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More IFR Flight Lessons
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...Basics Come before Approaches; ... Airspeed Control Lesson; ...Tracking from/to VORs with Intersections and COPs Lesson; ...IFR FLIGHT PLANNING CCR TO APC;Student Preparation; ...First, All Headings; ...Second, All Altitudes; ...Third, All Radios; ...Fourth, Communications;Another CCR to APC Lesson; ...IFR CCR to OAK; ...IFR Concord to Oakland and back to CCR; ...IFR CCR to SAC; ...IFR CCR to SCK; ...Return to CCR; ...CCR to MOD ILS-28; ...MOD to LVK Clearance; ...Retread Flight Lessons 1 through 6; …Holding lesson (s); …IFR Lesson Twice Learned; ...IFR as It Should Be; ... ...Unable to Draw Patterns; .. Emergency IFR Descent from VFR; …Circling at Concord; ….IFR Training Flight; ... Web Plates and Flight Planning; ...

Basics Come before Approaches
Several different methods of presentation are used here. Some aircraft lack DME or ADF and even dual radios so the presentation must be different. For some flights there are as many as 200 different procedures that must be sequenced.

If you are having difficulty flying an altitude or a heading, doing an approach is an exercise in futility. You must be thinking ahead of each intersection. You must preset your ATIS for your destination and get it before contacting your destination approach control. Write down the frequencies in their anticipated sequence. Concentrate your communications on only
one radio.

One way to prepare is to make an intersection by intersection tablet to help you both anticipate and prepare ahead of the aircraft where possible. Experienced pilots may enjoy finding errors in the presentations. Rehearse the radio work where you must tell ATC your intentions from the first approach until your departure. Get it right the first time.

Even off-airway you should set up intersecting airways to keep track of your progress and be prepared at all times to give ETAs as may be requested by ATC. It happens. to make the process easier work out two speeds that you intend to use for cruise and approach. Make a time/distance chart for each.

Airspeed Control Lesson (VFR)
This begins with a climb to 2700 msl over terrain slightly below 2000 msl. This gives us up to 5700 agl in which to practice our airspeed control. From level cruise we fly a specified aircraft heading and at a specified time we see how long it takes us to establish a hands-off level low cruise speed of 90 knots. We do this several times going to level crusie and then to low cruise. Each time we are trying to improve our time of transition. We are taping everything we do so that we can index the required time, trim, attitude, and power setting. We are working intensively to make the transition as efficient as possible while holding heading.

Our next transition is to transition from level cruise to a Vy climb which requires that we set the attitude, full power and trim for Vy (75knots for C-172) land then level off at level cruise hands-off. This requires careful judgment of leading the leveling off, power reduction, power setting and trim while holding heading. Proper use of rudder pressure is essential. This exercise could be repeated in 1000 foot steps three times before executing an emergency descent down to 2700.

The next series of climbs should be done at 90 knots with level flight also done at 90 knots. The same sequence of adjustments are required but to a slightly different degree. This series of steps could be done in 500 foot increments so more changes can be made in the same period of time.

The final series of steps could consist of everything being done at 90 knots with one step up, one minute level and one step down. This to be followed by two steps up and two level segments followed by two steps down with two level segments. These exercises are very intense and could be broken up by some VOR radial tracking. The steps and segments could be given additional challenge by timing with the clock or tracking a radial. I use a step-down localizer to show the practical application of this required skill.

Tracking From/to VORs with Intersections and COPs Lesson
This lesson begins by going over the route and intersections as they exist on a chart. The second step is to sit in the cockpit and go through the sequence of VOR OBS settings, frequencies and idents as required for the route. This means discussion about where the OBS needle will be, anticipation of the next frequency and OBS setting while keeping aware of where you are and remaining on track. The important of the change-over-point as where you must change frequency from VOR to VOR and the OBS change required when you reverse your track. There is a very useful follow up of these two lessons if weather conditions will allow them to be accomplished in actual conditions. I have always found ATC very cooperative in allowing block altitudes and direct routes. One problem is that their computer requires for you to name a destination airport. You can amend your destination or ask for a repeat of the route before proceeding to your destination.

Tower en route CCR to APC
Two approaches will be made. The first approach will be VFR if conditions permit.

Cessna one four zero seven uniform is cleared to Napa airport via Buchanan seven departure, Skaggs transition, direct. Climb and maintain three thousand (later amended to four thousand). Departure will be one one niner point niner. Squawk four five three one. Advise this frequency when ready.

First all headings
Runway to 600'... to CCR VOR (360 + 10 degrees)...
--281 degrees; to SGD VOR...
--230 degrees; till past SEAPO..
--185 degrees; Procedure outbound.
--005 degrees; Procedure inbound...Required report
050-degrees inbound to SGD VOR and airport...FAF required report missed approach left turn (wide) to SGD VOR for direct holding entry left turns. The wide circle direct to VOR on about a 200-degree heading will allow a direct entry. A tight turn will necessitate a parallel outbound.
--347 degrees; outbound...
--167 degrees; inbound

Second All Altitudes
At 500' ...
--climbing direct to CCR VOR
--direct to SGD VOR
--level and maintaining 3(4)000.
--When cleared for approach out bound from SGD at 2900..
--2600 inbound to SGD...
--1700 at SEAPO...
--420 direct Rwy 6 or
--620 circling at SGD

Third All Radios
Clearance118.75 ATIS 124.7
Preset frequences:
CCR 117.0/350 SGD112.1/101APC ATIS 124.05
119.7 takeoff

APC Twr 118.7 117.0/281 OAK116.8/347
Halfway to SGD at CCR VOR Travis Appch APC ATIS 124.05
119.9 112.1/281 116.2/351OAK Center 127.8 112.1/230SGD VORSEAPO 112.1/050

118.75 Concord clearance Cessna 1407U East Ramp IFR CCR to APC
Cessna 172/U ready to copy.
ATC--Cessna 1407U clearance on request.
Concord ground Cessna 1407UEast Ramp taxi with (ATIS)
ATC--Cessna 07U taxi to (runway) Cessna 1407U clearance...
07U ready to copy
ATC--Cessna 1407U is cleared to Napa airport via Buchanan 7 departure, Skaggs transition direct. Climb and maintain 3000. Departure 119.9 and Squawk 4531. Advise this frequency when ready.
07U read back... Cessna 1407Uis cleared to Napa airport via Buchanan 7 departure, Skaggs transition direct. Climb and maintain 3000. Departure 119.9 Squawk 4531. Will advise when ready.
07U ready 07U monitor tower07U
ATC--07U is cleared for takeoff (runway)--07U contact Travis Approach on 119.9
ATC--07U to 119.9Travis Approach Cessna 14
07U Out of (altitude) for 3000
ATC--07U report the VOR for radar identification
07U will report the VOR
ATC--07U VOR 07U ident
ATC--07U radar contact over the Concord VOR 07U say altitude
07U level at 3000
ATC--07U contact Oakland Center on 127.8
07U to 127.8
Oakland Center Cessna 1407U level at 3000
ATC--07U roger that
ATC--Cessna 07U is cleared for the approach maintain 3000 until crossing the VOR
Cessna 07U cleared for approach will maintain 3000 until crossing VOR.
ATC--07U advise intentions after approach.
07U will execute missed approach in VFR conditions. Will then proceed VFR to CCR.
ATC--07U contact Napa tower on 118.7
07U to 118.7
Napa tower Cessna 1407U inbound
ATC--07U report the VOR
07U will report the VOR
ATC--07U report missed
07U will report missed.
07U missed approach
ATC--07U contact Center 127.8
07U to 127.8
Oakland center Cessna 1407U executing published missed.
Canceling IFR but will accept advisories while holding at VOR
07U squawk ...etc.

Another CCR to APC Lesson
The procedure turn is no longer allowed at Napa for the VOR approach. Vectors only.
I just ran through this with a beginning IFR student today. I'll run through the 'lesson' since the situation is unique. You asked about using the DME to locate a VDP. Shouldn't be hard to find a 2-mile final VDP or a one or three mile DME distance to make the down-wind turn. My 'student' is in the process of buying a Cutlass and wanted to fly. He has passed the IFR written without ever having a lesson. Did so, just to get it out of the way.

I agreed to take him up and do a couple of visual approaches for the purpose of letting him become familiar with procedures and to see just where the procedures take you. If you are familiar with my web site, you know that I tape record all ground and flight training. I also usually walk through this on the ground but did not this time because it was supposed to be all-visual and I would take the radio load.

Before I take a student up, I go over the route and plates in terms of flight direction, altitudes, radio frequencies and procedures. We agreed that I would do all the radio work. We made a nav/com chart for both #'s 1 and 2 radios. Included all frequencies and radials. Napa has a VDP so I explained its purpose.

Using the area chart I went through the DP for Concord, CA and the VOR 6 approach to Napa, CA. I went over the expected clearance with him and together we wrote it out. The clearance came as expected and I read it back. We departed and things were as planned except they changed approaches on us.

Good student lesson since I had insisted that he take out all the plates for both our departure and arrival airports. Good lesson, since we had prepared the VOR-6 approach. We studied the LOC-36 We got several vectors for spacing and was set up for arrival to localizer 36 close in and high. Faster traffic was following. FAF was at 1800 and we were vectored in at 4000. We had no chance of making it from that altitude and distance and not enough time to get established and pick up our FAF radial.

FAF was off a VOR radial and we were not only high but also late in making contact with tower. In the clouds several minutes. (My fault...this approach requires a rapid descent and I let the student let down at about 700 fpm which was not fast enough. I missed the time too.)

Tower had given us an option for straight in to 36 or a downwind to 24. I now wonder if approach told tower that we were high. When we broke out we were too high for 36 so I told tower we would take the downwind to 24 and make a short approach to clear airport for next aircraft inbound. Less than .2 actual but enjoyed by student. Lunch break gave time to go over what we had done and let student rest.

Spent an hour going over our return trip. Return as IFR required that we do a pop-up to ZOA. Used area chart to plan route and set up. At CCR we would use the LDA 19 approach. CCR usually uses 32 for noise abatement so I explained the circling altitude and the absence of a VDP. I also showed how the timing for the approach used the end of the runway for our MAP meant that an approach carried for the full time could make a landing somewhere between difficult and impossible. Recently, airport had an aircraft run off the end of 19 because tower did not change runways.

Using the chart I went over with the student how we could develop both a straight-in and circling VDP. The time for the approach was 2:16. The circling altitude was 580 and the MDA for the straight in was 380. This particular circling is usually done before reaching the airport but can be done when beyond the airport just as easily.

We departed Napa and did an IFR pop-up request to Concord. I just told the ZOA controller that we were off Napa en route Concord and wanted to follow Victor 108 doing our own navigation. After a brief altitude hold at 2000 we were set free to 3000 and handed off to Travis Approach. I indicated that we wanted to do our own nav and we were cleared for the approach and told to report procedure turn inbound. I reported leaving altitudes until we were handed off to the tower. Student flew via V-108 visually, tracked to the NDB and turned outbound on the localizer, did the procedure turn and tracked the localizer down to 380'. I remembered to report procedure turn inbound and FAF.

To make VDP (Visual Downwind Point) (Visual Descent Point)
Use the 2:16 time and add or subtract the first to digits of the MDA for each approach as appropriate. 580' rounded into time = 60 seconds or one-minute. 2:16 - one minute means that VDP (used to turn downwind before reaching the airport is done at 1:16. If crossing the airport allows the circling approach you would turn downwind at 3:16 using the same 580' as before but adding the minute. The VDP for the straight in would use 380' rounded in time to 40 seconds. Take 40(30) seconds off of 2:16. Close enough!

Student came away from lesson on a 'high'. I had to help him with headings, altitude, and tracking the localizer but for first time was a good lesson. He now has a tape so give him an idea of how to do the following things:
Use a DP chart to anticipate a clearance
Use plates to make a frequency chart including both DME and NDB
Use DP chart to fly routes
Use an area chart to fly routes
Use FROM radials only as means of positioning
Add to taxiing checklist the IFR instrument checks
Make a pop-up IFR departure
Make a tower en route departure
See how actual 'focuses' your attention
Compare VOR and Localizer tracking sensitivity
Radio procedures for clearances, vectors, own-nav approach,
Get the ATIS early
Get behind the airplane on an approach
Forget to time the approach and miss a fix report
Breaking out of the weather makes everything better.
Better to prepare all approaches to airport

The new IFR Flight Planning / Enroute form is available at (aka

OAKRunning commentary presentation method:
Preset #1 Com to 118.75, #2 Com to 121.9, #1 Nav to 117.0 with OBS within 10 degrees of north and the #2 Nav to 112.1 with OBS at 10l. Set Nav #1 and #2 ident switches up and set Nav volumes so that idents will be heard while in flight. Set the ADF to 341 and make sure the markers are ON. After starting engine contact Clearance Delivery on 118.75. Give aircraft identification, equipment suffix, and IFR destination. ATC will put clearance on request. Place radio console switch on speaker. Get ATIS and contact ground on 121.9. Advise ground that you are IFR so that the IFR runway is assigned. Maintain listening watch on 118.75. On arrival at runup area advise Clearance Delivery that you are ready to copy on 118.75 and change 121.9 to 119.7 which is Concord tower. you will await clearance. When clearance is available you will be advised and asked if you are ready to copy. Say you are ready.

Clearance will be: "Cessna 1407U is cleared to the Oakland Airport via Buchanan Seven departure, SABLO transition, Victor 195 direct. Climb and maintain 4000. Departure will be 119.9 and Squawk 4231. Copied clearance will be:
C-1407U C / OAK Apt
V 195 D

Clearance will be advised of readback and clearance will be given verbatim as given initially. Clearance Delivery will tell you to advise when ready. You will so advise. You will be told to monitor tower for takeoff clearance. You will change 118.75 to 119.9 which is Travis Departure.

The tower will clear you for takeoff. Pre-takeoff Checklist. Check the heading indicator. You will climb on runway heading until reaching 5-600' at best rate of climb between 70-80 kts. You will continue best rate of climb direct to VOR. Shortly after takeoff you will be told to contact Departure on 119.9. You will acknowledge and then make contact by saying, "Travis departure Cessna 1407U out of (altitude) for 4000 will report VOR." Departure will give further instructions such as IDENT, report the VOR, etc. You will at this time also reset your other Com radio to 133.775 to get the ATIS at OAK when altitude permits. Set this radio switch to speaker. When you make the turn to the VOR center the needle with the OBS and then keep it centered with headings. This tends to be very difficult since the distance to the VOR is too short to allow determination of wind correction angle. Also the winds accelerate and change direction as you approach the VOR. IDENT.

At moment of VOR passage when FROM shows make left turn to heading of about 210 which will give intercept to desired 230-degree radial to SABLO. Change #1 Nav OBS to 230-degrees; and #2 Nav to 116.8 with OBS set to 347-degrees. IDENT VOR. Continue climb to 4000 and get the ATIS at OAK. When you have the ATIS, reset radio to 127.0 in anticipation of the handoff to Bay Approach. Set your altimeter. Travis will give you a handoff to Bay Approach by telling you to contact them on 127.0. Acknowledge and change 127.0. (On Sundays the frequency may be 120.9)

Establish contact by saying, "Bay Approach Cessna 1407U level at 4 and I have ATIS (ALPHA). Change 119.9 to 135.4 since that is the sector frequency to follow. Check heading indicator. Bay approach will then give you an assigned heading of 130-degrees, for radar vectors to ILS 27 approach to OAK. You will immediately turn to 130-degrees and while in the turn acknowledge by saying, 07U turning left to 130 for vectors ILS 27. Since you are now being vectored away from SABLO you will use your VORs to keep oriented.

Set #1 Nav to 116.8 with the OBS at 022-degrees which will reference V6 airway. Set the #2 Nav to 114.1 with OBS at 329-degrees both as an orientation guide outbound and the setting for HAZIE inbound. IDENT VOR. When you cross the OAK 022 radial reset the OBS to 060 and anticipate the handoff to 135.4. This would be a good time to IDENT the ADF.

When you are handed off to 135.4, acknowledge and establish contact by saying, "Bay Approach Cessna 1407U level at 4 and at this time include information as to how you expect the approach to terminate; published missed, full stop, another approach, VFR departure, etc. You may be told to advise tower as well. Reset 127.0 to 118.3 for OAK tower. Reset 116.8 to 109.9 the Localizer frequency and the OBS to 275-degrees . IDENT. ATC will shortly advise you to descend to 3000. You will acknowledge by saying, "07U out of 4,000 decending 3000".

ATC will assign new heading of 180-degrees. You will immediately turning right to 180 and saying, "07U turning right to 180". Shortly after ATC will give a new heading of 240-degrees; and additionally say the heading is to intercept the ILS outside HAZIE, that you are to maintain 3000 until established and that you are cleared for the 27 R approach. You will immediately turn right to 240 and acknowledge clearance by saying, "07U right to 240 maintain 3,000 until established cleared for approach". Check the heading indicator. Slow to 90 kts. You now must concentrate on maintaining heading and altitude as you intercept the localizer needle. In no wind conditions a heading of 275-degrees. When you have intercepted the localizer, intercepted the glide slope and initiated your descent set up your missed approach on the #2 Nav by putting in 116.8 with the OBS to 313. IDENT. You can do this because you are now inside HAZIE. Check the heading indicator.

Fly headings to bring in localizer and headings to keep the localizer centered. Fly the airspeed at 90 kts and make very small changes in rudder, yoke and power to keep glideslope centered. ATC will hand you off to OAK tower. Acknowledge and switch radios. Contact by saying, "Oakland tower Cessna 1407U inbound will report the outer marker". Tower will probably clear you as requested. Report the outer marker and note the time and confirm minimums of 254'. At minimums check time. The inner marker is about 12 seconds from runway.

I prefer to execute the published missed to PEERE intersection. This requires that we maintain runway heading while climbing to intercept the 313-degree radial of OAK and climb to 3000. You will have moved the #2 Nav to the #1 and set the #2 off SAU 072-degree (ident). You will be asked to hold below 3000 to avoid the TCA. I usually hold at 2800' until the hold is well established and then request a clearance to CCR.

A return for another approach or VFR departure is usually done by radar vectors.

Buchannan 7 with right turn to CCR VOR then SABLO transition with left turn at VOR to intercept the 230 radial to SABLO. Expect radar vectors before SABLO with turn to heading of 130 and further minor vectors to correct for wind variations. When abeam GROVE expect vector toward base of ILS and then a vector to 240 for 30-degree intercept of ILS at 276.Approach will be followed by published missed with climb to 500' and a right turn to intercept the 313 radial to hold at PEERE

Departing PEERE will be VFR below 3000 on heading of 030 to intercept and track to CCR VOR while descending to 2500 preliminary to tracking outbound on the 010 radial for the VOR 19 approach. The procedure turn is made at 2500 and then the inbound approach on 191 is made at 1000'. At VOR passage the descent is to 640' or 460 depending on aircraft equipment. Time is 2:04. VDP must be homemade.

Takeoff climb is to 600' and continues until reaching 4000' which is maintained until abeam URZAF at which time ATC commands a descent to 3000' which is maintained until intercept with the ILS and descent to 254'. Missed climbs to 500' and then is usually required to remain VFR below 3000' on the missed.

See above for altitudes back to CCR.

#1 117.0/ OBS is preset to 010 to the VOR. #2 is preset to 112.1/101 as poormans's DME to show where VOR is. #1 is changed to 230 on VOR passage and tracked toward SABLO. When initial vector occurs #1 is changed to ILS 109.9. #2 is set to pick up V-6 at 116.8/022 and then to 060 and then to 114.1 328 and 336 to keep track of vectors parallel to the ILS.
Once inbound the #2 is set to 116.8/313 and once established on the missed radial should be changed to 116.2/072 and the #1 changed to 116.8/313 for PEERE intersection.

#1 to 117.0/030 back to CCR. #2 to 112.1/101 as poorman's DME. On passage set #1 OBS to 010 for outbound part of VOR 19 approach. #2 OBS goes to 090 for help in starting
procedure turn outbound. Set OBS back to 101 on turning outbound for 1-minute. During
procedure turn set #1 OBS to 191. On VOR passage turn to 171 and reset #1 OBS to 171

#2 to 124.7, and then to 133.775. #1 to 121.9.
Concord ground Cherokee 39BC/Uniform East Ramp Shade Hangars with Alpha, request tower enroute to Oakland will copy in runup area. Follow taxi instructions acknowledge runway assignment.
Cherokee 39BC is cleared to Oakland airport via Buchanan 7 departure SABLO transition V-195 OAK direct. Climb and maintain 4000, departure frequency 119.9. Squawk ****
Advise this frequency when ready.
Advise: 9BC taxiing closer to hold bars and ready
At runway #1 to 119.7
Tower clears for takeoff
Tower says contact Travis on 119.9
Advise Travis out of (altitude) for 4000 will report VOR
Travis gives handoff to 120.9 enroute to SABLO
#2 Get Oak ATIS
Bay approach Cherokee 39BC level at 4000 with ATIS requesting ILS 27 approach
Handoff to 135.4 near 060 radial
Handoff to OAK tower on the ILS.
Request published missed in VFR below Class Bravo
Handoff to 120.9 going to PEERE and during departure to CCR.
Get frequency change, get ATIS 124.7
#1 to 119.9 for CCR VOR 19 approach with ATIS, full stop.
Handoff to 119.7
Contact 12l.9 ground.
Request change to unicom 122.95

Preparing for an Instrument Flight Lesson #5
Get out all the plates for all airports involved, departure and arrival.(In this example I am going to use Concord, CA and Sacramento Executive.) Highlight the expected route In a large area walk the route. Pick or mark spots that will represent the departure airport, VORs, intersections, changeover points, fixes NDBs, etc.

The Route
Since CCR has several possibilities after takeoff. Walk the route for each runway including the turn above 600' for getting to the VOR. At the VOR you must assume that you will fly through it before turning, so in order to intercept the 071 radial you must turn to at least 090 to make the intercept before turning to 071.

Now, note on the departure plate that the first intersection is PITTS but that the route to SAC will be a REJOY transition which is not on the chart but only on the departure plate. It is two miles past PITTS and is where you will turn to the SAC VOR on a heading of 016. Since we will probably fly through the 016 we must turn to an
initial heading of 000 for intercept of 016. This will take you to REJOY, COUPS, the VOR and SAC.

The Altitudes
We will now walk the route again but this time for the altitudes. Local government requires no turns below 600', regardless of departure runway. At 600' we will turn to the VOR and climb to our clearance altitude of 3 or 4 thousand feet. We will maintain that altitude or as assigned until cleared for the approach which allows descent (see plate 11-1) to 1400' inside COUPS until glide slope intercept shortly before the VOR and LOM. Since
we may need to circle we must consider a 500' circling altitude or DH of 219.

The Navigation Radios
Next we will walk the route and altitudes as we talk our way through the navigational radio changes and OBS settings. We will always fly the #1 and intercept on the #2. This practice prevents confusion when the stress level rises.

Prior to departure we set our #1 to 117.0 (ident) and 010. #2 goes to 116.8 and 022 for PITTS (ident) ADF goes to 335 On passing PITTS we will change to 115.2 and 196 for our REJOY (ident) turn. ADF goes to 356
To intercept the 016 we will change the #1 to 115.2 and 016 (ident) but turn to 000 for intercept. Alternatively we may lead the radial for interception. #2 now goes to 116.0 and 288 for our REJOY (ident) intercept
and then to 116.4 and 086 for COUPS (ident) #1 goes to localizer 110.3

The Communications Radios
We will always talk on the #1 and get ATIS or FSS on #2 #1 on 121.9 or 118.75 #2 on 124.7 #2 goes to 125.5 SAC ATIS

Concord Ground aircraft type, location, with ATIS request tower enroute to Sacramento Executive will copy in the run-up area. (IFR Runway) Readback runway assignment.

Ready to copy
Aircraft is cleared to the Sacramento Executive Airport via The Buchannan 7 departure REJOY transition Sacramento direct Climb and maintain 4000 Departure frequency will be 119.9 Squawk **** #1 119.7

Concord tower (Aircraft) ready on (runway) IFR Sacramento Executive
Aircraft contact Travis Approach on 119.9
Aircraft going to 119.9
#1 119.9

Travis approach (aircraft) out of (altitude) for 4000 will report the VOR (If Travis calls "Radar contact" no report required.}
Get SAC ATIS #2 on 125.5
Aircraft contact Sacramento Approach on 125.25
Aircraft going to 125.25 (Write it down just in case)
#1 to 125.25

Sacramento approach (aircraft) level at 4000 with ATIS requesting multiple approaches beginning with the ILS, VOR, NDB. Full.stop.
Published missed with holding, radar vectors, etc.

(Aircraft) is cleared for the ILS Rwy2 approach. Departure procedure will be left turn to 250 climb and maintain 1500 report back to this frequency
(Aircraft) is cleared for the approach missed procedure is left to 250 maintain 1500 report back.
(Aircraft) contact Sacramento Executive Tower on 119.5
(Aircraft) going to tower on 119.5

Sacramento tower (Aircraft) inbound on the ILS for full stop
(Aircraft) Break off the approach at freeway and make left downwind for 20 or missed as directed …
(Aircraft) contact approach on 125.25
(Aircraft) cleared to land
(Aircraft) contact ground…

Once we are in the aircraft but before starting we will make a complete run-through of all the radio changes required for the flight as well as what will be said by the pilot with the instructor acting as ATC.

IFR Concord to Stockton

The plan is to fly via tower enroute our own navigation from Concord to Stockton. First approach will be a VOR 29R approach to be followed via radar vectors to the VOR 29R with an IFR clearance via vectors to Concord for the VOR 19R. ILS 29 is out of service.

The process begins by planning the route.
Takeoff will proceed via a turn direct to the CCR VOR thence via V-108 to LODDI via V585 to ECA thence-direct SCK. Cruise will be at 120 kts. Departures and Approaches at 90 kts.

The route will have the following reference points:
CCR DP Direction Time Actual Time 117.0/010//112.1/101
VOR 3.1 Direct 3.0 /071/090 intercept
PITTS 7.0 071 V109 4.0 116.8/022
OAKEY 11.0 071 5.5 ATIS //114,8/171//115.2/177
LODDI 16.0 137 V585 8.0 115.2/137//116.0/137
ORANG 6.0 137 3.0 116.0/137//114.8/229
ECA 10.0 137 5.0 116.0/124 Slow to 90
Holding 7.0 374 Parallel 7.5 Reverse OBS to 304
SCK 4.0 304 2:40Time

Total time en route including hold and approach is 39 minutes.

En route altitude will be 4000' to ORANG where ECA is crossed at 1600 for the hold and crossed at 1300 for the approach. MDA is 340 and time is 2:40

Missed approach will be right turn to 050 and climb to 2000' radar vectors for the VOR

Return to CCR
Request IFR radar vectors direct CCR. Get CCR ATIS On handoff to Travis request
VOR approach own nav with ATIS full stop or published missed.

Route Time Actual time
RV to 300? 117.0/251 Get ATIS
OAKEY 11.0 251 5.5 117.0/251 115.2/177
PITTS 7.0 251 5.0 117.0/251 116.8/022 Slow down
CCR 5.0 011 4.0 117.0/011
Procedure Turn8.0 191 5.0 117.0/191
CCR 3.1 171 2:04 117.0/171 Time

En route altitude will be 4000 with descent to 2500 from VOR to procedure turn. Inbound to the VOR at 1000 and MDA 460 or circle at 640 missed is left climbing turn to VOR then via 044 to REJOY

#2 Radio
124.7, 118.25, 124.7

#1 Radio
121.9, 119.7, 119.9, Nav 117.0 123.85, Nav 115.8, Nav 115.2 Nav 114.8, Nav 116.0, 125.1, 120.3, 125.1 …123.85, 119.9, 119.7, 121.9, 122.95

IFR departure request
Piper 39BC shade hangars with ALPHA request tower enroute to SCK will take clearance in run-up.

Expected Clearance
39BC is cleared to the Stockton Airport via Buchannan 7 departure, PITTS transition V-108 LODDI, V-585, Manteca (ECA), direct. Climb and maintain 4000 expect??, Departure 119.9, Squawk * * * *
Piper 39BR out of 800 for 5000 Will report the VOR

Approach callup
Piper 39BC level at 4000 requesting own nav to SCK as filed via LODDI. and Manteca (ECA). Multiple approaches first a hold at ECA with a VOR 29R approach with published missed and hold at ORANG. and a second VOR approach from ORANG. Approach briefing (memorize or make post-it)
VOR 29
Frequencies 118.25, Nav 116.0, 123.85, 125.1, 120.3
Courses 137,slow up-,154, outbound one minute left turn to intercept 304 Reverse OBS
Time 2:40
VDP 2:06 or 1:50
MDA 340 or 500
Missed 2000' on 010 intercept 317R hold 287 T-drop 114.8/229R or As cleared

Approach callup
IFR Clearance to CCR will be fly runway heading contact 125.1 Clearance will be fly 270 heading direct CCR Climb and maintain 6000.
Frequencies 120.3, 125.1, 123.85 then handoff to Travis 119.9

Piper 39BC level at 6000 requesting own-nav for the CCR VOR 19 for full stop will report the VOR outbound

Approach briefing (memorize or make post-it)
Frequencies 124.7, 119.7, Nav 117.0 and 112.1
Courses 011,056, 236, 191, 171
Time 2:04
VDP 1:20 or 1:00
MDA 460 or 640
Missed Climbing left to 2500 CCR 044R to REJOY
Once established on 044 we will cancel IFR and land CCR VFR

Own-nav Route
Same as to SCK except after ECA direct MOD. Own nav to WOWAR requires an ADF. Alternative would be direct of MOD track outbound on 105 radial and pick up marker at WOWAR, turn right to 078 for teardrop entry into holding pattern. The inbound side of the holding pattern at 288/111.9 is defined by the ILS and the marker (NDB 367). The missed is a climb to 800' and a climbing tight right turn to 2000 with a direct entry into the VOR based hold in left turns 105 outbound and 285 inbound.

To do the VOR 28 approach you must intercept the 105 radial from the MOD VOR and proceed outbound for the procedure turn. This distance must be timed or determined by the poorman's DME if you do not have DME. The turn is 150 outbound and 330 inbound to intercept 285 for the approach at 900'

Radar vectors approximate.270 to V-195 and TRACY intersection IAF for ILS 25 approach.
116.0/229 TRACY to FOOTO Direct LVK. ILS inbound is 255 with VFR, missed VFR to CCR.

Altitudes and times
Same as to SCK except after ECA expect descent to MOD with outbound at 1800' and down to DH of 288' and missed climb to 800' and climbing right turn to 2000' for holding.

The VOR 28 approach has the same outbound approach altitude as the ILS, 1800 but on
the inbound radial altitude is a chop-and-drop altitude of 900'.

Since the VOR is on the field there is no time but you will be flying in close proximity to the marker. This in conjunction with the ILS plate makes it possible for you to make a VDP. By taking 90 seconds off the 3:24 of the ILS time you come up with 1:56 a time which at 900' you should be able to make a normal landing if you immediately put in full flaps, slow up, reduce power and have the airport in sight. Don't do it if you can't see the airport. The VOR 28 missed is about the same as for the ILS but the climb is to 1200 before turning right to the VOR. This allows a teardrop entry on the 135-degree radial for the published hold 285 inbound and 105 outbound exactly the same as for the ILS.

ECA116.0/124 toMOD114.6/124 radial from/to since 9BC does not have ADF. Preset #2 to 114.6/180. Then outbound via 111.9/288 (reverse sensing) to marker, right to 078 heading for one minute (draw on plate) then left turns inbound on 288. At the missed go to #2 and fly114.6/(centered once) and track at approximately 180 for direct entry hold in left turns.

On the ground at CCR set #2 com to 127.7 for MOD ATIS and get the ATIS before OAKEY if possible. Double check ATIS between ECA and MOD. After OAKEY Stockton Approach will be
123.85 but for approaches to Modesto you will be handed off to
120.95 SCK approach
125.3 is MOD tower

MOD to LVK Clearance
Climb and maintain 3300 at Tracy when cleared for the approach at FOOTO descend to 2800 on ILS intercept, cross
LOM at 2409,
DH 597
Time is 4:04

Departing MOD for LVK
#2 119.65 #1 will be on 125.3 with handoff to 120.95 and possibly another handoff to 123.85
in any case the next handoff will be of 118. LVK tower. IFR will be cancelled at DH of 597
with VFR right turn to CCR.

#1 114.6/270 and #2 116.0/229 on intercept turn to 229 and put #2 into #1 at 116.0/229 and #2 to 115.2/157 which sets the fix for Tracy after TRACY fly heading 229 and change #1 to 110.5 ILVK 25 approach. Missed will be VFR

Retread Lessons
I have a 'new' student who has recently completed 40-hours of IFR training at an FBO before being told that considering his lack of progress they are going to recommend that he find a different instructor. He was referred to me.

First Flight
The Student in question is 65 and has been flying since age 27. He is well educated and prosperous. He is 1/2 owner of a Cherokee PA 28 235 which has neither ADF nor DME. It has dual King radios that are older but work well. The "student' has 200 hours in aircraft. He is 'working on' his logbook so I won't be able to see it or make entries.

After talking with him over the phone, I referred him to my web site for some reading about IFR flying. I emphasized that difficulty flying IFR usually had more to do with difficulty flying the aircraft precisely and smoothly. He admitted that he did have flying problems. We agreed to meet at his airplane for a first flight that would consist of a review of tracking across a VOR.

When I arrived he had completed his preflight so I went over the proposed VOR tracking exercise. We were going to depart to the northeast and level off at 2700, intercept the 090 radial, fly to the VOR and fly inbound to the VOR. Two minutes past the VOR on the 270 heading we would complete a course reversal and repeat the exercise east bound. After two complete passes East and West we would do two complete sets North and South. I found that he had made some instrument instructional flights to Napa. I told him that we would do a filed IFR flight to Napa but he would not be under the hood. He had never done such a flight. It is a flight lesson that I feel very helpful in improving situational awareness. I walked him through the courses, altitudes, and said that we would go through the radio frequencies next time. He was to study the plate and procedures. He had never before actually studied an approach plane. He did not know how to study or review an approach plate.

A problem, 'student' did not know what a course reversal was. We walked through the process including the necessity for changing the OBS during the course reversal as we headed back to the VOR. Sensing a weakness I reviewed the departure process including clearing the final approach of the departure runway before taxing on it.

Further we reviewed what we would say to both ground and tower for our route. We depart the airport and as he is trying to intercept the 090 radial we begin to have radio/intercom problems. It is my first 20 minutes in the aircraft so we trouble shoot the radios without success. I note that the alternator is reading zero so we check breakers and exercise the master without success.

'Student' comes unglued. This has never happened to him before. I tell him to relax and we will return to the airport. His contention is that we can't land without a clearance. I tell him to shut off all the electrical and we will do a NORDO procedure to the airport. I did not realize that he had never heard of a NORDO arrival until our next flight. He kept trying to make the radios work while I tried to calm him down and get him to head back to the airport.

I changed the transponder to 7600 using only the battery half of the master switch. I told him we would over fly the airport at 2000, select the longest runway and depart outbound on a 45l degree course, make a course reversal, enter on the inbound 45 and watch for a steady green light while flying the pattern. The plan worked but the sun was so bright that we could not see the light until turning final.

We taxied toward the maintenance facility but the 'student' was so flustered by not having a radio that he went right past it and could not follow the taxi directions I gave him. We shut down and he arranged for the alternator to be checked out. I then took a few minutes to go over the procedure to use in the event of radio failure. We set up the next flight on an open date waiting for the aircraft to be repaired.

On leaving him I said that the lesson would be as planned regarding radial tracking but that we would do a couple of NORDO arrivals to familiarize him with the simplicity of the procedure. I went up to the tower to talk to the controllers to find out why we could not pick up a light signal. Their contention was that they had two light guns on us all the time.
Ground time 1.4 Flight time .8

Second Flight:
Four days later the plane was ready. I talked and walked him through the procedure with emphasis on the importance of reversing the OBS during the procedure to prevent reverse sensing. We would do this in radar contact with Approach but I would be handing the radio and traffic watch even though he would not be under the hood. "Student' insisted that he would be on the 'instruments' since he would not look out the window. Another misconception, You cannot avoid using the peripheral vision that is always available.

At the maintenance shop I was able to observe and follow the student through his preflight. I was able to pick up on some very basic skill deficiencies at this time. 'Student' climbed with full throttle and manifold because he believed that the 'cooling' effect in the carburation of fixed pitch aircraft existed in constant speed situations. He had never been taught how to determine neutral trim setting by reference to the stabilator. He was unaware that the ailerons had a lead-weight counter balance, as did the entire stabilator. His preflight never checked the flap actuator for lubrication. The right one was frozen. He did not make a practice of checking tires by rolling. Nor did he really 'clear' the runway approach course. He was unaware of the most direct route from his shade hangar to various runways. He did not check (by touching) the fuel pressure gauge after changing the position of the fuel pump switch. I could go on but my most basic comment is that. "Students don't fail, instructors do."

We made the first East to West track to the VOR along with the course reversal. 'Student' forgot to reverse OBS until reminded. Since this was into the wind we never got over two dots off. We did this cycle two complete times and then I told approach that we would work South to North several times. This had to be done into a direct crosswind and required making adjustments to variable crosswinds as well. The student got better and better at tracking but did not remember to reverse the OBS until the last time.

We departed toward Napa. I had 'student' take off his headset. We were going to make a simulated NORDO approach to Napa. I kept ATC advised of position, altitude and awareness of traffic. As in the actual situation a few days before we had great difficulty seeing a light due to sunlight on the windows. Due to traffic we made a low approach and departed on course to Concord where we once again made a simulated NORDO arrival. I don't believe the 'student' will have that difficulty again.It was only at the end of this lesson that the student revealed to me that the attitude indicator was always slightly cocked. I informed him that this was a self-defeating situation that needed correction. He agreed but it would take a few days. I planned that the next flight would be partial panel without the attitude indicator. 1.0 ground 2.0 flight

Third Lesson
Took area chart and Napa Plate and walked student through Buchannan 7 departure with Skaggs Island transition for a VOR6 Napa approach. Walked through courses again, Walked through altitudes. We used the charts to go through what we would say on the radio with me working as ATC and 'student' being helped through the proper radio procedures. All ground and flight work was recorded so 'student' could practice at home for the next flight that would be a visual IFR flight from Concord to Napa.

The most remarkable part of this ground work was that the 'student' had never been exposed to the "sum of the digits" relationship that exists to all 90 and 45 degree changes in headings. What this is that any heading such as 030 when you add the digits 0+3+0 = 3. 90 degrees from that we have 120. the digits when added equal three. As does each subsequent 90 degrees of 210 and 300.

I have no recollection of ever written that the same sum of 3 exists every 45-degrees. Adding 45-degrees to 30 degrees give 075 which when the digits are added equals 12 which when added again equals 3. Adding 45 degrees to 120 equals 165 degrees. 1+6+5 = 12 which added equals 3. It works but only as a mental exercise. Not very useful, unless you find the 45-degree pips on the heading indicator useful.. I do, when making airport downwind entries.

Next I use the area chart to explain how we would fly from Concord to Linden VOR doing two minute vertical S's. Two minutes level at 1700 and climb to 2700' in two minutes then level for two minutes followed by a two-minute descent. An additional load on the student required that he pick up all the intersections along the way. We additionally sat in the airplane and ran through the VOR frequencies and OBS settings for these intersections.

The flight went well. No attitude indicator all the way. We were making the entire flight at 90 knots level, climb and descent so it took him a while to come up with all the best propeller and manifold settings but it got better and smoother as we went along. We caught most of the intersections as the needle centered. The exercise seems to me to be a very practical and efficient to acquire the aircraft control required on every instrument approach. Next week we do Napa. Ground 1.5 flight 1.4

Fourth Flight
Watched part of retread's preflight. Showed him about the fuel caps and checking alternator belt. He pulled aircraft out of hangar and I got in. Took copy of plate and route and went over Nav and Com radio settings for #1 and #2. Showed student how we could get the departure ATIS and preset destination ATIS even before starting engine. Talked through the courses first including departure runway and altitude to turn to VOR. Determined the intercept heading we would use on passing VOR. Reviewed with him how close together the two intersection frequencies and OBS settings would be. Set up the first settings and change to the next setting immediately on passage. This intersection was used outbound to locate procedure turn and inbound to make step-descent inbound. Included times needed for procedure turn and to runway from VOR.

Ready to start. Briefly rehearsed what we would say and do throughout the flight with emphasis on giving complete information to ground for clearance and to final radar controller prior to making the approach. Each of these communications has four to five items to cover. He usually uses a separate contact for each item. We work on it but we will write these two things out in full next time. I work him through his expected clearance until he gets it right in writing.

The only thing left undone is the squawk. We start and he contacts ground and gives only a part of the required information. Good thing controller is busy doing something else and asks for a complete new call-up. I have rehearsed him again so he is more prepared…

"Concord ground Cherokee 39BC shade hangars with ALPHA requesting IFR tower enroute to Napa. We will copy in the run-up area. …" Instead of stopping he now includes all the arrival information that we plan to use with Oakland Center. No harm done but he still does not understand the system and who needs to know what. We are cleared to taxi to 32R.

He taxies to the middle of the runup area. Apparently oblivious that two other aircraft are on their way and one is already contacting tower. We do our runup and he asks if we should wait for our clearance. I tell him to advise ground that we are ready to copy. We are told to wait. Clearance comes shortly and he copies and gives a perfect readback. We advise ground that we wish to taxi closer to holdbars prior to contacting tower. Taxi approved and we are told to monitor tower for takeoff clearance.

This preliminary taxiing is advisable because of a shallow but abrupt dip for drainage between the runup area and the runway. I want my students to taxi around the dip and position the aircraft so as to see the approach corridor while awaiting tower clearance. We are told to taxi into position and hold. I must remind him that the pre-takeoff includes shutting the door.

We are flying without the hood today. I am trying to get him to realize where all the turns and radio changes take place. At 600' when we make our turn from 32 toward the VOR I briefly lower the nose so he can see the refinery towers that make altitude desirable? The radio handoff to Travis goes well including indenting but he forgets to say that he will report the VOR. Travis has to ask him to report the VOR and he has to acknowledge. Travis soon indicates radar contact so no report is required and he notes that fact to me. He is getting more proficient at reporting his altitude and altitude going to.

Our departure heading from the CCR VOR is 281 and he notes that our intercept heading will be 260. He sets the heading bug to 281 and turns to 260 but forgets to turn back to 281 when the needle centers. He then corrects to 300 and once again flies right through the needle. We get back on 281 and he is given the handoff from Travis to Oakland Center. At that time several things happen in rapid order. We reach our clearance altitude, the midpoint of the route between CCR and SGD occurs and he must respond to Travis and set up the Center frequency. An additional change in the #2 nav to set up SEAPO. Retread forgot to change VORs when passing halfway mark. Aircraft is not equipped with DME or ADF so use of radials becomes increasingly important. Center tells us to maintain 4000' while clearing us for the approach.

We arrive at SGD on 281 radial and on passage make turn to 200 to intercept. Intercept goes well and we fly 260 to intercept while maintaining 4000. Intercept and flight to SEAPO goes well and we turn outbound on the procedure turn to 185. We then turn inbound but before reaching 050 we are instructed to climb and maintain 3300 and then turn to 250 degrees. Retread has trouble with the surprise clearance so I have him to query ATC again and again until he gets it right. We reach 3300 quickly and turn to 250 for about three minutes before ATC turns us back to 070 for an intercept inbound on 050.

On interception we are cleared 'again' for the approach but must make our descents to 2900, 2600 and 1700 without informing ATC because of radio concentration. We are told to contact APC tower just prior to reaching SGD. Contact is made and tower tells us to execute our missed west of 18R. Time to missed point is very good even though we must break off early. Retread fails to climb on the missed and turns rather sharply and prevents our making the planned direct entry to the requested holding pattern. On hand off to Center we are cleared to the published hold and then shortly afterwards are cleared to VFR 3500 as we cancelled IFR. Even after three turns we have difficulty getting established because of winds and poor entry.

ATC clears us to fly the VOR 6 route at 3500 with the understanding that we will depart VFR for CCR over APC. Retread flies to the VOR on a heading of 150 while trying to intercept the 167 radial of the holding pattern. Doesn't work but we make right turn to intercept 230 radial outbound. Interception and entire course of VOR-6 approach is flown well. Seems that radio tension and confusion is the stress level that's causing his problem. I intend to be more precise in my radio presentation in the future. Good radio procedures greatly improves confidence.

We cancel advisories on departing APC and I give him vectors to intercept the LDA into CCR. Retread initiates a descent to 1500 and directed and makes heading changes with his feet. He is enjoying hands-off flying of the aircraft and does so while holding headings and intercepting the LDA all the way until we turn downwind at 1000' for 32R. Landing left something to be desired. He flared high and then kept slowing down until the bottom dropped out of the ground effect. He was tired? I gave airspeed readouts but he apparently didn't know what to do with them. Something for both of us to work on.
Ground .8 Flight 1.7

Flying Lesson 5
I had emailed 'retread' an analysis of the flight from CCR to SAC. This covered the route, altitudes, approaches, clearance, and radio/navigational procedures. Emphasis was on getting all the elements into our initial radio call to CCR ground and again to SAC approach on our first callup. Once again 'retread' arrived on time but not as I have requested which is to have the aircraft ready to start. Aircraft had not been fueled.

'Retread' had given me the 'numbers' for the aircraft. The numbers he used were always the POH numbers, which are for gross. We figured that we usually flew 600# below gross so I worked out the Vref #s with him and explained what they meant. During the preflight I found that he knew about the pitot blade and static system but was unfamiliar with the variations of the PA-28 wings and stabilators. We took a walk to see the differences. I further explained how the differences affected the way the aircraft were flown.

40 minutes later we got into the aircraft and after a verification of the two prior major radio sequences we fired up. He fumbled through the radio work getting it all in but the sequence was jumbled. I found he was unaware that some runways are for IFR departures and some are not. He thought the distinction only existed for landings. I will make him write it all out next time. We taxied out of the shade hangars but he took the long way to 19R which created a problem unnecessarily since ATC was directing inbound traffic the long way and us the direct route. He showed a weakness in situational awareness by not picking up of the inbound traffic. ATC fixed the problem.

He is getting better at positioning the aircraft in the runup area and for departure. He contacted ground for his clearance and copied it all correctly. We had previously written out a tentative clearance. When clearing the final approach corridor prior to getting our release, we had to hold for several minutes. At one time he began to roll without being aware of it. I said, you're rolling four or five time before he noticed it. Had he been facing the hold bars he would have intruded on the runway as a Gulfstream II was on short final. Not Good!

We were blocking the taxiway to the runway and a VFR twin asked for clearance around us but ATC gave us a clearance with caution for the Gulfstream's wake turbulence. 'Retread' correctly gave the takeoff and landing wake-turbulence avoidance procedures. This was going to be the last no-hood flight we were going to make. Instructor is still mixing up the airspeed numbers because the aircraft has mph on the outside. I told him to get airborne sooner than the POH specifies for gross where he usually rotates. We need a chart that gives the Vref numbers.

CCR tower was working a trainee who was getting behind. He was relieved by his trainer, briefly, as we turned downwind. Trainee failed to have us contact Travis. I tried to get 'Retread' to tell tower that we were going to Travis frequency. He had difficulty getting what he wanted out. Finally, he said, "9BC going to Travis." CCR ATC approved change but by the time it happened we were going through the VOR. It appears to me that 'Retread' is far to passive on the radio. I have discussed the various levels of radio assertiveness with him but old habits are difficult to change. We had turned to and intercepted V108 when he was able to contact Travis. His problem was that he had trouble determining the title of the airway.

Once established on the airway, 'Retread' did a good job of relaxing on the yoke and holding heading and altitude with hands off. I must backoff on pointing out the intersection intercept needle to him. We had pre-set the intersection for PITTS and it came in nicely. He had some difficulty setting up the SAC 115.2 radial needed for the REJOY transition but managed in time to make the intercept turn.

I have emphasized presetting the radios as much as possible. We preset the SAC ATIS right after getting CCR ATIS and before contacting ground. Now after getting contact with Travis he has to get the ATIS. Now things begin to come apart. I have tried to teach him to do all of his communications on the #1 radio and reserve the #2 for ATIS and FSS communications. He changes the #2 to 125.25, which is SAC approach while failing to get the ATIS. We never did get the ATIS. But by the time I get things straightened out he is red-faced and flustered, not knowing what to do. I get him back with Travis just in time to hear the handoff to SAC.

He acknowledges the handoff and we use a couple of minutes for him to rehearse his call. The plan was to request the ILS with vectors back to the VOR approach and then a published missed with a hold at SAC. While in the hold we will ask for the VOR-A to Rio Vista. This works and we are just outside COUPS when we are cleared for the approach. He is well aligned with the ILS but I must remind him to put in the ILS at 110.3 and report out of 4000 for 1400. He initiates the descent and catches 1400 nicely. SAC Approach reads us the missed approach of turning to 250 and maintaining 1500 feet. He contacts SAC tower and is told to report the final approach fix. He is apparently unaware of the different FAFs that exists on the ILS vs the Localizer approach. I must remember to discuss this with him. We are cleared to minimums and he looks down at the plate even though we have briefed the plate and knew that it was 219'. I have him level off at 600 since we don't have the ATIS altimeter setting. We set the time for the Localizer but his approach has been too fast and we arrive early. I call the missed on him.

He initiates the turn but forgets to tell the tower. On contacting tower we are immediately told to go to Approach. We turn to 250 and level off at 1500 and report to approach. The vectors and intercept that ATC gives us bring us inside the VOR so that the approach is not possible.

I use the radio and explain the situation briefly and am told to climb to 3000 and track outbound on 196 radial until told to turn back. I tell 'Retread' that we will execute a course reversal when the time comes. ATC tells us to track inbound. He is getting good at it but tries to tell ATC what we are doing. Unnecessary. Course reversal works fine and at three miles we are cleared for the approach. He reports out of 3000 for 1400 and we descend to l400 while tracking direct to the VOR. 'Retread is told to report the VOR which he does. At the VOR he tries the TTTTTs and gets it right with the new timer and descent to 460.

The time runs out and we depart as required by SAC tower to 250 and climb to 1500 but immediately request direct to the VOR and holding when handed to SAC Approach. Approach clears us the 2000 and then to 3000. I take the plane and draw in the heading of 166 which is required for the teardrop entry we are set up for. The holds work well but "Retread' punches the timer at the wrong time so I have him request the VOR-A approach to Rio Vista.

He does a good job of copying the clearance. We intercept the 189 radial and are cleared for the approach. I have to tell 'Retread' to report leaving 3000 for 2000 and have him set up the #2 Nav for HOODI and then PONTA as we step down to 700' instead of the published 460. He sets the time at PONTA and we arrive close enough to circle for 25 but I
tell him to report the missed and canceling IFR. We proceed back to CCR and make another left base arrival. I help him with the radio call but he is getting better at it. 'Retread' again has some difficulty setting up the left base for the right runway. Landing o.k. I still must caution him about stopping when clear and contacting ground. Old habits. He is tired so I remind him to order fuel on the way in. While awaiting fuel I review the flight with the major remark relating how with so many things going well, we must eliminate the intermediate mistakes. He seems pleased with his improvement. Ground 1hr Flight 2.0

Flight Lesson 6 (Preparation)
Concord to Stockton

The plan is to fly via tower enroute our own navigation from Concord to Stockton. First approach will be a VOR 29R approach to be followed via radar vectors to the VOR 29R with an IFR clearance via vectors to Concord for the VOR 19R. ILS 29 is out of service.

The process begins by planning the route.
Takeoff will proceed via a turn direct to the CCR VOR thence via V-108 to LODDI via V585 to ECA thence-direct SCK. Cruise will be at 120 kts. Departures and Approaches at 90 kts.

The route will have the following reference points:
CCR DP Direction Time Actual 117.0/010//112.1/101
VOR 3.1 Direct 3.0 /071/090 intercept
PITTS 7.0 071 V109 4.0 116.8/022
OAKEY 11.0 071 5.5 ATIS //114,8/171//115.2/177
LODDI 16.0 137 V585 8.0 115.2/137//116.0/137
ORANG 6.0 137 3.0 116.0/137//114.8/229
ECA 10.0 137 5.0 116.0/124 Slow to 90
Holding 7.0 374 Parallel 7.5 Reverse OBS to 304
SCK 4.0 304 2:40Time

Total time en route including hold and approach is 39 minutes.
En route altitude will be 4000' to ORANG where ECA is crossed at 1600 for the hold and crossed at 1300 for the approach. MDA is 340 and time is 2:40
Missed approach will be right turn to 050 and climb to 2000' radar vectors for the VOR
Request IFR radar vectors direct CCR. Get CCR ATIS On handoff to Travis request
VOR approach own nav with ATIS full stop or published missed.

Route Time
RV to 300? 117.0/251 Get ATIS
OAKEY 11.0 251 5.5 117.0/251 115.2/177
PITTS 7.0 251 5.0 117.0/251 116.8/022 Slow down
CCR 5.0 011 4.0 117.0/011
Procedure Turn8.0 191 5.0 117.0/191
CCR 3.1 171 2:04 117.0/171 Time
En route altitude will be 4000 with descent to 2500 from VOR to procedure turn. Inbound to the VOR at 1000 and MDA 460 or circle at 640 missed is left climbing turn to VOR then via 044 to REJOY

#2 Radio
124.7, 118.25, 124.7
#1 Radio
121.9, 119.7, 119.9, Nav 117.0 123.85, Nav 115.8, Nav 115.2 Nav 114.8, Nav 116.0, 125.1, 120.3, 125.1 …123.85, 119.9, 119.7, 121.9, 122.95
IFR departure request
Piper 39BC shade hangars with ALPHA request tower enroute to SCK will take clearance in run-up.

Expected Clearance
39BC is cleared to the Stockton Airport via Buchannan 7 departure, PITTS transition V-108 LODDI, V-585, Manteca (ECA), direct. Climb and maintain 4000 expect??, Departure 119.9, Squawk * * * *
Piper 39BR out of 800 for 5000 Will report the VOR

Approach callup
Piper 39BC level at 4000 requesting own nav to SCK as filed via LODDI. and Manteca (ECA). Multiple approaches first a hold at ECA with a VOR 29R approach with published missed and hold at ORANG. and a second VOR approach from ORANG. Approach briefing (memorize or make post-it) VOR 29

Frequencies 118.25, Nav 116.0, 123.85, 125.1, 120.3

Courses 137,slow up-,154, outbound one minute left turn to intercept 304 Reverse OBS
Time 2:40
VDP 2:06 or 1:50
MDA 340 or 500
Missed 2000' on 010 intercept 317R hold 287 T-drop 114.8/229R or As cleared

Approach callup
IFR Clearance to CCR will be fly runway heading contact 125.1 Clearance will be fly 270 heading direct CCR Climb and maintain 6000.
Frequencies 120.3, 125.1, 123.85 then handoff to Travis 119.9
Piper 39BC level at 6000 requesting own-nav for the CCR VOR 19 for full stop will report the VOR outbound

Approach briefing (memorize or make post-it)
Frequencies 124.7, 119.7, Nav 117.0 and 112.1
Courses 011,056, 236, 191, 171
Time 2:04
VDP 1:20 or 1:00
MDA 460 or 640

Missed Climbing left to 2500 CCR 044R to REJOY
Once established on 044 we will cancel IFR and land CCR VFR

Intersection by intersection Procedures:
Turn at 600 feet
Center OBS needle
112.1 at 101 as a poorman's DME, ident
Expect frequency change
Set up for the VOR-ident
Fly 010 climb at 90 kts, adjust ETA

Turn to 090 intercept
Set 071 on #1
Talk - report the VOR
Set up PITTS as 116.8/022, ident
Fly 071 climb at 90 kts, cruise at 120, adjust ETA

Set up #2 OAKEY at 115.2/ 177, ident
Expect change to 123.85 at OAKEY and saying what you want to do.
Fly 071 cruise at 120, adjust ETA

Change #2 to 114.8 no change in OBS, ident
Set up LODDI as 115.2/137, ident
Expect turn to 137
Fly 071 cruise 120 kts, adjust ETA

Turn to 137
Set up #1 for ECA VOR 116.0/137, ident
Set up ORANG as 115.2/229, ident
Fly 137 cruise 120 kts, adjust ETA

Set up poorman's DME for ECA with 114.8/192, ident
Request lower and hold at ECA with 'will advise when ready for approach".
Plan holding entry and first outbound heading of 154 for one minute
Set timer with right hand
Fly 137 Descend and fly at 90 kts. adjust ETA to ECA

ECA (ground preparation: Find radial from Linden VOR to end of 29R for PM's DME)
Turn to 154
Set timer - Start timer
Change OBS to 304
Set timer - start timer
Fly the hold to adjust for winds and time inbound. Use poorman's DME

After first acceptable hold advise 125.1 of "9BC ready for approach"
Be ready to time 2:40 inbound (Set PM's DME)
Expect frequency change to l20.3
Descend to 1300 outside VOR when cleared
Descend to 340' or as cleared inside the VOR fly 90 kts.

Published Missed
Climbing right turn to 2000 via 010
Expect frequency change from 120.3 to 125.1
#1 to 116.0/OBS to 317, ident
#2 to 114.8/229 ORANG, ident
Set timer

Start timer
Turn to 287
Reverse OBS to 137
Set timer/start timer
Time inbound
Advise ATC when ready for flying 'own-nav back to CCR. Make course reversal
ad fly to LODDI via #1 at 116.0/317 radial, ident
Set up #2 114.8/251 for intercept, ident
Fly 317 at 120 kts

Turn to 239 to intercept 251
Set up #1 to 114.8/251, ident
Set up #2 for OAKEY at 115.2/177, ident
Expect frequency change to 123.85
Plan for PITTS
Fly 251 at 120 kts
Get 124.7 ATIS

Change #1 frequency to 117.0, ident
Set up #2 for PITTS at 116.8/022, ident
Expect frequency change to 119.9
Tell approach that you want the VOR 19 approach via 19 and lower with ATIS
Fly 251 at 120 kts.

Setup poorman's DME at 112.1/101, ident

Holding Lesson (s)
We will depart direct to the VOR and proceed to intercept V-108 west bound. at 3300
Your holding instructions are to hold east of CROIT on V-108 in LEFT (sorry about the change) turns. (when you think through the pattern you will see why 'left'.)

After the second full pattern you are to proceed direct to SABLO via V-195. At SABLO
you are to hold south on V-195 in right turns. After the second full pattern proceed via the SGD 127 radial to COLLI intersection.

At COLLI hold on the OAK 022 radial in right turns.

After two turns proceed direct to CCR VOR and hold at CCR on the 030 radial in right turns at 2700 feet.. During the second turn you will contact Travis Approach and request your own navigation for the VOR - 19 approach to a full stop with ATIS

The second lesson will be to do the flight in the reverse.

IFR Lesson Twice Learned
Spent one hour with a student preparing an IFR flight from Concord to Oakland. There were no NOTAMS on OAK but I knew they were using a taxiway as well as the North Field while paving the 29 main runway.
In anticipation of problems I had the student take out his Hayward plates before the flight..

We spent a solid hour in preparation. All of the following was tape recorded. We went over the route expected in the clearance as well as the probable vectored route. We went over the altitudes expected all the way to the missed and hold as well as return and approach back to Concord. We went all the way through the sequence of radio communication frequencies and then through the navigation frequencies. Then we went orally through all the expected communications while I played ATC. Finally, I had the student prepare a practice briefing for both Oakland and Concord that he would do for me prior to the actual approach.

We requested a tower-en route clearance to Oakland. The controller indicated that there were delays going to Oakland. I told student to change request to Hayward. The clearance to Hayward is identical to the one for Oakland except for the destination. We did our runup and indicated we were ready. ATC advised us of a two, five and fifteen minute delay. I told student to ask for VFR departure. ATC thanked us and told us that we were cleared for takeoff.

I put the student under the hood and we flew the IFR departure, transition and usual vector route in VFR at a lower altitude. Nearing Hayward, we called for a pop-up clearance from Bay Approach and were immediately vectored to the LOC DME to 28L. As we entered IFR conditions (fog) I had student take off hood and when we broke out he flew and landed visually.

We visited the tower and were subjected to their new procedure which meant that someone came down to meet us, had us sign a registration book and pin on a name tag. (dumb) Asked about an IFR departure but told that prefiling was needed. When I mentioned getting out SVFR we were told that they had just gone VFR.

Strange that OAK can give clearances while HWD can't. We departed VFR with student under hood as soon as we cleared HWD's airspace. Flew direct to NDB at CCR and when we got closer contacted Travis for the LDA approach via vectors.

Landing was a circle-to-land using a short approach because that is usually needed in an actual situation.
You are required to keep airport in sight at all times. Interesting aspect of the entire flight as discussed afterwards was, even though none of the flight went as initially intended, every bit of the planning for OAK worked just as well as for HWD except for a few words of communication and some frequencies.

The change in plan, unexpected by the student, was able to fit easily into what actually happened with a considerable saving of his time and money.
Gene Whitt

IFR as It Should Be
The repetitive skills required for smooth IFR flight are ideally suited for adaptation to computerized flight. The
pilot is striving to establish and maintain the same combination of trim, power, attitude and configuration in one situation and then making a smooth transition into the requirements expected next. Getting 'there' is a blending of anticipatory scan, anticipatory control, anticipatory thinking. The pilot should be trying to leave one hands-off situation and move smoothly into the next hands-off situation. The pilot will be using the same scan series each time. He will know where and when to look to anticipate the changes as they occur. First, you see where you are, then you set the instruments for the desired change and you note the change occurring while planning at what point you will bring everything to a halt called equilibrium.

Skillful IFR flying is nothing more nor less than a repetitive series of transitions in altitude, speed, direction where the criteria for success is based upon anticipation and smoothness. Only when these basic requirements are embedded into a pilot's repertoire and achieved with a minimum of conscious effort can the procedures be flown with adequate mental reserves for the unexpected. The ideal is to become a human autopilot where every flight element is consistently the same hands-off level of proficiency

Unable to draw patterns
Pattern A (Flown in level flight with changes in airspeed.)
--All turns are standard rate.
--All straight lines are one or two minutes
--All southerly headings are at low cruise until turning North.
--All northerly headings are at normal cruise until turning South

Pattern B (This adds climbs and descents to Pattern A)
--All straight lines are one or two minutes.
--All turns are standard rate.
--All northerly headings are at normal cruise until turning South.
--Southern headings are at slow cruise until turning North.
--Five hundred foot descents are made during the last minute of the last southern leg and the last minute of the last northern leg start Standard followed by a climbing missed of 500' fpm.rate turn

Oscar (Oscar is a square with two circles inside and two circles outside at midpoint of each side.)
--Left 500 fpm descent
--All corners are standard rate at 90 knots 500 fpm climb.
--Straight legs are 1/2 minute each level
--Right 500 fpm descent
--Start Left 500 fpm climb

Emergency IFR Descent from VFR (Julian Scarfe)
* The research was conducted at University of Illinois Institute of Aviation in 1954, principally by Jesse Stonecipher, the CFI.
* The subjects were again tested by simulating instrument conditions, and asked to transition from cruise to slow flight, make a 180 degree turn, and establish a controlled descent. Each subject was tested 3 times.
* Of the 60 trials, 59 were successfully completed. The unsuccessful one involved the failure to set power to maintain altitude and continued the descent in a way that violated the success definition. It was considered
that control was not lost, and that if the aircraft had not become visual below cloud, the impact would have been survivable.
The technique:
Throughout, center the turn needle using the rudder.
1) Hands off the control column
2) Lower the landing gear
3) Reduce power
4) Set trim to a predetermined position for slow flight (95 mph)
5) Adjust prop and power for approx level flight at 95 mph
6) Note the compass heading
7) Turn using the rudder
8) Roll out with appropriate lead or lag
9) Center the turn needle
10) Reduce power for a controlled descent

It was noticed that step 1 was both the most important and the most difficult psychologically!The usual deduction from the 178 Seconds article is the rather negative one that pilots without instrument training are in big trouble if they enter IMC. I think the message that Stonecipher was trying to convey (and the result speak for itself!) is much more positive, that a little instument training can go a long way, even if faced with a partial panel and a complex aircraft.

Circling at Concord
IFR training that consists of mostly missed approaches is not preparing a pilot for the tight circling landing required. Consider the situation at CCR where all circles are to be made east of the LDA 19 runway for 32 right. Past experience has shown me that to overfly 19 before circling to the left for 32 that is now behind you is not the way to go. However, it does have the advantage of placing 32 to your left where a tight left turn of 240-degrees while keeping the runway in sight would be possible. Since the LDA brings you into the 19 threshold at an angle consider the possibility of crossing the threshold through the intersection of 19 and 32 and then turning a close left downwind to 32R and then reducing the required turn to 180-degrees. All of which allows the pilot, out the left side to keep 32 in sight. Instead, I prefer the use of timed reference right downwind turn with 32 in sight to the right side but any extension of this downwind has the multi-story B of A building as a hazard. Now what are the legalities of the circle? One, keep the landing runway in sight. Two, make a normal landing approach. Three, abide by all published circling directives.

IFR Training Flight
I had taken the day off of work today, knowing the weather was predicted to be IFR conditions. I also needed to get the oil changed in the airplane, so I coordinated with my instructor a lesson to fly at 9:00 a.m. and then take the plane to the A&P for the oil change. Well, the weather had different plans for me today....

I get to the airport at 8:45, do my preflight and meet up with my instructor. We would do 2 ILS at HKS, two back course localizers at JAN and then come back to Madison. ASOS reported 300 scattered and 1200
overcast with winds out of 340 at 9 knots. All the weather reports indicated stratiform clouds, so I did not expect any turbulence.

My instructor after my runup, called JAN for a local IFR flight plan to HKS we were told to hold, and then given our clearance to take off. I take off on 35 and 300 feet later in the air, we go into the clouds. We
break out on top at 1000 feet between layers. Seeing from above, it was a little more then scattered toward HKS.

We ask for radar vectors for our first approach. Shortly before getting to our first approach fix, we go back into the clouds. We start intercepting the localizer and turn inbound for the ILS 16 at HKS. Still in the clouds, start the descent. At 800 feet, break out of the clouds, and we do a low approach per tower instructions. I felt real good with this approach. We ask JAN approach for a second approach and do the second ILS to 16. My approach I felt was stable as a table. The ceiling dropped to 700 feet, so we decided to call it the day and go
back to MBO knowing this was right at MBO's minimums. We were in solid IMC at this point as the layers closed in and light rain was falling.

Because of traffic, JAN approach said they would provide vectors back to MBO. We intercept the 137 radial off the JAN VOR and start our descent down to MDA of 860. My instructor said for me to fly the plane, and he would look out for any sign of ground reference. I flew the 137 radial, and 5.2 miles DME, no sight of the airport, so we execute missed approach (for real reasons!). I follow the missed approach instructions JAN provided, turning 050 and climbing to 3000 feet. We head back to the VOR and asked JAN if we could try again doing a full procedure Alpha A approach. JAN approved, and we try again. No sight of airport, just
solid IMC. Knowing we would not land at MBO, we said to JAN, we need to go to HKS. JAN approves and we head to HKS. JAN provided vectors, so getting to the localizer was not hard. We start our descent, I am right on glide slope, reading out altitude every 100 feet to my instructor. We get down to 541 (200 AGL!!) and no sooner then we cross that altitude did we see the rabbit strobes. Because we were landing downwind (9 knot tailwind), I used every bit of the 5387 foot runway to come to a complete stop. Braking was hard as the runway had quite a bit of water, so I had to really easy on the brakes.

It is just amazing how the instrument works, breaking out and the runway is in front of you.

We waited 2 hours at HKS, and found that the weather was not going to improve. We saw 3 other planes that were inbound for MBO divert to HKS, so we hitched a ride to MBO by car with a pilot that had transportation
previously arranged. Needless to say, the lesson today was awesome. Minor inconvenience to leave the airplane at another airport but to see the system work the way it was designed is really something.

Needless to say, called my A&P and told him, we will not be back for oil change. My instructor will pick up my plane tomorrow (weather permitting!) during the day so the oil can get changed.

I asked my instructor how often has he ever encountered minimums on an ILS approach, and he said in 1200 hours, he has only diverted once, and until today, never had it as bad as today where he could not see any
ground reference at MBO.
Great lesson today!
Allen L.

Web Plates and Flight Planning
Take a look at Seattle SmartPlates. The plates are free and the software has excellent plate management and printing capability. Try SmartPlates on a new HP TC1100 tablet

From AOPA get each chart as a pdf. However, I found software to merge them into one pdf and therefor put two charts on a paper and print them all at once.

Actually there is now (possibly temporarily) some very good, free, software to get and manage plates:

I am now using it instead of SmartPlates, which I also have. Trip Pack is smaller and faster than SmartPlates and it does a clearer job rendering the plates for my printer.

You can print two-up plates directly from the app. Supplement it with FinePrint ( and you can print your own booklet containing whatever plates you want.
Add the $20 Jepp (aka "Classic") punch from and you are in the plates publishing business.

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