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Emergency Strategies
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Gene's Anti-accident Precepts; …Opinion on Learning Emergencies; …Expecting the Improbable; ...You Will Never Be Ready for an Emergency; ....First things; ...Undo what you did; ...Emergency Field; ...Running out of Options; ...Glide; ...Emergency IFR; ...Emergency CHECKLIST; ...Emergency Communications; …Successful Crashing; … Pirouette Turn; …The Smoking Cockpit; …Instruction in Decision Making During Instruction; ... ASF DEBUTS 'SAY INTENTIONS' ONLINE; ...Engine Failure; ...Emergency Instruction; ...Constructive Paranoia; ...Where is Right? ...Web Question on Altitude; Oz Flight review; (humor) ...You Have a Right to Call It an Emergency ; ...Emergency Kit; ...Oximeter; ...

Gene's Anti-accident Precepts
--Is the time you save worth the rest of you life?
--Learning from the experience of others is a flying way of life.
--Collect your experiences to give to others.
--Beware the focus of attention created by an emergency.
--You can always trade extra altitude and airspeed, it you have it.
--Acceptance of delay is a way of life in flying.
--Build your options when flying at night with altitude, route, fuel, etc..
--I will avoid low-level flight maneuvers by leveling my wings and climbing
–I will initiate a 180 from weather sooner rather than later.
--I will always fly fuel safe with reserves.
--I will use all ATC, navigational and altitude resources for maximum traffic avoidance and safety.

Opinion on Learning Emergencies
I find learning emergency procedures helps SO much more when you're in the actual cockpit, touching the controls and getting a feel for where they are, even with your eyes closed. I couldn't fly one day, so I sat in one of the 172's and went over the procedures, ( The manager didn't mind that I was "playing" in his aircraft, once he knew what I was doing) the next flight my CFI seemed pleased with my progress in that area. But I need the tactile input to help me memorize, Imagining the controls, and where they are is not as helpful as actually touching them.

Expecting the Improbable
--Air and ground situations that go beyond the POH.
--Take a high-altitude and mountain training course.
--Land in the shorter distance than you ever have without burning the tires.
--Define your personal limits for landing in crosswinds.
--Equipment failures inside the FAF.
--Engine failure as a completely random event by the clock.
--Gyro failure and instrument failures beyond expectations.
--ATC failures while on IFR flights in worst case weather.
--File an IFR flight-plan and make at least three major changes en route.
--Deliberately make a mistake to see if someone will express doubts or concern.
--Take a few hours of aerobatics and gliding instruction.

You Will Never Be Ready for an Emergency
Emergencies can occur at any time in the vicinity of airplanes. How to react in the event of an emergency is a part of every training program. There will only be a certain amount of time available. How this time is used will make the difference between a non-event and an FAA inquiry. You will not be prepared when an emergency occurs.

Some emergencies occur without notice or warning while others creep into your awareness on cat's paws. A minor rattle, smell, awakens your senses. Ignored, the minor notice lead to anther until the situation begins to limit your options. Examples of the cat's paw emergency are most often related to fuel, weather minimums, airport orientation, and airspace requirements.
Did you know?...
--Many ignition keys can be removed without turning the ignition off.
--Priming with the throttle can cause fuel to over-flow the carburetor bowl
--An engine start fire burns out fastest with mixture out and throttle in.  Brakes!
--On takeoff stop on the runway if you can.
--On lift off land as nearly into the wind as you can
--Past the runway, no turn-back unless you know you capability.
--Practice making 240-degree turns in 45-degree banks with engine at idle.
--Study the land-space near your home field for every landing option.

First Things
1. Fly the plane: Safety lies in fuel, altitude and airspeed
2. Navigate, if the plane will only descend, head down hill.
3. Communicate; Get help wherever you can find it.
4. Other options. Use an appropriate checklist.

You must have a plan, believe in that plan, and practice the plan. When the emergency happens, it is too late to come up with 'what if'. Pulling carburetor heat, changing fuel tanks, or turning on the fuel pump will solve 95% of in flight engine emergencies. Other emergencies are best solved (prevented) while on the ground.

Do your emergency items for a reason. The more you understand your aircraft systems the better you will know the 'why' of an emergency procedure. Emergency responses must be a matter of habit. Through constant repetition you will develop the non-panic defensive reflexes required. If your reaction is not a reflex developed in training, it is not yours. Flying survival often requires that you react contrary to instinctual responses. Know what to do, believe that it will work, do it. An emergency will always be a surprise but what you do MUST be thought out ahead of time and planned to achieve the safest results. Timely thinking reduces time needed for thinking when there is no time.

Emergencies have similarities of occurrence and procedures. In most cases a landing is going to be required. The POH usually mentions this. How quickly it will be required is a variable decision but always there. There are several typical solutions to emergencies. "Undo what you did." is always a good choice of action. The new revision of the Flight Training Handbook lists eight 'emergencies'. Some of these 'emergencies' are more correctly considered 'surprises' to be expected and taught as part of flight training. An open door or even coming off in single engine aircraft is not going to affect how the aircraft flies. The noise level will be the greatest change and have the greatest impact on the pilots behavior.

Most Emergencies Do Not Require Instantaneous Action.
Don't just do something; sit there.
--Fly the airplane and maintain wings-level flight toward landing area
--Study the problem before taking action.
1. What is engine telling?
2. What is electrical telling?
3. Any smell, smoke, or fire?
4. What is structure telling?

--Landing based on conditions.
1. Critical action checklist (memorized)
2. Review critical action checklist
3. Non-critical item checklist
4. Normal checklist (requires special effort)
5. Communicate

Declare Emergency
You own the airspace and right to do most anything.

Engine quits on takeoff at 700'
1. Best glide
2. Fly the plane

Engine temperature at redline
1. Mixture rich
2. Lower nose for cooling
3. Cowl flaps
4. Reduce power

Engine begins to surge
1. Best glide
2. Mixture rich
3. Change tanks

Loud bang and oil covers windshield, smoke/fire
1. Fuel off/mixture off
2. Emergency descent

Engine begins to lose power and show signs of roughness
Pull carburetor heat

At cruise engine begins a severe vibration
1. Shut off engine with magnetos
2. Pull mixture/ fuel off
3. Best glide

Undo What You Did
Asymmetric flaps is the best example of 'Undo what you did" type of emergency. Get all the flaps off if you can. Balance them if you can. Most aircraft can be flown with asymmetric flap setting if the speed is reduced and full aileron deflection is used. Only in the very worst of crosswinds will control become a serious problem Don't hesitate to go-around with an asymmetric flap setting. Going around is always better than uncontrolled contact with the ground.

Engine failures close to the ground; lower the nose to maintain best glide speed, fly into the wind and use the structure of the aircraft to absorb impact. The cockpit structure of a light aircraft is designed to withstand 9 times the force of gravity. If you are belted in tightly enough so as not to bounce off the sides of the cockpit you are in a survival situation if you can make ground impact slow enough. Deceleration at 35 knots impact speed takes six feet for 9-G force. 87 knots takes almost 40 feet. For this reason alone turning back to a runway is not a good idea.

One possible engine failure is caused by engine flooding, (too much gas) due to stuck carburetor-float.  Happened to me on takeoff at 800' in the Ozarks.  Pulling the mixture caused the engine to restart.  Lucky is another way to grow old.

Emergency Field
Once you are in an engine failure situation, get to the best L/D speed. The lift over drag speed is the speed that gives the best performance in time and distance when the engine is not functioning in no wind conditions. You are a glider, a poor glider. Most trainers glide at a 10:1 ratio. You move forward ten feet for every one foot of altitude. To penetrate a headwind add half of the estimated wind velocity to your gliding airspeed. A spiral descent will allow you to make wind adjustments that a committed straight-in will not. Given the choice, spiral over your chosen landing site.  Full nose-up trim without flaps
will get you close to the best engine-out glide speed.

A wide-long field is preferable to short-narrow. Into the wind decreases ground impact speed. Uphill is better than downhill. Slope is difficult to judge from the air. If you can determine a slope, assume the slope is much greater than it appears. Any obstruction to the approach end of the field will cause a loss of useable landing distance ten times greater than its height.

Taking gliding lessons will make you a much more assured pilot in an emergency. An airplane without an engine is just a low performance glider. Knowing just how low your glide performance is (See POH) will enable you to select routes and altitudes that allow desirable options. You want to be able to make a power-off glide to a safe landing. Any excess altitude gives us the option of stopping the propeller. This is done by slowing to stall speed and using the starter to place the prop horizontal. The increase in glide performance will vary aircraft type to aircraft type. A stopped propeller can improve the L/D ratio to as much as 12:1. The time and distance gained may make the critical difference.

Running out of Options
Hit things after you slow down. Hit what ever you hit from straight on rather than sliding sideways. Your belts provide the best protection that way. Prepare the cockpit, seat back, belts tight, and head impact area covered. Prepare the aircraft, fuel off, electric off, and door jammed open.

The POH has a chart for the C-150 that shows the gliding distances from various altitudes. These distances are in no-wind conditions and a wind milling propeller. This glide distance is based on gross weight and a best lift/drag indicated airspeed. As indicated above stopping the propeller may extend the glide.

The checkride will include an emergency landing. Always fly while doing the 'what if' that means an immediate landing. In any simulation the best field will be on the instructor's side, underneath you and out of sight. You will be much better able to plan your 'accident' from above than off in the distance.

There are some times when the indicated airspeeds are to be adjusted for conditions. You should increase the glide speed by about 1/3 of the wind velocity when gliding into a headwind. You should slightly decrease the glide speed when gliding with a tailwind. A lower weight will allow a slower airspeed and potentially greater distances. Every one percent below gross weight means that published approach and maneuvering speeds can be reduced by .5 percent. Make a chart for your current aircraft and compare speeds solo to gross.

By taking a 200 pound instructor out of a 1600 pound gross weight C-150 you have reduced the weight by 12.5%. For every one percent we can reduce the speed by .5 percent. For every two percent we can reduce the speed by one percent. Thus, 12.5% reduction in weight allows a speed reduction of about 4 knots. The approach speed of a 1400 pound C-150 would be at 54-knots instead of 60 knots. This is an advantage in landing. The gross maneuvering speed would be 91 knots instead of 95 knots. This is a disadvantage in turbulent air but necessary. Light planes bounce more than heavy planes.

Emergency IFR
1. A. Never enter IFR from VFR.
1. Maintain control. This will be easier if you are skilled at trimming and controlling your aircraft with a light touch.
2. Make a standard rate 180 to reverse your direction. Stay light on the controls.
3. Place your total reliance on the instruments. Ignore outside sensory input from your eyes, ears, or body. Be gentle on the controls.
4. Use the Attitude Indicator for pitch and bank. Be gentle.

Trim  for 60 Pre-crash
Field & Wind Seats/belts/
Super tighten belts
Cockpit storage
Crack doors-prevent jamming

- Fuel/Pump Fuel off Shut off fuel & electric
- Mixture Electrical off
- Throttle
- Mags
Flaps/only when field made

7700 sets off alarm bells at radar facilities.
Radio Avoid passing thorough 7700 unintentionally.
7700 - 121.5 Every thing broadcast on 121.5 should be
<MAYDAY><AIRCRAFT> repeated three times. This tends to slow
<LOCATION><PROBLEM> your speech down but gives greater clarity
<INTENT> and understanding.

Emergency Communications
Cessna 6185K Cessna 6185K Cessna 6185K
Two southeast Cordelia two southeast
Cordelia two southeast Cordelia
Engine failure engine failure
engine failure planning Garibaldi airport
planning Garibaldi airport planning
Garibaldi airport

The use of a checklist will help keep the procedure required by given information in an orderly sequence. Unfortunately, when overload occurs the pilot who is unconditioned to the use of the checklist will break the orderly sequence and begin to neglect the checklist. All too often the checklist is the first thing to go. Under stress and heavy workload it is very easy to overlook a critical item.

Successful Crashing
When you have an engine problem necessitating an emergency landing you are just as likely to be faced with a partial power situation as with a power out situation. Fact is, you are far more familiar with the partial power problem because most landings are made with partial power at least until the flare or touchdown. We seldom practice power-off landings.

I suggest that power-off landings become a regular practice procedure any time you have a runway of a length sufficient for you to select a displaced threshold as your touchdown target. For practice, it pays to take this precaution. From a normal pattern, close the throttle and see how well you can dead-stick to the runway. It is best to defer flap application
until you have the runway made.
Do this exercise in a variety of situations with special emphasis on unexpected winds. Glide range can be extended by flap removal if you have sufficient altitude for the sink that will initially occur.

An important element of the practice is using everything but power to correct any judgmental mistakes. Learn to adjust your base leg as well as your use of flaps. At strange airports use OWLS to make sure the exercise takes into consideration obstructions, wind, length and slope. Any vertical obstruction that you must overfly will require TEN times as much distance to touchdown as the obstacle height. When dealing with an unknown wind always select the longest area available.

The Pirouette Turn
Pre-decisions are credited by accident survivors as having much to do with their success. The pirouette, pivot turn, is an emergency escape procedure as a last option when you have run out of aircraft performance and turning room. The entry into this situation requires a continuous series of bad decisions. Even then the pirouette will not be of help unless you have practiced to proficiency. An incorrectly performed turn will only make a bad situation worse. This means you must practice it. More importantly, the pilot who understands the factors leading to will never need to make the turn.

The pirouette turn allows a 180-degree turn with a minimum radius and no loss of altitude. This is a maximum performance turn required when you have run out of performance. The procedure is to reduce to idle power, put in full flaps and maintain wings level. Then before you begin to sink you put in full power, pitch up the nose and kick in full left rudder. Milk off the flaps.

The aircraft will have made 180-degrees of turn faster than you can say what to do. It is most effective to the left. But could be done to the right if you did not add power. The bank angle should be shallow enough to avoid a stall but steep enough to minimize the turn radius. It is my opinion that this maneuver could be practiced at altitude but perfected at real or simulated high-density altitudes.

The Smoking Cockpit
--Do what must be done as PIC according to FAR 91.3
--Do not relegate PIC authority to ATC or anyone else.
--Declare an emergency and do what it takes to get on the ground.
--A smoking aircraft belongs to the insurance company.

Instruction in Decision Making During Instruction
Every lesson I give involves decision-making. My preflight ground instruction covers all aspects of departure, en route and return. The preflight begins with checking tire inflation as we walk up to the aircraft. This is a decision making process to decide if tires are properly inflated. We walked up to the aircraft and removed the left wing tiedown so that when we got to the nose of the aircraft after walking around the tail we could roll the tires to check condition without having to walk over to undo the left tiedown.

Reading the aircraft logs and checking squawks is only the beginning of the decision making process. Check position of controls and readings of gauges with the master on along with lowering the flaps (listening) land trim setting. The position of the trim in the cockpit and on the elevator tells a great deal about the previous pilot's last landing and/or weight and balance. Thus the cockpit interior is the beginning of the decision making process. We open the other door in anticipation of getting the sump cup from the other side. We drained the left wing sump and put the sump cup on the right seat so we could pick it up from the other side. Anticipation is a fundamental aspect of the decision-making process and of flying itself.

We put on our fanny-pack preflight kit containing rubber gloves, rags and paper towels and Leatherman toolkit. We hung our preflight checklist upside down on the string around our neck. The checklist is a series of five to seven items so we can look at what to do, do them with our hands free and then look again to confirm nothing has been omitted. We touch, move, feel and clean as we do our preflight. In the walk-around we look for changes and differences in movement or sounds.

With the preflight complete we confirm that we are well seated in the aircraft. We want to see under the wing and over the nose. We want to be able to reach everything on the panel and the rudder pedals. We confirm that the seats, belts and doors are correctly located for flight. (For some reason I have never been able to ascertain my door always opens on takeoff if I have not been told about my belt or harness.)

We open the window, prime and 'index' the throttle setting so that it will idle properly on start. Clear the area visually and by voice and insert the ignition key. Up to this point the key has been on the floor or hanging. This, too, is a safety decision.

On start we check rpms, lean the mixture, turn on the master and radios while watching the oil pressure and fuel gauges register. We preset all the frequencies we can as limited by the ability of the radios. During our flight preparation we made a radio frequency list for the entire flight as well as reviewing all communications required and expected. We set the heading bug or make note of the wind so that the yoke can be correctly positioned throughout the entire taxiing route. We practice the control movements as if a ten-second delay in movement would cause the wind to upset the aircraft. This is not a skill you want to learn in actual conditions. It is also the very last flying skill acquired but never mastered.

The selection of the departure runway is decision making from the very beginning. I try to use any one of the eight possible runways and a different departure type every time. Our arrival in the runup land positioning is based upon economy of space and movement. We want to face the wind for cooling and wind velocity considerations and in anticipation that we will either reposition or taxi so as to clear both the final and base legs to our departure runway.  Pilot assertiveness requires that you know the likely choices of ATC as being different from the best choice for your plans.  Use the radio accordingly.

Thus you see that decision-making is a universal part of all instruction; not just flight instruction. Not to fly is, for most pilots, the most difficult decision-making decision of all.

External Pressures

Extreme pressure

"Say Intentions" ( ), ASF's latest free online course, teaches pilots valuable secrets about how air traffic control can help in an emergency. The course is an interactive game-style program that uses scenarios drawn from real-life situations to explain ATC services for pilots in urgent or distress situations. "ATC is one cockpit resource that pilots should not overlook when they're in a deteriorating situation," said ASF Executive Director Bruce Landsberg. "A controller can be an essential part of your team, offering alternatives that may not be obvious. As one of the scenarios makes clear, just remember that you are
the pilot in command--and reject suggestions that, in your judgment, compromise the safety of the flight. The other important point is not to wait too long before asking for help." The "Say Intentions" course qualifies for the ground instruction portion of the FAA's Wings program.

Engine Failure
Occur only every few thousands of hours, mostly due to running out of fuel.
--Most engine failures are not events that never make the papers or FAA reports.
--Only 2% of engine failures are the result of mechanical failure
--The non-event of an engine failure has as much to do with luck as good flying.
--Having another person aboard may or may not be an advantage depending on cooperation.
--First locate field and wind.
--Use excess airspeed to gain altitude.
--Stopping the propeller will increase glide distance.
--Be prepared to sacrifice the airplane for your safety.
--Survey the most used airports for emergency landing options.
--Know what to do to trim for best glide, usually it means maximum nose up trim.
--Low-wing aircraft first item is to switch tanks.
--You should practice making return to the airport at altitude after a 5-second (What happened!) pause
--If you don’t waste the 5-seconds you can glide 4-500 more feet in your pre-selected direction.
--Never give up starting the engine but when ground contact is certain make sure it won’t start again..

Emergency Instruction
---Teach how ATC can help.
---Teach use of 122.2, 122.0, 121.5
---Teach 4-C’s
---Ask for help sooner rather an later.
---Declare an emergency
---ATC can give you your own radio frequency or make all other leave you present frequency.
---Communications to radar can be relayed
---ATC radar is now better able to see weather than just a few years ago.
---Teach you students how to ask for help from all types of ATC facilities

Constructive Paranoia
It's never too early to develop what I call "constructive paranoia." Using that method, you always have a plan ready to put into action..."when I push forward on the throttle, the engine is going to quit." That doesn't happen, so you think, "The engine is going to quit before I rotate." Then "the engine is going to quit before I get to (500 feet, 1000 feet, whatever)." If you make it to your target altitude without any problems, you start thinking of where you would put it down if necessary.
I've used and taught this method in singles and twins, and I have had more than my share of engines quit when flying each case, I anticipated a problem, and darned if I wasn't right! But I already knew what I was going to do if a problem showed up, so they were non-events.
Your instructor must have a similar method of thinking.
Bob Gardner

Where is Right?
---Every flight has critical phases that require critical decision making
---Things bad never occur instantly
---All things good or bad arrive as a chain of events
---Most pilots who die were dead before they left the ground
---Outcomes arising from the unexpected rely on experience founded outcomes
---There are never a certainty of having an easy solution
---Problems have solutions
---Luck is an imponderable that should be used when available

Web Question on Altitude
There are several different kinds of altitude used by aircraft. The altimeter of the aircraft is usually set barometrical by weighing the air pressure on the earth. This air also presses on the oceans which vary in high tides to low tides twice a day. The average height of these tides are actually below the land level even at the beach. This average is called mean seal level or MSL. MSL is the height used by aircraft in most situations.

 The purpose of broadcasting on weather and ATIS transmissions is to assure than all aircraft have the same setting on their altimeter. This means that they can use their altimeter as another means to avoid hitting each other. Another altitude is called AGL or above ground level. This is the altitude you often see in parentheses on charted towers or obstructions. There is also a radar altimeter which gives continuous AGL readings called absolute altitudes. GPS is also able to give an altitude reading. This reading is rarely the same as any of the other altitudes. 

I have a suggestion about your concerns with altitude. Make a practice of flying during good weather to fly above obstructions, hills, etc. and get an idea of how low you can go safely. Then at night or in bad weather you can use your knowledge to fly at safe altitudes. Additionally, I would suggest that when flying within 3000 feet of the ground that you never fly at even-thousands or five-hundreds. Make it a practice of flying 2300 or 2700 altitudes going eastward and 2400 or 2800 going westward. You will be surprised by the number of aircraft that are flying over or under these altitudes. Just another form of collision avoidance. 
Hope this all helps. 
Gene Whitt

Oz Flight Review 
Hi Mate, 
I am writing to you because I need your help to get me bloody pilot's license back. You keep telling me you got all the right contacts. Well now's your chance to make something happen for me because, mate, I'm bloody desperate. But first, I'd better tell you what happened during my last flight review with the CAA examiner. 

On the phone, Ron (that's the CAA guy) seemed a reasonable sort of bloke. He politely reminded me of the need to do a flight review every two years. He even offered to drive out, have a look over my property, and let me operate from my own strip. Naturally I agreed to that. 

Anyway, Ron turned up last Wednesday. First up, he said he was a bit surprised to see the plane on a small strip outside my homestead because the ALA (Authorized Landing Area) is about a mile away. I explained that because this strip was so close to the homestead it was more convenient than the ALA, and despite the power lines that cross about midway down the strip it's really not a problem to land and take-off because at the half-way point down the strip you're usually still on the ground. 

For some reason Ron seemed nervous. So although I had done the pre-flight inspection only four days earlier I decided to do it all over again. Because Ron was watching me carefully, I walked around the plane three times instead of my usual two. My effort was rewarded because the color finally returned to Ron's cheeks. In fact, they were a bright red. In view of Ron's obviously better mood, I told him that I was going to combine the test with some farm work as I had to deliver three poddy calves from the home paddock to the main herd. 

After a bit of a chase I finally caught the calves and threw them into the back of the ol' Cessna 172. We climbed aboard but Ron started getting on to me about weight and balance calculations and all that crap. Of course I knew that thing was a waste of time because calves like to move around a bit, particularly when they see themselves 500 feet off the ground. So it's bloody pointless trying to secure them as you know. 

However, I did tell Ron that he shouldn't worry as I always keep the trim wheel set on neutral to ensure that we remain pretty stable at all stages throughout the flight. Anyway, I started the engine and cleverly minimized the warm-up time by tramping hard on the brakes and gunned her to 2,500 rpm.

 I then discovered that Ron has very acute hearing,, even though he was wearing a bloody headset. Through all that noise he detected a metallic rattle and demanded that I account for it. Actually it began about a month ago and was caused by a screwdriver that fell down a hole in the floor and lodged in the fuel selector mechanism. The selector can't be moved now but it doesn't matter because it's jammed on "All Tanks" so I suppose that's okay. However, as Ron was obviously a real nit-picker, I blamed the noise on a vibration from a steel thermos flask which I keep in a beaut possie between the windshield and the magnetic compass. 

My explanation seemed to relax Ron because he slumped back in the seat and kept looking up at the cockpit roof. I released the brakes to taxi out but unfortunately the plane gave a leap and spun to the right. "Hell", I thought, "not the starboard chalk again." The bump jolted Ron back to full alertness. He looked wildly around just in time to see a rock thrown by the propwash disappear completely through the windscreen of his brand new Commodore. 

While Ron was ranting about his car, I ignored his requirement that we taxi to the ALA and instead took off under the power lines. Ron didn't say a word, at least not until the engine started coughing right at the lift off point, then he bloody screamed his head off. "Oh God! Oh God! Oh God!" "Now take it easy, Ron" I told him firmly. "That often happens after take-off and there is a good reason for it." I explained patiently that I usually run the plane on standard MOGAS, but one day I accidentally put in a gallon or two of kerosene. To compensate for the low octane of the kerosene I siphoned in a few gallons of super MOGAS and shook the wings up and down a few times to mix it up. Since then, the engine has been coughing a bit but in general it works just fine if you know how to coax it properly.

 Anyway, at this stage, Ron seemed to lose all interest in my flight test. He pulled out some rosary beads, closed his eyes and became lost in prayer. (I didn't think that anybody was a Catholic these days.) I selected some nice music on the HF radio to help him relax. Meanwhile, I climbed to my normal cruising altitude of 10,500 feet.

 I don't normally put in a flight plan or get the weather because, as you know getting fax access out here is a friggin joke and the bloody weather is always 8/8 blue anyway. But since I had that near miss with a Saab 340 I might have to change my thinking on that. Anyhow, on leveling out I noticed some wild camels heading into my improved pasture. I hate bloody camels and always carry a loaded .303 clipped inside the door of the Cessna just in case I see any of the bastards.

 We were too high to hit them, but as a matter of principle, I decided to have a go through the open window. Mate, when I pulled the bloody rifle out the effect on Ron was friggin' electric. As I fired the first shot his neck lengthened by about six inches and his eyes bulged like a rabbit with myxo. He really looked as if he had been jabbed with an electric cattle prod on full power.

 In fact, Ron's reaction was so distracting that I lost concentration for a second and the next shot went straight through the port tyre. Ron was a bit upset about the shooting (probably one of those pinko animal lovers I guess) so I decided not to tell him about our little problem with the tyre. 

Shortly afterwards I located the main herd and decided to do my fighter pilot trick. Ron had gone back to praying when, in one smooth sequence, I pulled on full flaps, cut the power and started a sideslip from 10,500 feet down to 500 feet and 130 knots indicated (the last time I looked anyway) and the little needle rushing up the red area on me ASI. What a buzz, mate! 

About half way through the descent I looked back in the cabin to see the calves suspended in mid air and mooing like crazy. I was going to comment on this unusual sight but Ron looked a bit green and had rolled himself into the fetal position and was screamin' his freaking head off. Mate, talk about being in a bloody zoo. You should have been there, it was so bloody funny. 

At about 500 feet I attempted to level out. For some reason we continued sinking. When we reached 50 feet I applied full power but nothing happened; no noise, no nothin. Then, luckily, I heard me instructor's voice in me head saying "carby heat, carby heat". So I pulled carby heat on and that helped quite a lot, with the engine finally regaining full power. Whew, that was really close, let me tell you. 

Then mate, you'll never guess what happened next! As luck would have it, at that height we flew into a massive dust cloud caused by the cattle and suddenly went I.F. bloody R. You would've been bloody proud of me as I didn't panic once, not once, but I did make a mental note to consider an instrument rating as soon as me gyro is repaired. (Something I've been meaning to do for a while now.) 

Suddenly Ron's elongated neck and bulging eyes reappeared. His mouth opened wide, very wide, but no sound emerged. "Take it easy," I told him. "We'll be out of this in a minute." Sure enough, about a minute later we emerge; still straight and level and still at 50 feet. Admittedly, I was surprise to notice that we were upside down and I kept thinking to myself, "I hope Ron didn't notice that I had forgotten to set the QNH when we were taxiing". This minor tribulation forced me to fly to a nearby valley in which I had to do a half roll to get upright again. 

By now the main herd had divided into two groups leaving a narrow strip between them. "Ah!," I thought, "there's an omen. We'll land right there." Knowing that the tyre problem demanded a slow approach, I flew a couple of steep turns with full flap. Soon the stall warning horn was blaring so loud in me ear that I cut it's circuit breaker to shut it up, but by then I knew we were slow enough anyway. I turned steeply into a 75 foot final and put her down with a real thud. 

Strangely enough, I had always thought you could only ground loop in a tail dragger but, as usual, I was proved wrong again. Halfway through our third loop Ron at last recovered his sense of humor. Talk about laugh. I've never seen the likes of it. He couldn't stop. We finally rolled to a halt and I released the calves, who bolted out of the aircraft like there was no tomorrow. 

I then began picking clumps of dry grass. Between gut wrenching fits of laughter, Ron asked what I was doing. I explained that we had to stuff the port tyre with grass so we could fly back to the homestead. It was then that Ron really lost the plot and started running away from the aircraft. Can you believe it? The last time I saw him he was off into the distance, arms flailing in the air and still shrieking with laughter. 

I later heard that he had been confined to a psychiatric institution- -poor bugger. Anyhow, mate, that's enough about Ron. The problem is, I just got a letter from CASA withdrawing, as they put it, my privileges to fly; until I have undergone a complete pilot training course again and undertaken another flight proficiency test. 

Now I admit that I made a mistake in taxiing over the wheel chock and not setting the QNH using strip elevation, but I can't see what else I did that was so bloody bad that they have to withdraw me flamin' license. Can you?

Anyhow, mate, that's enough about Ron. The problem is, I just got a letter from CASA withdrawing, as they put it, my privileges to fly; until I have undergone a complete pilot training course again and undertaken another flight proficiency test. Now I admit that I made a mistake in taxiing over the wheel chock and not setting the QNH using strip elevation, but I can't see what else I did that was so bloody bad that they have to withdraw me flamin' license. Can you?

You Have a Right to Call It an Emergency 
---Best to call for help before you face ‘your’ emergency 
---If you think it is an emergency, it is 
---FAR 91.3(b) you can do whatever it takes to resolve the problem 
---If time permits radio your position and intentions 
---Low fuel is only 5% of declared emergencies 
---‘Lost’ accounts for over half of ‘emergencies 
---Use the 6-C’s; climb, communicate, confess, comply and conserve

Emergency Kit
I have four different medical kits that are designed for seasonal differences, terrain, temperatures, distance and number of souls aboard.

I happen to have this one home tonight that weighs 10-pounds:
Drinking water in 8 four ounce plastic packets. by DATREX
Four per day per person supply.
Has instructions in six languages such as:
Don't use in first 24 hours unless sick, injured or in desert

27oz Emergency Food Rations by Mayday Industries; 5 year shelf
life non-thirst provoking no cholesterol or tropical oils. 7x7x1 packet has9-food bars of 3600 calories. Three per day per person.

2 Para Red Rocket Mk 3 with instructions
2 Red Mk 7 handflare with instructions

1- 5" x 9" sterile wet proof pad
12 - 2x2 bandaids
1 - 40" triangular bandage
2 - 3-cut waterproof adhesive tape 5-yds x 2-inches
Much longer if narrow widths used.
Pupil gauge/flashlight

On person:
Leatherman tool

On Aircraft
Handheld radio
Handheld GPS

My others are more complete and weigh more
Lifeboat First Aid Kit
Complete personal cover bags
Medical kits

Mountain High Oxygen
Now selling a low cost oximeter ($199) At this price, anyone that flies with oxygen ought to get one, and be sure their oxygen system is actually doing the job. Besides the low cost, it's LCD display gives it a much longer battery life and better sunlight visibility than the similar (but LED display) Flightstat units.

I've learned a couple things from my oximeter: 12,500' may be the legal height to start using oxygen, but 10-11,000' is smarter for me, and I need to breath a little more deeply than usual, or talk more on the radio (talking to someone tends to force deeper, quicker breathing, which improves oxygen saturation).
Eric Greenwell

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