-performed go-around is an exercise in good judgment and should be a plus on any flight test. Be prepared for distraction during the critical phase of a short field landing.
On the flight test talk to the examiner to prove that you understand the requirements, the function of flaps, and why you make the final application of flaps when you do. A short field landing is FIRM. You are not trying for softness. The aircraft is designed for firm landings without damage. This does not mean that the landing should not be a smooth transition from roundout, to flare, to touchdown, cleanup and brakes. Closing the throttle to get your touchdown, raising the flaps, and applying the brakes occur in rapid sequence to get on the ground and stopped as quickly as safety allows.
Variations on Short Fields
Some pilots and some planes are not well adapted to short field landings. As a pilot you should memorize or have on your lapboard the figures for your aircraft's short field performance in standard conditions. Include touchdown over 50" FAA tree and rollout. Having the data handy does not mean in the POH behind the seat. Remember POH figures are for gross. 10% reduction in weight allows a 5% reduction in approach speed. A 10% reduction in touchdown speed results is over 20% reduction in rollout distance. If weights and speeds increase the rollout distance is significantly longer. A 10-knot tail wind doubles the rollout distance. This does fall under FAR 91.103.
A problem area associated with short field approaches is some form of approach path misjudgment. The misjudgment may be of wind direction, airspeed, flaps, terrain, pilot skill or aircraft capability. The go-around option exists for all of these situations either individually or in aggregate. The only time a go-around is a poor choice is when it is initiated too late. You should go-around early and make appropriate changes in your approach next time.
A short field landing begins with the arrival at the pattern altitude and turning down wind far enough away from the airport to fly a normal pattern. My advice to students is to turn downwind twice as far away as it seems you should and you will be about right. The optical effects of a narrow short runway, the tension associated with landing at a strange and small airport, and previously mentioned misjudgment factors combine to make the landing destabilized, uncomfortable, and unsafe. Go around.
Can you correct major errors in arrival and pattern? Yes, but not easily. Far more likely you are going to be making steep turns, low speeds, and worse. The solution begins at the beginning. Plan your arrival and pattern so that it fits a 5000' runway. Use the same power changes, flap additions, and airspeeds you have always used. Only on final, short final, touchdown and rollout will procedures be any different than normal.
How different? You will fly final at a slower speed than normal. How much slower will depend on the POH and your gross weight. At a slower speed your approach angle will be steeper and give an apparent more rapid descent. This descent if properly trimmed can be easily controlled. Be judicious with power and trim off pressures caused by small power changes. Beware the constant decelerating approach. If low, use full power corrections held for a few seconds. One very useful option in making a short field arrival is to pre-plan that you will make a go-around on the first approach regardless.
Short Shorts on
Short Field Landings
--Airports with short runways are the mother lode of general aviation. Use 'em or lose 'em.
--Whifferdill is being in very slow level flight just before diving to the runway, a quick flare and landing
--Whifferdill kills selection of airspeed control but may be better in wind shear conditions.
--Whifferdill does make distance less between obstacle and flare point. Variable is unknown speed.
--Constant angle steep descent at minimum speed to clear obstacle with power on or off is preferred
--Recommended speed is 1.2 Vref instead of 1.3. Throttle ready for wind effects
--Vref is reduction of speed by half percentage the actual weight is below the POH gross weight figure.
--Vref results in less float, better braking, and lower touchdown speed
--A short runway is one twice the required distance given in the aircraft POH
--Airlines require full stop from 50' above obstacle inside 60 percent of effective runway length.
--Any excess speed over Vref will MORE than double the required runway length.
--Pilots tend to fly at higher speeds than are really necessary. Effects vary with aircraft type.
--Excess over Vref by 10 knots is 17 feet per second and results in over 1000 feet of float.
--POH's landing is maximum effort perfectly performed by perfect pilot and aircraft. No margins.
--If the airport runway length is giving you concerns, go somewhere else.
--A delayed go-around is prelude to an accident
--The relative risk of runway length to the safety of the landing is a constant
The soft field landing presumes that you have an unlimited length of runway or at least plenty of room for your rollout, with field conditions that will bring the aircraft to a semi-abrupt stop. Rough or soft field conditions require that the aircraft be held off the surface with power to reduce your ground speed as slow as possible. If the landing is made so that the nose wheel touches, it is assumed that the plane will pitch forward and over on its back. The student's problem is to land in such a manner that the nose wheel will not touch or stick. The aircraft speed should be as low as conditions allow. The nosewheel should be held off the ground with power. Stay off the brakes since this will cause the aircraft to pitch forward on to the nose wheel. The touchdown point is not judged for this type of landing. The idea is to land as slowly as possible and to keep the nosewheel off the ground as long as you can. Use power to keep the aircraft rolling nose-high until ground conditions allow the nose wheel to be lowered. Soft fields can be just grass turf or three inches of mud. The takeoff and landing process is different in each case but not much different.
The landing may be accomplished from a normal approach with full flaps and by raising the nose in flare sufficient so that when power is taken off the plane is still airborne. Then, just before touchdown, power is added sufficient to keep the nose wheel off the ground. 1300 RPM is about right. More power will start the plane flying again. Flaps are removed at touchdown and power and yoke held to keep nose wheel off the ground. Hold the elevator full back throughout all soft field ground operations. If desired, bursts of power can be used to keep the nosewheel from lowering until a firm surface is reached. Avoid any used of brakes. From the normal approach to landing into the flare the most common student error in soft field landing is failing to add power just before to touchdown. The landing is expected to be along the centerline with no side-loads occurring on the landing gear.
Another technique that avoids the timing of power application is to complete the entire approach and landing with the power left at 1300. With practice it can be done with 1200 up to 1500 rpm. With a very smooth and gradual application of yoke, a very nose high touchdown is possible. Ground effect allows the aircraft to get the nose well up, especially with power left on. As the nose rises, rudder must be applied and runway alignment maintained with aileron. On ground contact the yoke is held back while flaps are removed. This will increase the effectiveness of the elevators and the nose wheel will remain clear of the runway until power is reduced.
The soft-field landing technique is a rather extreme extension of what it takes to make a good normal landing. In both, you would fly the approach so that, on final; you have a constant airspeed and full flaps. Low-wing aircraft flaps can be damaged on rough fields so it is advised to raise them as soon as possible. With those constants of airspeed and flaps settings, set power becomes your variable to adjust the glidepath in a soft field landing. See Practical Test Standards for test specifics.
Short, Soft, and Rough
It is very unlikely that during your training you have been prepared for short, soft or rough runways. Any field not paved should be considered both soft and rough. You cannot evaluate an unpaved airport from the air. Walking or driving the strip may not suffice either. Paved runways tend to long enough, firm enough and smooth enough; an unpaved runway is likely to be short, soft and rough. On the unpaved surface every landing should be made softly with the nose high and some power. The approach should be steep, at minimum float airspeed and for a full stall landing. You should practice the control of the slower airspeed and steeper approach path of the short field for this landing on a paved runway before you are going to need it for real. Get the power off and the flaps up immediately on ground contact. Don't lock the wheels by too much braking. Keeping the nose wheel off the ground is more important than braking if the ground is soft. Add 20% to the performance figures from the POH to allow for your less than perfect speed control and brake application.
Call locals and use reference material to learn as much as you can about the field to be used. Wind conditions must be balanced against such features as clear approach path, up vs. down slope. The only way to determine field conditions is by walking. Practice the required approach and landing on a similar paved runway or a similar unimproved runway with similar characteristics before trying the real thing. In doing this you will learn what to expect from your aircraft in performance and yourself in flying capability.
A high proportion of airport accidents occur during the bad weather months of winter. The root cause lies with airspeed control. Add 1/2 the gust speed to your approach speeds when winds make airspeed control a problem. You still want to be slow at touchdown. You will be better off if you are without flaps. You must have the axis of the aircraft parallel to the centerline. Use the correct yoke position for the wind direction involved. Keep the aircraft straight during rollout. Failure to prevent directional changes of over 10 degrees can result in a rollover or ground loop.
Speed is the critical consideration for any landing. A short field landing can be made in steady wind conditions at 1.15 Vso. A 10% lower speed can reduce landing roll by up to 30%. Many pilots make a practice of holding power until touchdown. Having power on during a short-field touchdown will be counterproductive to your short-field intent. You can reduce landing distance by quickly dumping your flaps since this gets the weight on the tires for braking. The practice of having a bit of power on short final may cause a short field landing not to be as short as it should be.
The critical part of a "short" field landing is the approach. Minimum airspeed, just enough to kill your descent and flare before you run out of speed.
The critical part of a "soft" field landing is the touchdown. Nose high and gently. If the field is actually "soft" you roll out WILL be surprisingly short! That isn't a problem. A following TAKEOFF may well be much longer than usual, if it is even possible.
I would use a "short" field approach and a "soft" field landing. It always worked well for me when landing on a short soft grass strip.
Controversial options for short field landings:
--Dump flaps while in ground effect to 'plant' wheels firmly.
--Pull mixture to reduce any idle thrust.
POH Emergency Landing
The ability to conqueror the POH limitations gives us a competent pilot who can land an aircraft at a slow speed on a long and wide runway in a short distance. The final examination related to such summation of limitations is the pilot who can execute a successful emergency landing at a slow speed and no runway. Does he know the extent a lighter aircraft total weight reduces the stall speed? With a lower stall speed and applied flaps the descent angle can be steeper and more accurate. With lower stall speed, applied flaps, and power, a slower landing speed and reduced landing roll is possible. In only one of every six emergency landings is anyone hurt.
In the mid-60s the FAA changed its 'approach' to the way landings were to be made as 'standard' for the practical flight test. Prior to then landings were made power-off. Abeam the numbers, apply carburetor heat and reduce the power to off, glide and slip to a landing. With the advent of flaps the steeper, more accurate glide angle for the approach could be made without slips. The power off approach made the engine susceptible to carburetor ice and shock cooling. So the change was made to recommend partial power landings into the flare. Every power change was to be a reduction and every yoke movement was to be back and up. Maximum flaps for the wind conditions is the norm.
Today, just when all the power-off instructors are in short supply the designated examiners are again requiring power-off landings as part of their emergency simulation. The reason for this proficiency test is that today's instructors predominately teach the power-on landing. The ability of power-on students to execute a power-off landing, as in an engine failure simulation was detected as an instructional weakness caused by the emphasis on power-on landings. Engines last longer without shock cooling. Power-off landings can be less damaging if the downwind is flown at lower power settings
The power-off approach requires that the pilot pull the power off when abeam the numbers. From this point the pilot will make his turns and descent to the runway. This approach is relatively tight when compared with the power-on. It makes a safe landing possible even with engine failure. The hazard of the power-on approach is that the pattern will be such that the runway will be beyond reach in the event of engine failure. Combining the engine failure with the power-on approach allows the student to plan how the failure makes it necessary to re-plan the approach. Beginning with flap removal and flying directly to the runway.
The throttle setting is an initial constant for the power-on approach and is not the variable used to correct minor errors of judgment. Power reductions should occur only on short final and in the flare. Full power is the best correction for being low on the glide path. Students learn the power-on method more easily than the power-off but the landing program should, of necessity, include what to do in the event of engine failure at any point in the pattern. Once the power is off, the student is expected to make the runway as in a real failure. However, the need to "clear the engine" at any point is a way to get a burst of power needed to reach the runway.
--A pilot's ability to judge descent angle is major aspect of all landings but ultimate factor when power is off
--Margin of safety is based upon need to perform maneuvers.
--Best approach reaches landing area with minimum float
--Not three, just two ways to lose altitude configuration and speed
--No way to extend glide other than possible ground effect
--Effectiveness of ground effect is dependent on having excess speed.
--Practice simulated engine failures so that you learn to match your judgment with aircraft performance.
--Airspeed is controlled with pitch, which affects glide angle. Practice for wind allowances.
--It is the base turn that determines the successful outcome. Don't let winds blow you away.
--Most useful but least practiced approach is the 360 over touchdown point. 90 and 180 common.
--Base all practice using only medium turns that are varied as required by winds
--Practice in variety of wind conditions to develop required judgment skills
--All of the should be considered specific to the aircraft and pilot.
Power-off Accuracy Landing (PTS)
A power-off landing is not a power failure emergency. The power-off landing is a procedure that can be flown to a normal landing. The beauty of teaching the power off landing as a normal procedure for a normal landing is that an actual engine failure can be dealt with as a non-emergency. There is a certain amount of guesswork involved. The pilot must make adjustments determined by wind velocity and direction. Flaps are not applied until the field is 'made' if at all. It is best to arrive with excess altitude that can be removed by a slip. Any effort to stretch the glide by increasing the angle of attack will only provide a brief reduction in descent rate soon followed by a reduction in ground speed as though by a headwind.
Up until the late 1960s the PTS normal landing was made with power-off. Once abeam the numbers the power was reduced to idle. The pilot set up his constant airspeed glide. Speed and descent was adjusted throughout turns from downwind, base, and final. This method of landing had a shortcoming that arose when the pilot misjudged his approach and was coming up short. On such occasions the necessary power might not be available. This could be caused when the throttle was applied aggressively so as to load up the carburetor and engine so that it would flood and quit. The power-off approach can shock-cool an engine. Before making such a landing you can pre-cool the engine by flying a reduced power prior to taking the power off. A pilot who learns to land this way will learn how to use indicated airspeed, ground speed, wind and direction to control the arrival.
After 1970 the partial power approach and landing became the approved FAA method. Still every pilot should practice and become proficient making power-off landings. The process is just as years ago, except that it is accepted procedure that the pilot may 'clear' the engine during the approach to assure that available power is there. There is no reason that the power-off landing cannot be accomplished as efficiently as a partial power landing.
Every landing is guesswork. Ideally the pilot creates as many constants as possible. The available constants consist of power, airspeed and flaps. With power off as a constant the pilot will fly a tighter pattern. Airspeeds faster or slower than the normal approach speed allow some variation of the glide slope. Flaps can be augmented by slips to increase the rate of descent.
Every pattern must be adjusted by the pilot through consideration of wind effect. The pilot must learn that a glide cannot be 'stretched' by reducing the rate of descent. Any variation or indicated airspeed removes the predictable constant that a stabilized approach relies on. The ideal power-off landing is an accuracy landing. This means that the touchdown must occur past a given point but within 200'. The power-off accuracy landing is a part of the private pilot practical test.
During the flight test the examiner can be expected to pull the power and
advise you to make a power off landing within 200 feet of a specific point on
the ground. Since you are always expecting such an event it comes as no
surprise. You already know the wind, don't you? You quickly determine whether
to make a 90-degree, 180-degree, or 360-degree approach with adjustments
a required. You also know that two full trim turns down with the power off
will give you a glide speed of 60 knots, hands-off. Just as in any constant
power approach, the power-off approach speed is for a trimmed 60 knots.
At a constant glide speed, you will be able to sight over the nose to the runway and determine whether you are high or low. You have done this many times with 1500 rpm. Power off is no different. It is your intention not to apply any flaps until you know you will reach the field, so your no-flap approach will be relatively flat and high/low somewhat more difficult to assess. Every time the runway threshold passes under the nose as you fly 60 knots, you will apply a notch of flaps. Only the straight-in approach or final limits your ability to adjust base for being low or high. If your anxiety has kept you too high go into an extreme slip at 60 knots indicated to get down.
Never dive for the runway. As you know, you can extend your glide distance by removing flaps. Don't do this below 400 feet unless you are over a paved two mile runway, except in an emergency. Get your maximum flaps-for-wind-conditions in before 200 feet AGL. You will need the altitude to assure complete control in the round-out, flare, and touchdown. Don't sacrifice a good landing in your desire to hit a touchdown point. At 60- knots you will still have 200 feet of float within five feet of the ground. Use it. Always practice using ground effect in every landing. You never know when you will need the skill and experience.
Any time the plane is into the wing low and opposite rudder configuration forward pressure will be required on the yoke to maintain the approach speed. The advantage of a constant airspeed is that rudder pressures and aircraft reactions will be more consistent. Runway alignment is maintained by how low the wing is held. Nose alignment is held with rudder. If the nose can't be kept straight with the runway with full application of rudder then airspeed must be increased to improve rudder effectiveness. If the nose cannot be held straight the landing should not be attempted. Go around and try the landing with little or no flaps.
The pilot's success in acquiring initial runway alignment is predicated on how well the turn from base to final is planned. This is a ground reference skill. Holding this alignment with wing low and rudder applications depends upon mastery of the Dutch roll. When turning from base to final or when on a long final it is quite common to find that you are not properly aligned with the runway. How you make your corrections is important. If you are obviously far off, you should do something in the order of a 30-degree intercept to final. If you are only a few hundred feet off line and still have plenty of altitude, alignment may be achieved by holding the wing extra low into the wind. If the wind is blowing toward the runway, level the wings and let the wind blow you into alignment. If you are 500' from touchdown and have not attained runway alignment make a go-around.
Being unable to acquire and maintain the wing down and nose straight alignment with the centerline of the runway is hazardous. This skill and its associated understanding is a required acquisition before doing crosswind landings. A smart pilot will make the required effort to become both skilled and safe in crosswind landings.
Since winds normally decrease in velocity at lower altitudes, a constant change in rudder and aileron pressures will be required during descent. I like to advise the student that there is one wind at 500', another at 50' and still another at 5'. This is why you must be prepared to make the constant control adjustments required.
The stabilized approach with a set power, set flap, set trim, and set airspeed will permit repeated practice of the correct roundout and flare. If even one of these becomes a variable then each roundout and flare becomes an experiment with variable success. Once in the flare, there should be NO abrupt changes. Power and yoke must be moved slowly initially and then faster logarithmically to the full off and back positions respectively. Abrupt use of either power or yoke alone will become precursors of a hard landing. The go around is the best judgment decision for any approach that is not stabilized.
The first essential of a good crosswind landing is airspeed at Vso. This slow speed minimizes all the problems that result from high speeds on touchdown. Speeds higher than Vso use more runway, require excessive braking, extend the influence of ground effect or float, and increase the bounce and porpoise likelihood. Touchdown as slowly as you can.
Secondly, the touchdown point is in the first third of the runway. A stabilized approach at the correct airspeed will give you a visual aim at the runway. If low, you add full power and hold the approach speed until you regain the glide slope. If high, you add appropriate flaps, reduce power, reduce airspeed in that order and prepare to go-around.
Third, keep the nose parallel to the runway. There is frequently a problem with the student who is concerned with landing on one wheel and the rudder pushed in. Because of this concern he releases the rudder prior to touchdown along with other control pressures. This results in many of the bad effects of the poorly executed crab landing. Both main wheels touchdown at the same time, the nose wheel hits with them. Side loads are applied to the landing gear and very possibly the aircraft weathervanes into the wind. These are all the negatives in a crosswind landing that result from directional imprecision.
A properly rigged aircraft can be trimmed for hands-off flight. The properly rigged airplane has an longitudinal oscillatory pitch mode which once properly trimming will allow the plane to return to that first flight condition even if the nose is moved. The nose will oscillate at first as it returns to the original attitude. The plane is also subject to PIO (pilot induced oscillations) where the pilot, due to the delay in instinctive reaction, may push and pull at just the wrong time so as to amplify the movements. The PIO can only be broken by locking the elbow against the side of the cockpit.
This PIO is most likely to occur in a tricycle aircraft where the nose-wheel is allowed to come into contact with the runway with such force that the nose-strut is compressed. Instinct now takes control over the pilot's training. At moment of contact the pilot pulls back on the yoke to get the nose up. The nose strut reacts to its compression at the same time and together the nose goes beyond the critical angle of attack. Again at the same time the wing stalls and falls as the pilot pushes forward. The instinctive timing is only a second out of synchronization but that is enough to cause the nose-wheel and strut to again make a compression strike on the runway just as the pilot is trying to pull back to keep the nose from falling. If a go-around is not initiated on this second strike the nose-strut will strike even harder the third time to the point of collapse and propeller strike.
The go-around is absolutely the best option at the first sign of a nose-low touchdown. The rule is that NEVER move the yoke forward to correct being high in the flare. It is acceptable to stop any backward/up pressure but any forward pressure is most likely to result in the scenario above. Ideally, all yoke movements should be back and up.
Part of the FAA certification process is to check the designed stability and control authority of the plane. Within specified center of gravity limits an average pilot can make the plane perform adequately. Outside the specified C. G. limits or in a nose-wheel-first landing the one second reaction delay of the pilot will make things worse...every time.
Walking the Dog
This is a ground level maneuver along a very long runway in which the alternate wheels are allowed to touch the runway while the nose is held straight. Nose wheel is held clear. Exercise is best done in a no wind condition. Power is on the whole time with slight increases used going from one wheel to the other.
The landing climaxes at the point of touchdown but will not end there. Furthermore, the beginning of a particular landing occurred at some past landing where a lesson was learned when the pilot was high, low, fast, slow or out of control. The mistake of the past is avoided, corrected and blended into a successful landing. Not perfect, just satisfactory.
The satisfactory landing begins with aircraft control. Aircraft control is the pilot's ability to perform the four basics of climb, descent, level, and turns within a predetermined tolerance level. Aircraft control also includes the ability to use the four basics to position the aircraft in the landing pattern within another predetermined tolerance level of distance and altitude. The last element of aircraft control has to do with configuration. Wind and terrain are used by the pilot to select the optimum configuration for the situation. The so-called stabilized approach to landing begins far before turning final. The amount of tolerance allowed by an instructor is a variable based on how close you are to doing solo landings.
In the landing practice pattern the takeoff and climb to downwind can be just a precise as any other part of the pattern. The lift off occurs at Vso or slightly higher in crosswind conditions. Climb is delayed until Vy unless Vx is a requirement. Runway alignment is maintained with crab as appropriate with at least one visual check around 300 feet. Takeoff ranks #2 behind landings as a source of accidents. You can't achieve a successful landing without first making a successful takeoff.
The turn to crosswind is initiated after visually clearing the turn area and selection of a visual or heading reference. In the turn the eyes and head are not turned but are used to maintain attitude, bank and airspeed until the visual point comes into view. Very slight forward pressure is used both during entry and recovery from turns if a constant airspeed is to be maintained. At the thirty-degree point of bank, back pressure is used to maintain airspeed. All climbing turns are with coordinated controls at altitudes according to local practices at Vy. Entry and recovery from the turn bank is coordinated with anticipated rudder and aileron as required by the direction. Begin turn recoveries 15 degrees early. Left and right climbing turns are significantly different and should be practiced equally.
Just where the turn to downwind occurs is usually determined by wind and terrain conditions but occasionally traffic may require turns sooner or later. The width of the downwind must be adjusted wider for any wind that blows the aircraft toward the runway and closer to prevent a wind from blowing the plane too wide. This downwind adjustment is a critical flight positioning of the pattern which can only be made with repeated exposure to varying conditions. A short base is a prelude to tragedy.
Leveling the aircraft at pattern altitude and anticipating the amount of trim required must be done according to the downwind speed desired. There is no one best way to select this speed. My personal preference is to use level cruise speed for several reasons. Trainers are the slowest aircraft in the air. Using a slow trainer speed downwind places unfair hardship on non-training aircraft in the pattern. The cruise speed is a familiar trim, power, and sound condition. The reduction of power at the numbers while maintaining heading and altitude gives a relatively constant key position for the base turn. Most urban airports require (request) that pattern altitudes be maintained until turning base. This technique allows each aircraft to select its pattern key position according to its performance.
On downwind you should make a preliminary decision as to the flap configuration you will use. The POH standard is to land with full flaps if wind conditions allow. Just how you set the power, apply flaps, and trim for an airspeed is multi-task variable. Whatever you choose to do should have a consistency. Only in simulated emergency or short-short approaches should power be taken all the way off. Shock cooling the engine is a relatively dangerous practice. Whatever the power and flap setting the trim should be adjusted for the hands-off airspeed desired. Do not accept trimmed airspeeds off the desired speed. Most trainers use the same approach speed from the key position, to base, to final, to the round-out. Beyond the trainer, aircraft will use two or three different speeds from downwind, base, and final.
One variable that often occurs in downwind is an ATC call or situation that puts you as #3 to land or a need that you extend your downwind. In both cases you initiate the slow-flight procedure immediately even before using the radio. You want to avoid getting too far from the airport if possible. You hand-fly the slow-flight by using the same trim as you would have but add about 500 rpm to hold altitude and 10 degrees of flap to improve over the nose visibility. Resumption of the approach requires only reduction of power.
My preference is to reduce power to whatever setting will give me 1500 rpm
when I reach the key position. At the key position I will have maintained
altitude and trimmed for my base approach speed, I put in one notch of flaps
hold that airspeed with forward yoke and retrim while turning base. I have
learned to put in flaps, apply forward pressure, and trim without looking any
place except over the nose of the aircraft. I have begun my descent and am
trimmed hands-off. Once my aircraft is under control I look to see the
airport. A major fault of those who lose control is mixing up their
priorities. (The 'key' position or 45-degree angle
before turning base is no longer accepted by the FAA as how to determine when to make your base turn.) Even if it works well.
I make most of my approach adjustments on base. I may add a second notch of flaps, fly a wider base, or one closer in. Occasionally, ATC may ask you to make an adjustment by asking that you, "square your base" or "fly directly to the runway". Regardless of what you do, do it at a constant airspeed. Only by having a constant airspeed can you develop the skills needed in determining a stabilized approach angle.
On final and on final approach airspeed I use the nose as a sight to make my high/low decisions. By aiming short of the runway a hundred feet you can become experienced in the use of ground effect. Being high offers the most corrective options; I can add flaps to maximum for wind conditions; I can reduce power in increments of 100 rpm or more; or, I can reduce my approach speed to cover less ground for altitude lost. Runway permitting I assume normal approach speed just prior to round-out. The universal solution for being low consists of adding full power while holding approach speed for an estimated time needed to intercept normal glide path.
A few days ago I was walked through the biological sequences and variations of sequences involved in cell development. It seems that the possible variations exceed 10 to the 100th power perhaps even a googolplex. At any one of these variations a cell can go wrong and become an unpleasant character. I do believe that our landings have the same possibilities.
Other opinions to the contrary, small additions of power can cause a pilot to enter into a condition known as 'the constantly decelerating approach'. As the power is added, the speed drops until there is not enough power to maintain altitude. You are behind the power curve and with the ground close by you have run out of options. The worst thing that could happen to a low-time pilot is to 'get away' with small additions of power that lead to the decelerating approach. Next time you may not get away with it.
With the advent of warm weather, every pilot is going to have to reset the manner he flares. Warm air over warm runways provide less ground effect and the yoke will need to be moved differently than it was all winter. Go to the airport the first really warm day and watch the 'thump' landings of the big twins. You do not land an airplane when a good "thump" landing occurs. What I am getting at in this sentence is that the landing should occur when the plane is ready to land and not when the pilot is ready. A good landing should be a surprise to the pilot.
I'm reasonably certain that anyone who has watched enough landings has seen a relatively smooth landing briefly followed by an increase in pitch attitude and a momentary flight followed by a nose high touchdown. What has happened is that the student made the initial landing and the instructor has quickly brought the yoke back and up to demonstrate to the student that the student's landing was premature. Most students are unaware that the yoke requires lifting as well as pulling to get full movement of the elevator surfaces. The second landing is the instructor demonstrating what it takes to get a proper landing attitude.
You can study landings for a lifetime or a big part of it as I have and still be faced with a small variation that makes the landing less than it should be. What I'm getting at is don't get too analytical. A landing is like a religious act of faith. I will be good only if you truly believe it can be done. The runway will stay under the plane; the air will soften the ground contact; the aircraft is designed to take the impact; once you do it right the recognition never leaves you. If you live long enough you might get lucky and get another landing right.
There is a helpful logic behind ATC always requesting that you report a two-mile final or two-mile base. A 45-degree entry to downwind to a mile-long runway would allow a mid-field downwind turn 1/2 mile from the numbers. A 45-degree entry to downwind to a shorter runway should be made at the departure end to prevent the optical illusions that lead to close-in downwind patterns. With a half-mile to do the pre-landing before reaching abeam the numbers, another half-mile to slow down and reach the key position, still another half-mile base, and a half-mile final we have adapted the ATC two-mile base and straight-in to the basic downwind entry.
How do you know how and when to salvage a landing? Can some poor approaches and flares be safely corrected? The answer is yes. You must have very deep pockets to afford salvaging landings. As previously indicated. Your best option will be the go-around. Judicious additions of power may be applied and be successful. A combination of luck and experience may work. My recommendation is that all salvage efforts be delayed until you are using your own airplane.
An old PTS guide once said that the ideal landing occurred when at the moment of touchdown, the yoke was all the way back, the power was reduced to off, and the stall warner would bleep. As the pilot you are striving for this ideal. It does not occur often. The flare and landing is an act of faith. You must believe that the runway will be there. You will not know just when the landing will occur.
Land and Hold Short
A LAHSO procedure must be approved at the airport. No LAHSO landing is allowed with a tail wind. Visibility must be at least three miles. Aircraft doing the LAHSO must read back the instructions. Pilot must know the landing distance is adequate. A LAHSO clearance restriction must be obeyed. In event of a go-around the pilot is responsible for aircraft separation. Braking actions are given by ATC as good, fair or poor. ATIS will advise if braking is fair or poor. No LAHSO is allowed if braking is less than good. There have been 20 incidents since 1994.
Steps of LAHSO
Know the airport
2. Don't if turbulence exists
3. Don't if wet or slippery
4. Don't if thunderstorms or wind shear
5. Carefully consider wind angles
6. Check density altitude
7. Have 1000' margin of safety
8. Don't if aircraft is a problem
9. Use stabilized approach and constant airspeed
10. Use short-field techniques
11. Have an 'out'.
12. Pilot is final authority
LAHSO (Land and Hold Short Operations)
Where do you find the published LAHSO go-around procedure, if applicable (FDC notams) If you accept LAHSO, and reject the landing, are you in trouble? The AIM states that accepting a LAHSO does not preclude a rejected landing, but you better do it for a reason you'd declare an emergency over - i.e. safety)
When ATC gives pilot clearance to, "Land and hold short.".
1. The pilot has the option to accept.
2. The pilot must show acceptance by reading back clearance.
3. The procedure must be in the AF/D
4. The airport must have LAHSO markings.
5. At night five flashing lights show hold short mark.
6. LAHSO is not available to students.
Post Solo Landings
I do believe that my previous writing about teaching landings prior to solo requires some follow up. Ideally each flight with a student is preceded with a night before phone conversation covering the previous flight and a discussion of how the student should prepare for all the radio work and checkpoints to be used between airports. At least an hour of preflight discussion has taken place before we make the flight. Many of the checkpoints have been identified on previous flights. I have never had the impression that the sequence of airports and radio procedures have created pressure. The students are reasonably familiar with the routes and procedures before we get into the plane.
The use of standard ATC words and phrases from the AIM is discussed. The selection of words that have only one meaning and interpretation is a prerequisite to the flight. The instructor must build upon the student's background so that there is a commonality of words and interpretation. By using 'correct' words the instructor and student reduce the probability of a misunderstanding. Students will not learn unless they develop familiarity with the symbolism and specific terms used in aviation speak. Abstract terms must be explained, given concrete examples and feedback by the student to confirm understanding.
What makes all of the foregoing most valuable is what happens next. Once the student is soloed he will fly dual with me to all these airports and on return to our home field I will sign him off for an immediate solo flight back and forth. By the time the student has completed such flying he will have been to each airport at least three times and perhaps four. He will have been exposed to a variety of arrivals and taxi experiences at these airports.
Most importantly, the student will have a 50-mile diameter circle around our home field in which he is reasonably familiar with all the checkpoints and radio procedures. All of these flights are done with pure pilotage and only occasional preliminary reference to charts and sectionals. My students know where they are just by looking outside the plane. Cross-countries have never been a problem for any of my students because of this training.
The 'undershoot' identified by the FAA is caused either by a wide downwind or an extended downwind. I would suggest that power judgment, configuration judgment, and wind judgment are more likely causes. I would not fault a wide downwind as long as the base turn is kept in close.
Look for what I write about the constantly decelerating approach. This condition is all too common in high-density altitude conditions where the higher ground speed illusion causes the pilot to either slow up or reduce power. Again, the only solution for a low approach is the addition of full power. In really high-density altitude conditions the available power may not be enough without cleaning up the aircraft. Be ready for a very anemic go-around.
In the same FAA booklet the suggestion is to use a part of the airplane or a physical location on the ground to configure your pattern width and length. This will work in some situations but unless you develop experience in adapting your pattern to existing winds and make your dimension decisions BEFORE your arrival you will be faced with correcting a series of mistakes.
If the wind is over 12 knots right down the runway, keep your base leg close. Any crosswind that is blowing you into the runway should be flown at least twice the usual distance away from the runway while on the downwind. A crosswind that blows you away from the runway can be flown normally on the downwind but the base to final turn will require a rudder/wing reversal when establishing final. Plan your approach so you can have some power on as you enter the flare. This gives you an additional adjustment medium especially in gusty conditions. The steep approach is always to be preferred since it gives you better options, sooner.
Don't be in a hurry to land. Don't force the airplane into/onto the ground. Be patient and the airplane will land when IT is ready. In windy conditions some (just a little) additional airspeed may be desirable. Remember this extra airspeed means 'float' and extra time spent close to but above the runway.
The POH 's speeds are referenced to gross weight. These will be too fast for the vast majority of your landings. It would be a good idea to develop a Vref chart based upon cockpit weight and fuel remaining. Consistency in pattern, airspeed, and configuration changes will provide the base for consistently satisfactory landings.
1. Know your aircraft airspeeds.
2. Never get below pre-decided speeds.
3. Add full power when low or slow until attaining glide path.
4. Never add power without holding pitch to avoid slowing.
My own hard landings have usually been due to over confidence. I don't make many but when I do, they are HARD. I find the hard landing beneficial in that they return my attention to the need for using my peripheral vision and looking down the length of the runway together to maintain the proper flare altitude and attitude.
With proper scan, the pilot can avoid the ballooning that leads to the hard landing. Should a balloon occur the pilot will recognize the fact and respond by getting power in for the go-around. Sure, with experience you can add just the right amount of power to salvage the landing but you really need the go-around practice more. The sooner you make the go-around decision the more likely it is to be a non-event.
Bouncing to a Stop
The porpoises landing begins when the pilot focuses on the runway close to the airplane. He literally flies the aircraft into the runway hitting the nosewheel before the main wheels. This greatly compresses the nose strut and along with the one-second delayed reaction of the pilot compounds the resulting rebound into the air. This gets the pilot's attention so he reacts in one second to lower the nose. However, at this juncture the nose is already on its way down. The second impact is even greater than the first.
If the go-around is not initiated of the second impact, I have found that the third impact usually results in nose strut failure. The process begins in several ways. Failure to hold the nose attitude above the immediate horizon is one. The negative effect of ground effect on the elevators effectiveness is another. I have found that the pilot who covers the far end of the runway with the top of the nose cowling has attained the most desirable aircraft landing attitude.
--Line up with the runway centerline
--Use half a Dutch roll to keep aligned
--If you can't stay aligned with the nose parallel to the centerline you should abort the approach.
--Select a point on the runway to abandon any approach. Leave room for a go-around.
--Use your landing checklist
--Confirm runway conditions
--Don't be so proud of your skills not to abort.
--Do not make a dragged in approach low and behind the power curve.
--Annually between half and one-third of all accidents occur during landing.
--Loss of directional control because of excess speed.
--Overrun of the runway because of excess speed.
--Failure to extend landing gear.
--Retracting landing gear during rollout
--Loss of directional control. Centrifugal force and sideloads can exceed design limits.
Advantages of use:
--Give greater lift at slower speeds
--Steeper approach angle due to greater drag
--Reduce landing roll
--Less wear on brakes and tires
--Better directional control due to low speed
--Reduced chance of structural damage due to lower speed
Flaps in Crosswinds
--Confusing POH and AFM predominate for different types and models
--Vso is stall speed in landing configuration
--Plane must be controllable in direct crosswind of .2 Vso (50kt Vso = 10kts)
--Crosswind landings can be of two distinct types, the crab or the wing low.
Setting a Standard
--Aircraft placarded crosswind capability is based on maximum wind at time of certification
--Pilot capability should more than double placarded numbers and even more.
--The Dutch roll is basic skill that sets pilot's ability to keep the nose aligned with the runway
--It is possible to gain any additional rudder authority required by increasing airspeed and power.
--Any additional speed on touchdown requires better directional control.
--The more direct the crosswind and the higher the velocity the less flap extension to be used.
--Winds have greater weathervane effect on extended flaps. Once on the ground get them up.
--On the ground at flying speed forward yoke is applied to put weight on the nose and off the mains.
--Concentrated weight on the nosewheel causes the mains to rise clear of the ground.
--Loss of directional control soon follows.
--Best option is to initiate a go-around before loss of directional control occurs.
--Apply full power, remove flaps, get the nose wheel off the ground and attain directional control
FAA Spot Landing (Opinion)
At the Arlington Fly-in I attended an FAA spot landing seminar. They had an interesting way of teaching consistency in landings which you may wish to try. Once you are in straight and level flight, wet your finger and touch it on the windshield level with your nose. Aim that spot at the runway and trim for your approach speed. Keep aimed all the way down. At flare, line up the spot with the end of the runway (may be slightly up or
down depending on your height) and keep it there and let the plane land itself. I tried it and it works quite well.
Hope this helps
High Speed Arrival
to Short Approach
A Mooney 201 is about as slick as it gets. When I take a pilot on his second and last checkout ride, I give a little test. We arrive at the airport five statutes out at 3000 feet at cruise speed for our 45-degree entry into a short approach landing. It can be done but a couple of short-cuts help.
One way to slow up and get the gear down is to arrive slightly below pattern altitude. Reduce power. Make your turn to downwind abrupt while gaining altitude to P.A. You should be able to lower your gear before completing the turn to downwind. Helps to keep downwind wider than normal. Full flaps when able. Prop full below 100 kts. Slow up below normal approach speed to get down during base and final. Keep engine warm. Lower nose on short final to get proper approach/flare speed. Wind velocity and direction can make this exercise anywhere from easy to impossible.
I had this situation actually occur years ago when making a night arrival into Lindberg Field, San Diego. ATC called for the short approach in front of a 737 on two-mile final. The Beech Sierra I am currently working with does it with no problem. My original comment was meant to apply to basic trainers.
--Not until mastery is achieved
--By student only as checkride preparation
--Teach as emergency go-around
--Never in retractables
--Never in tail-wheel aircraft
--Not a good teaching tool.
Teaching in Weather
For the past several weeks I have been working with three primary students all of whom are pre-solo. Only one of the three has been able to solo. She has many hours of flying with her husband and is the first student I have ever taught who, from the very beginning, consistently made nose-high full-stall landings.
Another one was under intense time and economic pressure who came to me after some twenty hours of instruction land had come to me in the hopes of getting through the solo. He had considerable unlearning to do and under pressure tended to revert to instinctive/pre-conceptions of how to fly a pattern and land an airplane. He had to give it up because he ran out of available time.
The third student is still with me and has had a most interesting progression to solo. The day before I believed he would be able to solo, he had to leave for a couple of weeks. On coming back we had a succession of low visibility days. He had regressed somewhat and I had to cover the lost ground while dealing with LVFR conditions. Then we tried to fly twice a day with a two-hour interval between. The first flight went very well but he was making 'fatigue' mistakes so I opted to delay for the next flight. The second flight of the day was a difficult situation to make a first solo. The wind was light an variable with some variations up to seven knots.
We had one approach where in the flare a side gust in the flare caused a sideways drift that the student failed to halt by dropping a wing into the wind and using opposite rudder. He landed but put side load on the landing gear. The next landing was the same problem where I had to salvage the landing. The third landing was with a tail-wind that made his approach too high and he was slow to make a go-around and used poor technique with the flaps. It was obvious that he was unable to adapt to the shifting winds. ATC contributed to some of the difficulties by switching runways from left to right and back again to the left. Again no solo.
Today, when we started the aircraft the winds were at 7-knots down the runway. By the time we arrived at the runup the winds were 20-knots gusting to 28. Arriving aircraft were reporting 35 knot tailwinds on the IFR approach and some gusts were called at 55-knots. Did we fly. Yes, indeed. Did he solo, no. We did .9 of an hour doing both left and right patterns Our rollouts were usually less than 50 feet. On short final we would be at 700 feet AGL, only to need some power to reach the runway. He actually enjoyed the entire lesson.
We saw how effective a slip could be into a strong wind. He learned to begin his prelanding and power reduction before being abeam the numbers and turning a close-in base to avoid not being able to reach the runway without adding power several times. We made a variety of full, partial and no-flap landings Finally, we landed well down the runway to avoid unnecessary taxi time to parking. We both had FUN.
One very important item I learned was the importance of not initiating the takeoff until the flaps had time to retract. A 10/20-second delay was required before putting in the power or the aircraft would become airborne with the flaps still in the process of retracting
Landings in a Nutshell
Below is a listing of my web site topics related to landings. Somewhere among them is the answer/cause for most any situation.
Briefly the basics are:
1. Winds and temperatures are the uncontrollable variables.
2. Airspeed control is the universal necessity in liftoff, climb, turns, level, descent, with flap applications and flare. Best taught aloft.
3. Power control is the easiest constant available. Full power for climb, cruise power downwind, set power from 1500 to off abeam the numbers but be consistent while learning.
4. Learn your trim settings so that you don't 'fiddle' from takeoff/climb, leveling off, flap changes. power changes and trim changes. Once behind the aircraft in the pattern it is difficult to catch up. Always trim for hands-off airspeeds.
5. Fly constants of airspeed, flaps, and power with power the variable on final.
6. Visually note the space between your aircraft nose and the end of the runway. At constant settings you can quickly see if you are high or low.
7. Being high you have four options, more flaps, power back, slower speed,
8. Being low is best corrected by full power while holding approach speed constant. Taught at altitude. Used for brief periods. Keep the nose straight with rudder.
9. The flare is just an after the facts of a stabilized approach. Level off over the runway while looking to the end of the runway. Raise the nose to cover the runway and keep it there.
10. If you, as a student consistently land to the left of the center line,
use more right rudder in the flare or drop a wing a bit.
11. Dutch roll skills are required for crosswind landings.
12. Once you have these basics as constants you will soon learn to add your preferred variables regardless of the situation.
13. Ever notice how instructors always let students take two shots at landings before doing a demonstration? Now you know why.Flying Airport Patterns
Dudley Henriques on landings
This issue comes up all the time on RAS, and actually can be considered in the top issues posted over time by students. I've pasted in something I wrote some time ago on the issue that might be of some help. The ultimate answer won't be found outside the cockpit on this one I'm afraid. You will be able to put some of the pieces together perhaps by reading the various "suggestions", but in the end, the answer will come only as you learn to first fly a descent approach; than become one with the airplane during the flare. Remember, the airplane itself is your best instructor. LEARN from what it's telling you each time you fly.
In a landing, there are no constants. There is no reference that can be recalled each and every time. The reason for this is that landing an airplane is a task done in a constantly changing dynamic environment, where absolutely NOTHING will be the same each time....every time. There are just too many variables in the equation; airspeed....exact altitude at the flare onset.....aircraft configuration......air density...........not to mention wind!!!
Where pilots go wrong trying to visualize a landing is in trying to visualize it as a constant instead of a situation that has to be dealt with DIFFERENTLY each time it's done. Once you start dealing with landings in this manner, you have half the job under control. Oh....you can learn the mechanics all right; but all this really shows you is what has to happen to make it all come out right. It doesn't show you HOW to make it happen. That's the hard part......if indeed there really IS a hard part.
What usually happens is that you study the problem; then you get in the airplane and the instructor shows you how to work the problem. You watch the instructor put it down and then it's your turn. Naturally, you're NOT the instructor, so your physical and mental interaction with the airplane will differ from his. The instructor is ahead of the airplane; you are a bit behind. The only difference between you and the instructor is that the instructor is doing what is necessary to land the airplane and you are learning what's necessary. That takes practice.
The reason I don't usually get involved in these threads asking about flare and landing is that I know from experience that reading about it isn't the answer for solving it. This is because, as I've already said, each landing will be different, and what's required on landing A won't necessarily work for you on landing B. So with this in mind, try dealing with the issue in a more general nature instead of seeking specifics.
Look at it this way. You know what you need to accomplish with the airplane. You have to take it down final and put in on the runway in one piece. You already know that getting it there in one piece will require you to deal actively with this constantly changing situation that is never the same; so how to do that?
One thing you can do is shrink the problem. Visualize a window right at the end of the runway that you have to fly though at a specific airspeed and altitude in a specific configuration. Treat this as a separate issue on landings, and do what ever you have to do in order to put the airplane through that window in that condition. If you can do that, you're ready for the flare! If you can't, forget the flare and go around. Do it again until you do it right.
You get the airplane through this window exactly as you will flare the airplane; by doing what the airplane is telling you you have to do to make it go where you want it to go, when you want it to go there!!!! In this constantly changing dynamic, the airplane is talking to you. It's showing you where it IS and what it's doing as opposed to where you WANT IT TO BE and WHAT YOU WANT IT TO BE DOING!!! This is the key; the answer to the problem. You know how the controls function. You know what will happen if you apply pressure to the controls. You know what the throttle is for and how it interacts with the problem. The only thing you have to do is be constantly asking yourself.......is the airplane where I want it to be, and if not what do I have to do to make it go there.....NOW!!!
That's all there is to it. It's nothing more than a constant battle between you and the airplane as to who's in charge of the flight; YOU, or the airplane!! If the nose is in the wrong place...correct it! If you're too fast....slow it down.......if you're too high.....lose it........too low.....get it up a bit.
Just put it through that window at the right place in the sky and at the right speed, then concentrate on doing whatever it takes to assume a landing attitude.....then hold that attitude as the speed drops off......keep the damn thing straight....YOU KNOW HOW!!! Then enjoy the fruits of your labors as you kiss the runway. Remember this as long as you fly. A landing is nothing more than the end result of a series of events properly performed
In a Nutshell
Preparation, planning and procedure to stabilized arrival
Systematic configuration change
Changes are unique to make, model and aircraft
Changes are a unique art form to adapt to the total environment
Short Field Landing
Not on gravel or wet grass
Unless practiced skills are lost
Hard on aircraft due to braking, nose wheel etc
General Aviation LAHSO not trustworthy
Touchdown point +100 feet no float or drift and aligned
Touchdown point +200 feet
Soft Field Landing
Avoid gusts and x-winds
Slowest, lightest initial impact
Assumed long runway
Power to give softer contact
Full back yoke w/power to hold nose wheel off
Commercial/Private the same
Know how to do a Dutch roll FIRST
Initially, aim for upwind edge of runway on approach to set drift correction required
Do not touch down unless wheels are aligned with direction and no drift.
The cross-controlled wing-low, nose straight methods is preferred a ½ Dutch roll
Downwind wheel touches first and the nose wheel last
On the ground yoke FULL over into the wind which will hold the aircraft down
Commercial within 200-feet past point
Private within 400 feet past point
Return to whittsflying
Continued on 4.34 Thoughts on Landings