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IFR Student Lessons
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Twenty-one Instructional Experiences; ...A Series of Instructional Flights; ... First Flight; #2; ...#3; ...#4; ...#5; ....#6; ...#7; ...#8; ...#9; ...#10; ...#11; ...#12; ...#13; ...#14; ...#15; ...#16; ...#17; ...#18; ...Student's Story of Night Flight; 'retread' Lesson 5; Retread Lesson 6; Retread Lesson 7;

21 Instructional Experiences
---On the ADF receiver what does BFO mean? BFO means BEAT FREQUENCY OSCILLATOR. If a low frequency station does not have audio frequencies (voice) but broadcasts in CW or continuous wave then it is necessary to mix this frequency with the BFO frequency to bring it into the frequency of the amplifier stages before audio detection occurs.

---Student asked explanation as to operation of ADF. This was just prior to ground reference review flight. Set ADF to 990  radio station) and asked him to use this as reference for departure request to tower. Flew to 990 while climbing to 4000. Initiated left spiral descent over station. Student got good introduction as to ADF tracking skills and Instructor found that the ADF was an excelled device for teaching wind compensation skills during spiral.

---Departed on local IFR flight with student into known deteriorating weather. Rain and turbulence cause stall warner to stick on constantly so that communications was difficult. Break out of clouds at 4000' and see ground and location. Cancel IFR and descend to make SVFR return to airport. 130 hour instrument student (with another instructor) unaware that IFR can be canceled.

---Depart with two IFR students to shoot practice approaches at nearby airport. On return find that airport is below IFR approach minimums and that all aircraft are failing to make landings. Call tower and request SVFR to another runway. Am advised to remain clear of CZ and expect clearance in five minutes. Receive SVFR clearance and proceed over known visual references to airport in SVFR conditions. Land with no problem. Under certain conditions good SVFR is better than bad IFR.

---Field reported as sky partially obscured and 1 mile. Request SVFR and told to report over field in VFR conditions. Report over field at 1500'. Given SVFR clearance to descend in pattern for landing. No problem since vertical visibility is good and SVFR possible.

---Before dawn preflight. I note pitot cover flag on floor of cockpit. Proceed with rest of preflight. We take off in darkness. Rotate at 60, climb at 60 and cruise at 60. Flashlight shows pitot cover still on. Proceed to use known power, trim, and flap settings to make uneventful landing. Later took pitot flag and cover home to sew together.

---After seeing the problems created by large knee and lap boards I now encourage the use of a long narrow board with permanent data written with felt tip pen. Several clips along the board will hold other papers. I encourage students to write ATIS and radio frequencies on hand held up to window level. Hold folded sectionals up to window as well. Minimize head down in the cockpit time.

---Vertigo can be demonstrated on the ground. Select large open space. Hold a yard-stick to the nose with the head tilted well back. Make about three smooth turns left or right with the eyes focused on the far end of the yardstick. Stop, bend down and place yard-stick on ground, remain bent over as you step across stick and then straighten up quickly. Be prepared to fall.

---The presence of clouds, the absence of a well defined horizon, wind and turbulence have a debilitating effect on the thought and performance processes. The air work that has been in the past satisfactory becomes less so. Both the student and instructor will react with frustration at this deterioration unless the proximate cause can be identified. It is not enough to just discuss this weather effect prior to the flight but it must be pointed out for every maneuver. The change of visual reference needed under low visibility with greater dependence on the cockpit instruments is a new experience. This is a golden opportunity to illustrate the advantage of having indexed the power settings, trim positions. and sounds of the aircraft.

---Found that a large cardboard holding pattern with one side for right patterns and the other for left patterns very helpful as instructional aid. Would place pattern on ground in random positions and require student to select proper entry and verify it by a walk through. Student discovered that where the holding pattern requires a reversal of direction the entries can only be parallel or teardrop. The teardrop is always diagonally through the pattern.  After the checkride I recommend that all arrivals requiring a reversal of direction  be done by course-reversal.  Fly out-bound and make course-reversal to holding side.  Easier and more efficient.

---500 hour instrument student. Lessons months apart. Flies in between with other pilots. Student wants to do approaches. Spend hour helping plan and covering headings, altitudes, fixes, frequencies. Flight a disaster. Headings and altitudes very erratic even with instructor doing radio. Discuss faults and requirement that aircraft control come first. That night student calls and says he wants to do same lesson again instead of planned lessons. Student claims that he never makes mistakes except when with instructor. Second lesson equally disastrous. Next lesson to be on instructors nickel. Instructor will fly new airports (first time in 10 years). Instructor will prepare and fly. Student will observe act as safety pilot and critique. Good flight by instructor. Still don't think student realized his difficulty.

---Another 500 hour instrument student. Recently failed IFR checkride after 130 hours with another instructor. Went flying and practiced aircraft control, VOR tracking, descents, and holding. Pilot has good command of aircraft. Next time we meet aircraft is unusable. We go to have coffee. I ask student to show how he prepares for flight. Student takes charts. Makes a few notes as to headings and frequencies. In about five minutes he says he would be ready to fly. Instructor puts plates away and give student blank paper. Student asked to draw headings, altitudes, fixes, how fixes are located, frequencies, points were frequency changes can be expected. Points where airspeed changes should be made or anticipated. Also asked to note times, DHs and MDAs.

Student immediately recognized that in all the hours with prior instructor he had never been taught how to prepare for an IFR training flight. The prior instructor had been high time and a chief pilot who knew all plates by heart but never realized that his student had to spend so much time studying plates while in flight that he was unable to control aircraft. Student flying relatively fast and complex aircraft. Student in addition noted that by identifying the points at which he must anticipate slowing aircraft he would avoid what had been an ongoing flight problem of being far to fast, high, and unprepared when he arrived for the approach.

---Gave student area chart and asked him to show entry to specific holding pattern at VOR and airway. Unable. Took outside and demonstrated how every stop light intersection gave him the opportunity and time to make eight different holding patterns and entries. Walked through several pattern entries in parking lot. Student left lesson enthused. He indicated that prior instructor had never sat with him to give such instruction. I feel that the instructor failed the student. This student is a capable pilot, intelligent and willing to follow instruction. The student was taken for a "ride" many times by instructor. Most often to far away airports where nearby airports would have sufficed. There ought to be a law.

---After 20-30 minute delay departed IFR into actual IFR conditions. No sooner airborne than student began to have severe heading problems. Student complained that the turn coordinator was either not working or working poorly. We determined that turn coordinator was in process of failing and could not be used. Turned toward VOR and began tracking TO. Student unable to hold aircraft level or to hold heading. On two previous flight no such problem existed. Student had recently failed instrument flight test after three years of extended instruction with another instructor. VFR conditions on top but student unable to fly airplane and make radio changes. Instructor takes over radios. Student having aircraft control problems as we intercept localizer and begin descent into actual conditions at 3000'. Pass fix and descend to 1900 inbound to marker. Instructor changes to tower per ATC instructions. Notes that student in 30 degree bank and 60 degrees off heading required. Instructor takes over and executes missed climb at marker. Climb to VFR and ask ATC for expedited return home.

On landing, instructor leaves to make phone call. Asks student to be prepared to discuss flight on return. On return student says that when turn coordinator became inoperative he was unable to make turns or fly headings. Instructor realized that student had learned to fly, turn, make heading changes, and hold headings ONLY by reference to turn coordinator. Attitude indicator was used for pitch only. Student did not know of airspeed/angle of bank relationships or of how to control aircraft with AI except in pitch.

Lesson: This could have resulted in an unexplained fatality except for the fortuitous failure of this instrument. How the previous instructor never discovered this erroneous dependence on the turn coordinator during partial panel or other training is partially explainable. As the second instructor, concentrating on difficulties more directly related to the previously failed test I was just lucky. This student flew so well that there was never even a suspicion of such a peculiar scan pattern or instrument reliance.

---In prior discussions with examiners I have heard them say that they wish that IFR check rides could be failed for VFR reasons. Have been flying with three 500 hour IFR students who do not have some basic VFR skills. Example. Student did not know aircraft manual prohibited slips with flaps. Student did not know how to make a course reversal. Student did not know how to get reciprocal heading without looking at heading indicator. Student did not know how to hold airspeed during short approach. Student did not know why it was undesirable to give full call-up on every communication to ATC. Student had practice of never wearing shoulder harness. Student never pulled carburetor heat. Student did not know that slowing aircraft would increase sink rate. Student made practice of slowing aircraft (already slow) miles before VFR arrival at airport. Student neither had nor used checklists while preflighting and only occasionally while flying.

---500 hour pilot flunked IFR checkride because of lack of knowledge. Student asked to hold "southeast". Did not know related compass direction to term. Student uses Loran to go from A to B for most of x-country flying. Student could not, from the ramp, point to North or any other direction. When asked to point to cities less than 100 miles from airport and give approximate direction, was unable. Student had fundamental conceptual orientation error typical of California. California is considered as being Northern and Southern. More correctly should be called Eastern and Western. San Francisco Bay is more nearly east to west than otherwise. From the Bay Area we go North to Sacramento and Reno. We go East to Stockton, Southeast to Los Angeles and Las Vegas, and Northwest to Seattle. The confusion may be caused by the considerable curvature of the California coast line.

---Long instrument cross country. Student having difficulty getting squawk codes and frequencies. Seems to need to check plates for each digit of frequencies. On ground instructor writes six digits on card and flashes card at student. Student gives all six with no difficulty. Problem seems to be result of habit acquired in manual trades which involves rechecking every digit before doing work that cannot be undone. Instructor has devised program of flash cards with frequencies on one side with name on other side. Wide study area covering ATIS, towers, VORs, etc. Idea is to break single digit habit and give catalog of knowledge to remove pressure.

---IFR flight with VFR return to home field. Did same flight three times with Instructor buying one. Student ten years at home field. Tower approves base entry and student lines up on wrong runway. Instructor salvages arrival via radio. Next arrival tower approves straight in arrival and again student lines up on same wrong runway. Instructor salvages again. Students IFR work improving but VFR and flying techniques VERY deficient. Has flown 25 years. Resents VFR instruction. Turned over to another instructor.

---Same student calls 3-4 months later and wants to practice holding in preparation for checkride one day away. Go through holds at intersections, VOR, and NDB. Student makes every mistake possible. Good lesson. Told to proceed VFR back to CCR. Student makes good call-up and is cleared to make left base entry for 19L and to report 2 mile base. Student proceeds toward two mile final reporting point before instructor intervenes. Student contended that he was making a base entry to the two mile final reporting point. He doesn't know that he doesn't know. How about 50 hours of knowledge twenty times leaving him with only 50 hours experience.

---Had student referred to me who required only commercial single engine rating and CFI. Student had acquired ASEL, AMEL, instrument, and multi-engine commercial at Texas flight school. Met student at airport. Sat in C-172 to familiarize. Found student deficient in basic understanding of aircraft system operations and other essential knowledge. Referred to study program. Two weeks later had student prepare IFR flight to local airport. Met student and reviewed preparation. O.K. Flew actual approach into OAK and actual departure. First actual time student had ever acquired. Weird!

---Taking Instructor’s renewal flight with examiner. Examiner tells me that he is the student and wants me to give instruction required for flight to Oakland. Tell examiner that after takeoff he is to fly the entire flight using only rudder, power, and trim. The yoke is not to be used. Examiner makes perfect flight including the ILS to the missed. I enjoyed the performance so much that I asked to try it. It works. You must know your power and trim settings for every phase of flight. Most of the pilots I have flown with do not realize how much of a flight can be flown by rudder alone. Modern aircraft have made us rudder-lazy.

A Series of Instructional Flights with a Special Student
I had been playing poker with him once every two months for the past three years. I had offered to fly with him on several occasions. He contacted me for help. He had over 90 hours of IFR instruction and over 500 total. He had failed FAA check ride two weeks before. Main difficulty declared to be holding. All flights to MYV at request of student since Examiner has led him to believe that is where the next ride will be. (It wasn't)

First Flight
Our first flight was a review of basic IFR maneuvers and aircraft control under hood. Aircraft control and all maneuvers were of acceptable standard. Practiced ADF holding at local radio station. The student flew with a full fist on the yoke but no apparent tension. A good lesson with both student and instructor pleased.

I met student at transient parking at CCR. We went into the Sheraton and did some preliminaries. Previous instructor had never done any ground preparation with student. All flights were to MYV, SAC. and SCK except for required cross country. Student had never done an approach to OAK, STS, CCR, LVK, or SJS. These were the closest airports with IFR approaches.

Student had only been to one nearby IFR airport once. All flights were normally to distant airports. Student was not aware of operation and communications procedures specific to FSS, Flight Watch, or Approach Control.

I discussed with him how he could use car at a four way intersection to practice holding pattern entries. I diagramed the course reversal procedure for two minute tracking to and from a VOR. We departed to CCR VOR. Instructor handled radio with Travis. Student was able to track to and from VOR quite well. altitude holding was excellent. Some difficulty was found due to in ability to maintain approach speed during descents. Did exercise four times and then flew to 990 radio station using ADF and descended to 1500'. Made teardrop entry and tracked inbound twice but had time problem so proceeded back to CCR. Showed student how heading indicator helped 45 degree entry. Good lesson.

Second Flight
Had student plan IFR to Sonoma County. Met and went over flight planning and found it to be barely adequate. Student had no knowledge of Tower-En route procedures. Found that this was possible APC to STS. We made a time check chart for flight. 15-20 minute wait for departure due to heavy IFR traffic. Actual conditions with ceiling 600 and tops 3000. We departed 18R at APC. Shortly after lift off student notes (screams) that turn coordinator is not working correctly. Instructor tells student to use attitude indicator. Instructor opts to proceed since it is VFR 1000 and above.

Student is having severe aircraft control problems on entry into clouds. Instructor tells student to use attitude indicator. Student very tight on controls. Instructor has to help in turn to VOR and tracking. Student unable to follow heading for more than a few moments before entering banks up to 40 degrees. Turned toward SGD VOR and instructor had to make constant heading suggestions in order to keep needle in doughnut. Poor tracking, airspeed, and student unable to make radio frequency changes required. Instructor took over radios and OBS settings to ease student load. VFR but student under hood. Student, under hood, having difficulty tracking from VOR to intercept ILS a distance of about 12 miles. 90 hours of instruction? Student needs assistance to set all frequencies and OBS settings.

At STS ATC requested minimum speed for spacing. Student has great difficult in tracking ILS and holding airspeed. Instructor doing all communications. Student directed only to fly plane. Student had difficulty and instructor had to assist. Intercepted localizer but student having severe problems as we are in IFR conditions. Student freezes grip on control yoke of aircraft and flies needles off scale. Descent to 1900 at STS but at marker beacon instructor advises tower that we are executing missed approach at marker. Student 60 degrees off heading and unable to control aircraft. Instructor takes over. Climb to VFR and re-contact approach. Proceed VFR to PYE and ask ATC for most expeditious arrival to APC.

We make no procedure turn VOR 6 into APC with instructor closely supervising headings and aircraft control. Things seem to be better but not much. After landing and parking instructor advised student to think over why the flight went poorly and we would discuss after instructor made phone call.

Instructor returned and student advised that the flight went totally wrong when the turn coordinator became inoperative. Instructor admitted that he had failed to note action of turn coordinator during taxi out. When instructor returns student indicates that difficulty started when turn coordinator failed. He was unable to keep the aircraft level or on a heading without the turn coordinator.

On further discussion, instructor found student had no idea of angle of bank relationship to airspeed which would let him ballpark standard rate turns on the attitude indicator. Student used attitude indicator for pitch information. Student controlled all banks by standard rate indication of turn coordinator. Student controlled heading by reference to wings level position of turn coordinator and heading indicator. 90 hours and a sign off with this scan??

The fortuitous failure of the turn coordinator at moment of IFR entry may have saved his life. Instructor reviewed setting and interpretation of attitude indicator. Turn coordinator to be covered until further notice. Ball to be visible. Instructor noted that student froze on controls during communications, bumps, or changing radios. Student advised that manner of holding yoke was contributing to difficulty. Student agreed to work on finger tip control.

Student has never been shown how (90 hours) to prepare for an IFR flight. Does not know how to use FSS system except to file. Student has never done a tower enroute or pop up IFR flight. Student had never been walked through headings or drawn route of flight. Student had never made a dry run of radio frequency changes or OBS settings. Student did not wear shoulder harness as a common practice. Student did not use a checklist. Understanding of radio procedures and phrasing poor.

Student did not have an IFR instrument taxi checklist for turn coordinator, AI or HI. Student indicated that without the turn coordinator he was unable to make the standard rate turns required for heading control.

On further discussion, instructor found student had no idea of angle of bank relationship to airspeed which would let him ballpark standard rate turns on the attitude indicator. Student always used attitude indicator for pitch information only. Student controlled all banks by standard rate indication of turn coordinator. Student controlled heading by reference to wings level position of turn coordinator and heading indicator. 90 hours and a sign-off with this scan??

The student had done all of his prior instrument flying using his turn coordinator for turns and wings level flight. His attitude indicator was for pitch reference only. Prior to the failure of the turn coordinator his aircraft control had been excellent in flight. If the instrument had not failed the instructor would never have known of this extreme and incorrect dependence. Failure of this after getting his ticket could have easily resulted in a fatal accident because he became unable to control the aircraft in actual conditions.

Third Flight
Instructor assigns student IFR flight to nearby airport with FSS, Watch and Approach. Student again fails to fully understand the necessity of and how to prepare. Found student not well prepared for flight APC to OAK. Instructor goes through complete flight preparation and agrees to handle navigational radios. Considerable time spent on discussing correct radio procedures and avoidance of unnecessary verbiage. Flight headings and procedures much improved. Needs to work on light touch on yoke. Too focused on assigned headings and does not initiate ILS intercept until fourth challenge and reset of heading bug by instructor. Considerable S-turning on localizer and difficulty getting on glide slope. Visit Approach, FSS and Flight Watch. Distinctions between communications procedures covered. Specific communications in the IFR system covered as to procedures and reasons.

How had previous instructor signed off for IFR flight test without picking up on this? No partial panel?? Further found that student did not know of sum-of-digits relationship between headings of HI nor how to use 200/20 or +2/-2 to find reciprocals. Entire flight was a good lesson for all concerned.

Previously filed IFR APC-OAK. Did dry run on all radio and OBS settings. Good preflight and pre takeoff preparation. Did not track to or from SGD well. Radar vectors. Unable to get #2 OBS to set radials. Had to remind student of need to get ATIS and set up intersections on localizer. Radar vectors to final and cleared for approach. Student "locked" on heading assigned and unwilling to make heading change required to keep localizer intercepted and centered. Too focused on assigned headings and does not initiate ILS intercept until fourth challenge and reset of heading bug by instructor. Considerable S-turning on localizer and difficulty getting on glide slope. Student very high and unable to get aircraft on glide slope until well inside marker. S-turning throughout approach and unable to determine heading needed to lock localizer. Student rides brakes while taxiing. Brakes wearing badly.

Visit to Bay TRACON. Used screen to show student the "why" for certain specific communications requirements. ATIS and altitude, etc. Student unaware of how system operated. Visit to FSS. Took student on guided tour. Showed filing process. Showed radio system for FSS and Flight Watch. Student unaware of specific radio procedures for each situation and reasons. Showed weather cameras and radar. Showed tape recorder room. Student left with better understanding.

Returned VFR with student under hood. Practiced standard rate turns at different speeds using attitude indicator. Considerable time spent on discussing correct radio procedures and avoidance of unnecessary verbiage. Flight headings and procedures much improved. Needs to work on light touch on yoke. Distinctions between communications procedures covered. Specific communications in the IFR system covered as to procedures and reasons.

Fourth Flight
Fourth flight to original nearby airport planned. Student well prepared except for failure to fully follow suggested four column radio list. Instructor agrees to help with navigational radios. File tower en route. Student flies entire flight with light control touch. ILS flown down to 400 foot level in near hands off condition. Never out of doughnut down to minimums. Student ecstatic.

Storm conditions so decided to give student first actual with repeat of previous flight to OAK. Included necessity of planning for possible RADAR failure by putting in all VOR radials of intersecting airways with flight path planned. Found student did not know how to use FSS system for getting weather information or taped flight filing. Filed flight. At aircraft discussed weather and possibility that runway 9 might be used at OAK. Spent time preparing for this possibility. Sure enough runway in use at OAK is 9. We depart and are soon in IFR and turbulence. Gear HORN starts blaring in rain. Student has had prior experience with this problem so not as bothered as much as is instructor. Fly to VOR but get no reversal even though quick sighting of ground indicates that we are past VOR. Put student on heading for SAU VOR at 4000. Moderate turbulence.

Request return to APC of ATC. Left turn approved and heading given that will get us to SGD VOR. ATC clears and requires hold at SGD. Turbulent. Request lower of ATC. Unable but will allow higher. Z-level 5000. Reject and proceed to SGD. Hole opens which allows VFR descent to ground. Cancel IFR and proceed out of 4000 for 600' in VFR. Request special VFR approach to APC. Clearance given and told to enter left downwind 24. Entry made and uneventful landing made. Student unaware that IFR could be canceled when VFR exists. Other aircraft in area were making similar decisions. IFR to SGD and full approach would have involved at least 20-30 minutes of turbulence.

Fifth Flight
Flight to planned to scene of turn coordinator failure. Student well prepared except for failure to fully follow suggested four column radio list. Preflight made without checklist. Corrected student. Turned on master so as to see radio frequencies and made dry run through all frequencies and OBS settings as sequenced in flight. Filed tower en route APC-STS. Checked instruments during taxi. Good clearance copy. Instructor took off to show student about lift off with stall warner going flaps. Student usually uses 10 degrees. Instructor agrees to help with navigational radios. Student under hood, good track to SGD VOR. Good track outbound. Good altitude holding. Slowed up to 90 prior to Coati. Good ILS intercept airspeed and descent. Student flies entire flight with light control touch. Slight loss of heading below 1000'. Instructor made several re-settings of heading bug to help student hold required wind corrections. Approach almost hands off down to 400'. Never out of doughnut down to minimums. Student ecstatic. Instructor hit wrong button at marker so no time. Full stop.

Sixth Flight
Worked student on ground through artificial MYV approach, missed and holding. Instructor rewrote procedure to use APC and PYE SAU VOR's. We departed STS visually and did procedure visually. Surprised to find that student was uncertain about flight restricted area only 5 miles from his home airport. On simulated missed student failed to maintain Vy speed so 180 was necessary to clear flight restricted area. Aircraft has auto-seeking VOR which works funny and makes it difficult to use to determine intersections. Had to reverse usually sequence of VOR use. Student did excellent job intercepting and tracking to holding fix. Did two near perfect holds. Direct to SGD at 3500 and proceeded outbound to do practice procedure turn. Good. Student ecstatic.

Turned home on inbound leg for 45 entry. Student left gear and flaps down even though 10 miles out. Instructor decided to demonstrate efficient arrival. Full bore out of 3500 for 1000 PA at APC. 140 K. Steep downwind turn 120 knots gear down. Numbers, flaps down. High on final. Slowed to 50 knots until 60 on very short final. Could have made first turn off. Student tends to fly inefficiently. Rides brakes.

Seventh Flight
Student indicates that he is not feeling all that well but is ready to fly. VFR pop-up to Travis for LDA at CCR after getting ATIS at OAK and CCR. Needs practice making simultaneous descent and intercept. ATC brought in too close. Every bump (turbulence) causes him to freeze yoke and lose heading. Using 32, circle to land. Fair approach, good on time. 17 kt crosswind. Crab type landing poor. Instructor demonstrates wing low cross control landing. Perfect.

Tower en route to OAK. Student having difficulty tracking to VOR because of strong winds. Misses frequency change--Instructor covers- Reports VOR by stepping on someone--instructor covers but ATC misses. ATC tries to fly us back to VOR but instructor complains and we get handoff to Bay Approach.

Heading of 140 to correct for wind but Heading indicator off by 20 degrees so track is off. Instructor resets and ATC gives heading of 120. Cleared for approach. Good read back. Asked by ATC to maintain above 100 kts on approach or take 360 for faster traffic. Instructor opts for 120 kt approach. Student does good job for first time at that speed. Slight turbulence on ILS. At each bump student freezes on yoke and loses heading, otherwise o.k. Good landing into wind. At lunch discuss crosswind landing techniques and Dutch roll as required skill.

Depart OAK VFR and practice Dutch rolls. At APC request x-wind runway. 60 degrees at 14 kts according to ATIS. Student having difficulty getting aircraft slowed to approach speed of 70 kts and trimmed. 10 degrees of flap. Instructor approves because of winds. Turns final and wind proceeds to blow student off runway alignment. Student unable to hold sufficient rudder to keep nose straight with runway even though instructor straightens nose at least three times. Wing not kept low enough to slip over to runway. Instructor takes over at 300' and completes landing. Good. Student needs basic crosswind instruction.

Eighth Flight
Discussed with student all procedures, plates and frequencies for flight APC-SCK. Student does not use checklist for preflight. Showed some preflight techniques regarding flaps and oil. Very receptive. Pre-start use of checklist o.k. but had to suggest use of IFR checklist. Departed APC VFR. Instructor demonstrated soft field takeoff since student seemed unfamiliar. Flew to SCK VFR at 3500. Went through all IFR intersections and use of radios but no communications. Spent time showing student that he could make frequency changes while holding headings. Had student perform difference activities while holding heading.

Instructor made steep turn on radial to demonstrate how VOR needle would remain centered regardless of aircraft heading. Had student set up hold at ORANGE, Student obviously unfamiliar with doubling outbound wind correction. Had to make several patterns while demonstrating and performing.

Contacted SCK Approach and obtained clearance for ILS after holding at compass locator. Made three turns but ATC seemed to confuse our outbound with our inbound and cleared us for a straight in from 3000'. Very difficult and confusing but student managed intercept at half mile final. Full flaps and power off. After missed we asked for another ILS. Accepted vectors and student made acceptable ILS approach except for some initial difficulty keeping needle in doughnut. Student spends too much time re-setting heading bug. Instructor suggests setting heading from plate and making wind corrections to either side.

Execute missed and fly direct to VOR. ATC assigns 3000 but student persists in climbing at too low a speed so we are at VOR as we reach altitude. This necessitates acquiring approach speed while outbound teardrop heading and timing all at same time. Very difficult. We have exceptionally strong cross winds. On turn to inbound heading 60 degree intercept required. Intercept at station passage and proceeded outbound on heading with guessed wind correction. Inbound wind correction insufficient and again intercept at passage.

ATC advises extending outbound 5 miles for traffic spacing and at 2 miles re-suggests that we turn inbound and cleared for approach. We are at 3000'. Initiate descent to 1600 and then to 1300. Fortunately find wind correction so we make good intercept. Student makes good descent to altitude and good time. 20 seconds early to runway. Strong winds. Student exhausted. Student has had very little understanding or work on holding patterns. Depart VFR and student sets up OAKEY intersection holding west in right patterns as planned previously. Student makes reasonably good intercept and turn to teardrop entry. Needs practice.

Proceed direct to APC for straight in 24. Go over radio callup with student but he is exhausted. No cross wind even though ATIS says so. Student still grasps yoke tightly and jerks it back and forth on landing. Needs work on what makes good landings. Post flight discussion covers doubling outbound headings. NDB procedures. Plan to refly flight after student has played tapes.

Ninth Flight
Had to suggest use of IFR checklist. Setting clocks. Departed direct from APC to CCR VOR. Climbed to 3500 and did LDA complete route with procedure turn at 3500. Contacted approach and requested LDA, VOR and NDB. Radar vectors for LDA. Good intercept but had to execute missed at reservoir. Student needs work on missed. Freezes on yoke. Had not studied missed. Instructional error.

Radar vectors for VOR. Instructor had to suggest getting ready for approach with plates and time set. Good intercept but 13 miles out. Descend to 1000'. Told to contact tower Tower requires 1500'. Student confused and indicates that he is already at 1000. Told to climb to 1500. Good approach and good time. Kept well centered except at end. Missed still a problem. Told by tower to head north east instead of to VOR. Student again advised to get NDB ready. ATC flies us miles out of our way. (forgot us??) Given reciprocal course and intercept NDB after ATC discovers they have been vectoring for VOR. Excellent tracking of NDB but have to maintain 1500. Good time and heading hold. Return to APC VFR. Practice radio callup but student exhausted. Demonstrate flight down runway at 5' for long landing. Student performed well considering he was not feeling well. Instructor suggested no future flights unless student in 100%. Student still flying with top half of turn coordinator covered. Test set for April 9.

Tenth Flight
Student not feeling well so lets instructor fly approaches as well as planned flight from APC to SCK. Flight to LODDI good. Instructor demonstrated altitude holding and heading control. Made most corrections with rudder only. Good demo. Student insisted Instructor shoot approaches. He had never before watched an approach visually. Instructors??) Radar vectors to ILS. This controller allowed descent from 3500 so no such problem in descent as on previous flight. Initial entry and flight down ILS good until below minimums. Instructor had turned off markers on entry and failed to re-set. USE MUTE SWITCH FROM NOW ON. Missed inner marker. Poor at very end. Missed and returned for VOR. Entire approach and time near perfect. Shot NDB. Vector off 20 degrees for intercept but turned to 290 and held needle on tail throughout approach and heading on 290. Missed end of runway by 1/4 mile. Student very surprised when told that this was not uncommon if no wind correction applied. First realization by student of actual meaning of non-precision approach.

Returned to, APC VFR with practice hold at OAKEY. Held west in right turns. Teardrop entry. Had student draw pattern and entry. Flew holding directly into strong wind. Had to carry outbound 2 minutes to get 1 minute inbound. Student seems to understand what is happening.


Eleventh Flight:
Went over holding patterns in parking lot prior to departure. Left APC VFR direct MYV. Flew to NDB and simulated missed at 3.5. Strong winds. held at JOTLY through three turns showing how to double angle on outbound heading to make wind correction. Radar vectors to ILS. Instructor misread heading indicator and confused student by calling wrong heading corrections. Did second ILS. Student did well until last few hundred feet. Tight grip and over-corrections. Missed transition to ATC not good due to aircraft control. Later taught to drop gear before aircraft accelerated out of climb. Excellent VOR approach. Instructor shot NDB. Well done but one mile off to right side of runway. Suggested that student use Loran in conjunction with ADF, Returned to APC VFR. Had student set up RAGGS intersection for hold west. Went through procedure. Student much improved. Good lesson.

Twelfth Flight
Left APC IFR to VFR on top. Direct to Lampson. Over flew runway on 270 heading and student turned to intercept airway. Made 40 degree turn which required 110 degree turn to intercept airway. Instructor had student repeat flight down runway and turn to make 30 degree intercept with airway so intercept heading would be in direction of planned flight. Original intercept 310 corrected intercept 040.

Instructor/student agreed that Instructor would keep quiet through exercise and only take notes. Very difficult for instructor who likes to talk and anticipate mistakes. Flew to ILA VOR but student had misinterpreted Loran and was surprised when station passage occurred. Later claimed that this completely disrupted his train of thought. At passage student did not change course to 057 to follow airway. Not an obvious problem since ATC was contacted for ILS vectors. ATC gave heading of 020 but student flew 060 so after several minutes ATC compensated by vectoring to 320. Student never realized his error or how ATC corrected it. ATC very busy with 6 aircraft in pattern but very competent. Student shot fairly good ILS intercept except for excessive course waver due to TIGHT control grip and not selecting a wind correction heading. Executed missed approach and at 1000 feet turned to heading of 265. 265 is the 085 radial off ILA VOR is part of the missed approach procedure but student failed to make an intercept heading and instead paralleled. This took him direct to the outbound end of the holding fix. Student had difficulty leveling off at 3300 and getting airspeed and altitude set. Intercept with 329 off SAC VOR surprised student but he made the turn inbound. Set 057 off ILA at very moment of intercept so was lucky enough to get into outbound turn in time. Instructor advises to contact ATC on inbound leg and request VOR with full stop. Vectors and VOR approach O. K. Landed and had lunch.

Thirteenth Flight
Went over entire flight with emphasis on LIGHT control forces. Instructor emphasized use of one finger behind yoke to maintain descent speed and use of thumb forward on yoke to prevent 'popup' that occurs during wings level from bank and when stopping descent. Presetting VOR's and aircraft control. Walked through course reversal procedure. 500 hour pilots should know how to do a course reversal.

Departed MYV VFR and simulated intercept required in published missed. Planned intercept with 251 of ILA VOR and did VFR course reversal back . Student forgot to change after passage to airway heading of 057. Did two more reversals across VOR to correct procedure. Put student under hood prior to ATC contact. ATC gave clearance but student did not get correct X-ponder code. Noted by instructor but student showing fatigue and unable to give correct communication required to correct code. Helped by instructor. Radar vectors to ILS. Good intercept altitude and airspeed. Tendency to dive instead of holding approach speed with ONE finger on yoke and use reduced power for descent. Much better this time than before. Tracking to field usually in doughnut but still has not developed skill in selecting wind correction angle and locking on to it. O, K, approach, however.

Executed published missed without error. Good capture of intercept and altitude. Good hold. ATC vector to NDB. Student getting tired but does good job with altitude, airspeed, descent airspeed and flying NDB needle off 10 degrees for wind correction. Only error was in time which was about 30 seconds slow. Good approach. Departed VFR for APC. Instructor flew back. Good day. Student feeling of accomplishment high.

Fourteenth Flight
Departed APC VFR. Instructor under hood. Did hold at RAGGS intersection and flew until near ILA VOR. Student under hood and contacts ATC request ILS with pilot Nav. Cleared direct to compass locator. Student confused and uncertain as to whether fly heading bug or ADF needle. Instructor informs but takes several tries to register on student. Student does o. k. in flying to beacon but had to be advised the intercept could be anticipated by watching ILS localizer needle come in. Good intercept on localizer outbound. Good descent from 3.3 to 2.0. At 8 miles executes procedure turn. ATC advises contact MYV radio. Good time and inbound intercept. Student working hard on radio procedures. Only tight on yoke once or twice. Good glide slope intercept at marker. Good student effort on radio to give correct report. Marker lasts about 30 seconds and student does good job of picking time at middle. Initiate descent but passing through 500 glide slope flag give FAILURE notice. Momentary student confusion but instructor gives localizer minimums. Student still fails to lock on heading most likely to correct for wind. Instructor stay within 5 degrees of bug. Student wavers 10 to each side when close in. Too much.

Student wants to execute missed at markers instead of carrying time to end of runway. Difference of only 12 seconds but important. Execute published missed. Student working well. Makes good intercept turn and holds heading well. Some defects in missed execution to acquire 90 K airspeed. Good level off at 3.3 and intercept of 329 inbound to holding fix. A little slow in setting #2 to 057 for holding fix. 10 degree inbound heading wind correction. Instructor asks student to consider wind correction and time required for outbound. Student selects NO wind correction and one minute outbound. Surface wind reported 15K on the nose. Inbound time 40 seconds and entire time required to intercept inbound radial. Instructor urges next time to consider wind and additional time. 20 degrees outbound correction and 1 1/2 minutes. Student had to ask which side to make correction on. Student had tendency to stop inbound bank instead of holding standard rate.

Contacted ATC and requested VOR 32 pilot nav. Cleared from YUBBA. Student turned to 083 inbound, set bug and OBS BUT both he and instructor neglected to note that ILA still on nav radio instead of MYV. Out of 3.3 for 2.0 o.k. We finally sorted out VOR problem and made outbound intercept on 136. Made heading correction to track outbound. Procedure turn to 181 o, k. Time good. Student misreads direction of inbound turn on procedure turn and turns right instead of left. (Note: inbound procedure turn will always be AWAY from airport.) Intercept made o.k. anyway. Student fails to expedite descent but reaches minimums just on reaching VOR. Lots of mistakes but correctable. Greatest defect appears failure of instructor to give complete walk through of procedure before departure. Instructor relied too much on student to do adequate preparation on new procedure. Student exhausted.

Instructor executes missed and proceeds to published missed at 4000 feet. Parallel outbound required. Student does not realize that 30 degree cut across holding pattern is opposite direction for teardrop and parallel. Instructor draws procedure on plate for student but he still seems confused. Instructor executes parallel outbound and contacts ATC for another VOR 32 approach. Instructor executes approach. Having doubts that demonstration is going to be beneficial to student. Student seems tired and somewhat depressed. Instructor misreads altimeter and stops descent 1000 feet high. Student corrects. Instructor has same difficulty reaching minimums as did student before. Forgot to figure in 15 kt tail wind. Executes missed and goes home.

Fifteenth Flight
Depart VFR discuss with student holding at RAGGS. Student rightly questions holding low over mountains. Instructor discusses holding area as for jets near Ukiah and meaning of blue and magenta areas of sectional. Later student admits that most of his flying relies on setting LORAN and going. Instructor misses intercept at RAGGS and proceeds direct APC. #6 in pattern but make 45 to right downwind. Student has requested demo landing. Gusts to 20 kts 20 degrees cross. Turn long final and high. Student usually makes more shallow approach. Does not see control approach advantages to steep approach. May be difficult to change practice of so many years. Just as short final set up for landing, tower requests long landing for following jet. Landing accomplished but demo ruined.

KICKER. Instructor trying to reason why lesson did not work out. Driving home student claims lesson excellent. He had been partying the night before until 2 a.m. He had been drinking and had only 4 hours sleep. Was reluctant to tell instructor for fear lesson would be canceled. Right! It would have been canceled. At least student admission made instructor feel better.

Sixteenth Flight
DEPARTED APC FOR CCR VFR, Direct VOR. Student under hood. Good level off at 3.0 and track until close to VOR. Forgot to slow down until reminded by instructor. Tracked out on localizer but had to be reminded of reverse sensing. Procedure turn o.k. but somewhat late in setting OBS to inbound even though it doesn't function - still a good idea. Had to be reminded to descend when involved with contacting tower. Has to get priorities in order. Good track inbound. Missed still weak because of hold on yoke. We must just go out and practice missed procedures. Missed to VOR. Student forgot to set VOR outbound to 010 as required. Procedure and intercept o.k. Student forgets to descend on intercept. Student holding 171 on station passage but started to turn for whatever reason. Started time late but had to be reminded to turn OBS to 171.

Executed missed and went to Compass Locator to hold. Made good parallel outbound but was reminded to start time only at ABEAM indication of NDB. Had to be reminded of intercept heading for NDB. Instructor suggested flying direct to locator regardless. Made hold and executed course reversal to shoot NDB approach. Good track outbound and intercept inbound. Needs to recognize CCR's peculiar winds. If no wind correction obtained on outbound when on LDA or VOR just track direct to NDB and turn to required heading after passage. TURN TIME TUNE TWIST/TWIST THROTTLE TALK. Went back to APC and instructor did demo hold simulation of hold off VOR 32 at MYV. Good lesson. Student needs to get set procedure for each phase of approach. Next Flight: (APC to MYV again because examiner said this would be checkride. It wasn’t. Departed APC VFR. Climbed through hole and flew to YUBBA while practicing aircraft control at 90 kts. Still needs work. Set up YUBBA. Took several suggestions before student recognized that he was arriving at full speed. Slowed up and made good hold but missed wind correction a bit. By third circle doing well. Contacted ATC for VOR 32 but they requested that we do VOR 14 instead. Departed YUBBA on 083 and frequency of 110.8. (correcting error of prior flight) Good ATC communications and readback. Student crossed VOR and made outbound turn to intercept. Reset bug but FORGOT to reset OBS to 326. (first major error) Advised to reset by instructor. Flew good intercept and initial procedure turn. Reset bug for outbound and inbound turn but MISSED OBS to 181 of inbound procedure turn instead of 141 inbound to VOR. Mistake on instructors part to draw this to attention of student. Should have made the lesson better by letting mistake of GIGANTIC proportions occur. Good track inbound with some assistance by instructor to keep heading changes half angle. Good missed.

Seventeenth Flight
Had to get repeat of ATC clearance to published hold. Turned at 2600 to 230 (220 on HI) for intercept of 265 from ILA. Good heading but better if heading is held. Student set OBS and frequencies very well. Somewhat rough on leveling off at 4000, however. Made wrong guess on wind correction so first turn outbound held too little correction. Just intercepted as we reached YUBBA. Requested 32 VOR again -approved. Departed direct to MYV VOR on 083 radial. Half-angle tracking to VOR"s getting better. Good turn and intercept outbound and procedure turn. Good track inbound against opposite traffic. Missed OK but still some aircraft control tensions. Had to rethink VOR/OBS settings. Set #1/#2 frequencies backwards so had to fly #2 This is ok only if you can keep it straight to fly #2. Good intercept of 277 to ILA (114.4) Helped student rethink headings required.

Student still confusing parallel with teardrop. Planned to turn to 300 degrees at YUBBA while indicating that this would take him across the holding pattern in a teardrop. NOT SO!!! Parallel outbound required. Must turn to 149 parallel to 329 inbound. Change both frequencies and OBS settings. #1 to 115.2/149 and #2 114.4/057. Time at YUBBA good with inbound turn to 300 o.k. Instructor turned off radios during time required to get this straightened out. ATC had been trying to contact us for five minutes?? more like 2 or 3. Boo-Boo. MUST REMEMBER to reverse OBS to 329 at turn. Might be better to turn to 280 to give sooner intercept of 329. Good turn at YUBBA and made request for vectors to ILS 14. Good communications except for failure to repeat altitude restrictions (1600')

Inbound heading required 20 degree heading correction. YEAH, 20 degrees if you forget to check heading indicator against compass prior to approach. REMEMBER!!! Make a pre approach check list! Student consistently over corrected on ILS. Instructor reminded that Localizer is 4 times as sensitive as VOR to no avail. Student getting tired. Student blames 'turbulence' but it is only light occasional chop. S-turns 10-15 degrees each side of bug even after instructor sets at (guessed) angle of 138 degrees. Just because the needle is momentarily centered on an ILS does not mean that the heading you have will hold it. You must always be anticipating the necessity to the one HEADING that will lock the needle. Missed approach much better with radar vectors. Student stepped on ATC so instructor had him ask for all after heading of 270. Student getting tired. Fly heading of 320 and again complains of turbulence. Chop caused by Sutter Buttes.

Instructor points out position of ADF needle as aid to anticipate what ATC will do. Vectored nearly into NDB final. Inbound heading off about 10 degrees. 2 options. Fly direct to NDB and then turn to final heading or try to adjust heading to intercept inbound course. Instructor gives heading which may give inbound course of 141 but NDB refuses to cooperate. Instructor finally suggests flying direct. Student does good job going direct and turning to 141. Uses Loran to help make correction for wind. Good time. Good missed. Student very tired but instructor is relentless. Instructor requests Course reversal at 2000 after missed and flight to VOR with published missed as for VOR 32. Approved. Student exhausted. Instructor flies while student sets up VORs and OBSs for published missed. Had to be reminded of appropriate settings several times. Student intercepts and flies 277 on #1 with #2 set to SAC 149 for intercept. This brings needle in from wrong side...not toward station and may cause confusion. Instructor resets to 329. Student flies reasonably well to YUBBA and turns parallel outbound on the hold but inbound on the SAC 149 gets time. GOOD!! Reset #2 to 114.4/057. GOOD! After one minute begins inbound turn to 280 across hold to intercept 329 and remembers to reverse OBS to 329 for intercept. GOOD!!! At YUBBA we depart VFR without advisories.

A good lesson with some mistakes.
#1 Not resetting OBS on first VOR approach to outbound 326.
#2 On VOR 32 approach missed procedure not having written on plate the sequence of VOR/OBS settings required for parallel outbound hold. PUT IT ON THE PLATE, Instructional error.
#3 On ILS approach failing to not discrepancy between compass and heading indicator.
#4 FAILING TO IDENT-even once. Instructional error not to remind before flight. No time checks required because of nature of flight. GOOD LESSON. TOO LONG.  STUDENT FLEW ENTIRE FLIGHT WITH LIGHT GRIP,

Eighteenth Flight
Discussed parallel outbound holding patterns over coffee. Student still having difficulty. Suggested making Turn/heading; Frequency/ OBS #1/#2 chart to develop required sequence. Every combination of VOR location and position of fix can require different sequence. Did three combinations with student. Did MYV. YUBBA.

Left APC for SAC VFR. Had student fly most of way holding heading only with rudder. Set intercept to SAC 195 radial so student could track SAC localizer from far out. Student forgot to slow down prior to intercept. Contacted ATC for multiple approaches. Student flew near perfect ILS but we had to miss at freeway so minimums not reached. Radar vectors. Student still leaves out altitude restrictions on read-back. Student did not reset HI to compass and failed to IDENT. Vectors for VOR. Instructor suggested identing and Compass check. Student tried to reset HI in climb. BIG no no.

Student flew good VOR only getting out of doughnut once. Student not holding required rudder in left turn missed. Rudder trim set for approach so left rudder required in climbing turn. LOOK at ball. Vectors for NDB. Instructor suggested use of LORAN to get desired intercept heading. Good intercept but student failed to set in required wind correction so finally had to fly direct to locator. Outbound wind correction insufficient so inbound track 023 by Loran not 016 required by NDB. Not a bad approach for an NDB. Student did very well all things considered. VFR back to APC by instructor. X-ponder not picked up by Travis. High approach to 24 at APC. Slowed to 55kts to get down. Student recommended putting nose down. Won't work. Need demonstrate to prove!!!. Good lesson. Used fix sheet to discuss holds in vicinity of APC and CCR. Student needed a couple of fixes to get working well. Did first DME fix with him. Good flying except little tense on takeoff with full grip, Only became confused on three fixes. Good lesson.

Discussed how to intercept inbound bearing to NDB and establish holds. Discussed single VOR holding. Student had never made single VOR hold or had been taught how to fly a given bearing to an NDB. Student had partied night before but flew fair ILS and worked hard on NDB procedures. Ready for test. Need to know what he doesn't know.

Student had not really studied plates for SMF or prepared at least a basic requirement sheet for approach. He was not aware of latest change in all plates at Marysville. He was not aware of Arrival Plate to use for SMF. (Old habits continue to haunt him.) Spent a few minutes reviewing names of all intersections in area. Then simulated flight to all intersections with various holds. Student did well. Suggested that he do this at home tonight and include radio and OBS settings required. Needs taxi practice in winds. Departed APC VFR to CORDD to fly to intersection not via airway. Then did same to EMBER. Idea was to show how to read needles and plan which radial to intercept. Flew to ELKOE and held for SAC METRO (SMF).

Made checklist for airport arrival and hold arrivals. Student says will put on panel. Had to be reminded to use checklist. Habit. Student made two near perfect NDB approaches. Departed VFR for ILA VOR. Made series of holds at intersections. Good effort despite turbulence. Instructor screwed up one entry. Doing excellent job but needs to plan better for wind correction. Departed APC VFR. Climbed 2800 but had told student when out of 500 to time climb at 500 fpm to level off at 3000. Student missed altitude by 200' but did so with altimeter covered. Good!! Covered up heading indicator, vertical speed indicator, and attitude indicator. Took student through a series of left and right compass/standard rate turns. Altitude remained within 100' throughout with altimeter still covered. Excellent!! Had student reduce speed to 90 kts. Did more compass only turns. Student had set power 100rpm low so very slow loss of altitude. Still o.k. Removed covers and did unusual attitude series including use of flaps and trim. Recovery o.k. but not excellent.

Student's Story of Night IFR
Last night I had a good IFR training flight. I have completed 20 hours of IFR training. We departed Hooks around 8:30PM. The weather was broken cirrus at around 18,000 with haze and light winds out of the east at around 4-5 knots and dark night. Climbing under the Class B airspace, my instructor assigned a departure route along 2 victor airways and then direct to Daisetta VOR. I knew ahead of time that he would be assigning me the Liberty VOR-A approach.

About 15 miles out of Daisetta I started walking through the transition and instrument approach. For me, the hardest part of the instrument training has been cockpit organization. Between en route, approach charts, multiple checklists, flashlights, pencils, it has taken me a while to get used to the flow. Throw in turbulence into the mix and things get very, very busy.

As I crossed the initial approach fix and started to fly outbound towards the procedure turn my instructor asks me to take my hood off and fly the approach. This was to be my first lesson in the difference between night and dark night. Conditions outside where so dark that there was not an iota of visual reference to the side or the front of the aircraft. It looked like we were descending into a black cardboard "haze wall". The feelings were different than being under the hood. I liken it to feeling like you are dangling from a piece of string from the ceiling of a pitch black room. It was odd.

We flew the approach to MDA and then landed to take in the luxurious aviation center of Liberty Mun. I was impressed by the airport lighting and good quality taxi lights. My instructor was absolutely giddy. It was a fun and challenging approach for both student and instructor. Flight following back to Hooks with a vectored LOC approach and we called it a night.

Retread Lesson 5
I had emailed 'Retread' an analysis of the flight from CCR to SAC. This covered the route, altitudes, approaches, clearance, and radio/navigational procedures. Emphasis was on getting all the elements into our initial radio call to CCR ground and again to SAC approach on our first callup. Once again 'retread' arrived on time but not as I have requested which is to have the aircraft ready to start. Aircraft had not been fueled.

'Retread' had given me the 'numbers' for the aircraft. The numbers he used were always the POH numbers, which are for gross. We figured that we usually flew 600# below gross so I worked out the Vref #s with him and explained what they meant. During the preflight I found that he knew about the pitot blade and static system but was unfamiliar with the variations of the PA-28 wings and stabilators. We took a walk to see the differences. I further explained how the differences affected the way the aircraft were flown.

40 minutes later we got into the aircraft and after a verification of the two prior major radio sequences we fired up. He fumbled through the radio work getting it all in but the sequence was jumbled. I found he was unaware that some runways are for IFR departures and some are not. He thought the distinction only existed for landings. I will make him write it all out next time. We taxied out of the shade hangars but he took the long way to 19R which created a problem unnecessarily since ATC was directing inbound traffic the long way and us the direct route. He showed a weakness in situational awareness by not picking up of the inbound traffic. ATC fixed the problem.

He is getting better at positioning the aircraft in the runup area and for departure. He contacted ground for his clearance and copied it all correctly. We had previously written out a tentative clearance. When clearing the final approach corridor prior to getting our release, we had to hold for several minutes. At one time he began to roll without being aware of it. I said, you're rolling four or five time before he noticed it. Had he been facing the hold bars he would have intruded on the runway as a Gulfstream II was on short final. Not Good!

We were blocking the taxiway to the runway and a VFR twin asked for clearance around us but ATC gave us a clearance with caution for the Gulfstream's wake turbulence. 'Retread' correctly gave the takeoff and landing wake-turbulence avoidance procedures. This was going to be the last no-hood flight we were going to make. Instructor is still mixing up the airspeed numbers because the aircraft has mph on the outside. I told him to get airborne sooner than the POH specifies for gross where he usually rotates. We need a chart that gives the Vref numbers.

CCR tower was working a trainee who was getting behind. He was relieved by his trainer, briefly, as we turned downwind. Trainee failed to have us contact Travis. I tried to get 'Retread' to tell tower that we were going to Travis frequency. He had difficulty getting what he wanted out. Finally, he said, "9BC going to Travis." CCR ATC approved change but by the time it happened we were going through the VOR. It appears to me that 'Retread' is far to passive on the radio. I have discussed the various levels of radio assertiveness with him but old habits are difficult to change. We had turned to and intercepted V108 when he was able to contact Travis. His problem was that he had trouble determining the title of the airway.

Once established on the airway, 'Retread' did a good job of relaxing on the yoke and holding heading and altitude with hands off. I must back-off on pointing out the intersection intercept needle to him. We had pre-set the intersection for PITTS and it came in nicely. He had some difficulty setting up the SAC 115.2 radial needed for the REJOY transition but managed in time to make the intercept turn.

I have emphasized presetting the radios as much as possible. We preset the SAC ATIS right after getting CCR ATIS and before contacting ground. Now after getting contact with Travis he has to get the ATIS. Now things begin to come apart. I have tried to teach him to do all of his communications on the #1 radio and reserve the #2 for ATIS and FSS communications. He changes the #2 to 125.25, which is SAC approach while failing to get the ATIS. We never did get the ATIS. But by the time I get things straightened out he is red-faced and flustered, not knowing what to do. I get him back with Travis just in time to hear the handoff to SAC.

He acknowledges the handoff and we use a couple of minutes for him to rehearse his call. The plan was to request the ILS with vectors back to the VOR approach and then a published missed with a hold at SAC. While in the hold we will ask for the VOR-A to Rio Vista. This works and we are just outside COUPS when we are cleared for the approach. He is well aligned with the ILS but I must remind him to put in the ILS at 110.3 and report out of 4000 for 1400. He initiates the descent and catches 1400 nicely. SAC Approach reads us the missed approach of turning to 250 and maintaining 1500 feet. He contacts SAC tower and is told to report the final approach fix. He is apparently unaware of the different FAFs that exists on the ILS vs the Localizer approach. I must remember to discuss this with him. We are cleared to minimums and he looks down at the plate even though we have briefed the plate and knew that it was 219'. I have him level off at 600 since we don't have the ATIS altimeter setting. We set the time for the Localizer but his approach has been too fast and we arrive early. I call the missed on him.

He initiates the turn but forgets to tell the tower. On contacting tower we are immediately told to go to Approach. We turn to 250 and level off at 1500 and report to approach. The vectors and intercept that ATC gives us bring us inside the VOR so that the approach is not possible. I use the radio and explain the situation briefly and am told to climb to 3000 and track outbound on 196 radial until told to turn back. I tell 'Retread' that we will execute a course reversal when the time comes. ATC tells us to track inbound. He is getting good at it but tries to tell ATC what we are doing. Unnecessary. Course reversal works fine and at three miles we are cleared for the approach. He reports out of 3000 for 1400 and we descend to l400 while tracking direct to the VOR. 'Retread is told to report the VOR which he does. At the VOR he tries the TTTTTs and gets it right with the new timer and descent to 460.

The time runs out and we depart as required by SAC tower to 250 and climb to 1500 but immediately request direct to the VOR and holding when handed to SAC Approach. Approach clears us the 2000 and then to 3000. I take the plate and draw in the heading of 166 which is required for the teardrop entry we are set up for. The holds work well but "Retread' punches the timer at the wrong time so I have him request the VOR-A approach to Rio Vista. He does a good job of copying the clearance. We intercept the 189 radial and are cleared for the approach. I have to tell 'Retread' to report leaving 3000 for 2000 and have him set up the #2 Nav for HOODI and then PONTA as we step down to 700' instead of the published 460. He sets the time at PONTA and we arrive close enough to circle for 25 but I tell him to report the missed and canceling IFR.

We proceed back to CCR and make another left base arrival. I help him with the radio call but he is getting better at it. 'Retread' again has some difficulty setting up the left base for the right runway. Landing o.k. I still must caution him about stopping when clear and contacting ground. Old habits. He is tired so I remind him to order fuel on the way in. While awaiting fuel I review the flight with the major remark relating how with so many things going well, we must eliminate the intermediate mistakes. He seems pleased with his improvement. Ground 1hr Flight 2.0

Retread Lesson 6 (Preparation)
In retrospect, this kind of preparation even if 'walked through on the ground and in the cockpit is inadequate for 'Retread'. He requires a complete itemized procedure for every intersection until he learns to prepare himself.
Concord to Stockton
The plan is to fly via tower enroute our own navigation from Concord to Stockton. First approach will be a VOR 29R approach to be followed via radar vectors to the VOR 29R with an IFR clearance via vectors to Concord for the VOR 19R. ILS 29 is out of service.

The process begins by planning the route.
Takeoff will proceed via a turn direct to the CCR VOR thence via V-108 to LODDI via V585 to ECA thence-direct SCK. Cruise will be at 120 kts. Departures and Approaches at 90 kts.

The route will have the following reference points:
CCR DP Direction Time Actual Time 117.0/010//112.1/101
VOR 3.1 Direct 3.0 /071/090 intercept
PITTS 7.0 071 V109 4.0 116.8/022
OAKEY 11.0 071 5.5 ATIS //114,8/171//115.2/177
LODDI 16.0 137 V585 8.0 115.2/137//116.0/137
ORANG 6.0 137 3.0 116.0/137//114.8/229
ECA 10.0 137 5.0 116.0/124 Slow to 90
Holding 7.0 374 Parallel 7.5 Reverse OBS to 304
SCK 4.0 304 2:40Time

Total time enroute including hold and approach is 39 minutes.

Enroute altitude will be 4000' to ORANG where ECA is crossed at 1600 for the hold and crossed at 1300 for the approach. MDA is 340 and time is 2:40

Missed approach will be right turn to 050 and climb to 2000' radar vectors for the VOR

Request IFR radar vectors direct CCR. Get CCR ATIS On handoff to Travis request
VOR approach own nav with ATIS full stop or published missed.

Route Time Actual time
RV to 300? 117.0/251 Get ATIS
OAKEY 11.0 251 5.5 117.0/251 115.2/177
PITTS 7.0 251 5.0 117.0/251 116.8/022 Slow down
CCR 5.0 011 4.0 117.0/011
Procedure Turn 8.0 191
5.0 117.0/191
CCR 3.1 171 2:04 117.0/171 Time

En route altitude will be 4000 with descent to 2500 from VOR to procedure turn. Inbound to the VOR at 1000 and MDA 460 or circle at 640 missed is left climbing turn to VOR then via 044 to REJOY

#2 Radio
124.7, 118.25, 124.7

#1 Radio
121.9, 119.7, 119.9, Nav 117.0 123.85, Nav 115.8, Nav 115.2 Nav 114.8, Nav 116.0, 125.1, 120.3, 125.1 …123.85, 119.9, 119.7, 121.9, 122.95

IFR departure request
Piper 39BC shade hangars with ALPHA request tower enroute to SCK will take clearance in run-up.

Expected Clearance
39BC is cleared to the Stockton Airport via Buchannan 7 departure, PITTS transition V-108 LODDI, V-585, Manteca (ECA), direct. Climb and maintain 4000 expect??, Departure 119.9, Squawk * * * *
Piper 39BR out of 800 for 5000 Will report the VOR

Approach callup
Piper 39BC level at 4000 requesting own nav to SCK as filed via LODDI. and Manteca (ECA). Multiple approaches first a hold at ECA with a VOR 29R approach with published missed and hold at ORANG. and a second VOR approach from ORANG. Approach briefing (memorize or make post-it)
VOR 29
Frequencies 118.25, Nav 116.0, 123.85, 125.1, 120.3
Courses 137,slow up-,154, outbound one minute left turn to intercept 304 Reverse OBS
Time 2:40
VDP 2:06 or 1:50
MDA 340 or 500
Missed 2000' on 010 intercept 317R hold 287 T-drop 114.8/229R or As cleared

Approach callup
IFR Clearance to CCR will be fly runway heading contact 125.1 Clearance will be fly 270 heading direct CCR Climb and maintain 6000.
Frequencies 120.3, 125.1, 123.85 then handoff to Travis 119.9

Piper 39BC level at 6000 requesting own-nav for the CCR VOR 19 for full stop will report the VOR outbound

Approach briefing (memorize or make post-it)
Frequencies 124.7, 119.7, Nav 117.0 and 112.1
Courses 011,056, 236, 191, 171
Time 2:04
VDP 1:20 or 1:00
MDA 460 or 640
Missed Climbing left to 2500 CCR 044R to REJOY
Once established on 044 we will cancel IFR and land CCR VFR

Lesson Six…The Flight
Even after spending over an hour going over the courses, radio settings, radio procedures, and how to prepare and what to expect, the lesson was a disaster. The departure to the VOR was off course and the student had to be hand-held through the process of setting up every intersection and every expectation.

It was apparent that the student had very little idea of how to prepare for an IFR flight. In the course of the disastrous flight from CCR to LODDI I contacted ATC and requested that we be allowed to proceed back to OAKEY and start over with a new clearance. We flew to OAKEY and made a course reversal and went once again to LODDI. This time was much better so I decided to continue one to ECA a hold and the VOR 29 approach.

Student had to be coached through changing the VORs, setting up the holding pattern and correcting for the wind. After three tries we made a fair pattern and I had him ask for the approach. It was apparent that he was exhausted to instead of a second approach I had him ask for the published missed and the hold at ORANG. With some help this went well but I canceled IFR and said that we would proceed to CCR VFR. He asked me to land.

The next day I took the following planning material to his home and spent the better part of two hours explaining what and how to use a visual descent point and use of the poor man's DME. (Use of another VOR's radial that crosses the approach VOR.) Included in this exercise was making the published missed for the VOR 29 approach at SCK and the published missed on the VOR 19 at CCR. We went over both procedures as well as over every intersection point of the following five pages.

An interesting side item is that during our flight through the course reversal at OAKEY, SCK approach indicated that he had lost radar contact and requested an estimate for LODDI. This was an interesting proof of the importance of getting the time fixes throughout every IFR flight.

During our ground session he learned the importance of 'Time' at every intersection, VOR, and
radial crossing when on vectors.

Student was told to bring study papers to the airport on the following day. Student assured me that he would have aircraft ready to go on time in the morning. Neither happened.

Lesson Six…Instructional Changes
Intersection by intersection Procedures

Use the following to stay ahead of the airplane. Cut apart and make a booklet and peel off the pages as completed.

_____ Time (All times to nearest minute written as : after the hour.)
Turn at 600 feet
Center OBS needle
112.1 at 101 as a poor-man's DME, ident
Expect frequency change
Set up for the VOR-ident
Fly 010 climb at 90 kts, adjust ETA

_____ Time
Turn to 090 intercept
Set 071 on #1
Talk - report the VOR
Set up PITTS as 116.8/022, ident
Fly 071 climb at 90 kts, cruise at 120, adjust ETA

_____ Time
Set up #2 OAKEY at 115.2/ 177, ident
Expect change to 123.85 at OAKEY and saying what you want to do.
Fly 071 cruise at 120, adjust ETA

_____ Time
Change #2 to 114.8 no change in OBS, ident
Set up LODDI as 115.2/137, ident
Expect turn to 137
Fly 071 cruise 120 kts, adjust ETA
Get ATIS 118.25

_____ Time
Turn to 137
Set up #1 for ECA VOR 116.0/137, ident
Set up ORANG as 118.42/229, ident
Expect frequency change for 123.85 to 125.1
Fly 137 cruise 120 kts, adjust ETA

_____ Time
Set up poor-man's DME for ECA with 114.8/192, ident
Request lower and hold at ECA with 'will advise when ready for approach".
Plan holding entry and first outbound heading of 154 for one minute
Set timer with right hand
Do pre-approach briefing: headings, altitudes, time
Fly 137 Descend and fly at 90 kts. adjust ETA to ECA

ECA (ground preparation: Find radial from Linden VOR to end of 29R for PM's DME)
______ Time
Turn to 154
Set timer - Start timer
Change OBS to 304
Set timer - start timer
Fly the hold to adjust for winds and time inbound. Use poor-man's DME
After first acceptable hold advise 125.1 of "9BC ready for approach"
Pre-landing check, tank, pump, pressure
Be ready to time 2:40 inbound (Set PM's DME)
Expect frequency change to l20.3
Descend to 1300 outside VOR when cleared
Descend to 340' or as cleared inside the VOR
Fly 304 at 90 kts.

Published Missed
Climbing right turn to 2000 via 010
Expect frequency change from 120.3 to 125.1
#1 to 116.0/OBS to 317, ident
#2 to 114.8/229 ORANG, ident
Set timer
Fly 317 at 90 kts

ORANG (Arrival)
_____ Time
Start timer
Turn to 287
Reverse OBS to 137
Set timer/start timer
Time inbound

ORANG (Departure)
______ Time
Advise ATC when ready for flying 'own-nav back to CCR. Make course reversal
and fly to LODDI via #1 at 116.0/317 radial, ident
Set up #2 114.8/251 for intercept, ident
Fly 317 at 120 kts

______ Time
Turn to 239 to intercept 251
Set up #1 to 114.8/251, ident
Set up #2 for OAKEY at 115.2/177, ident
Expect frequency change to 123.85

Plan for PITTS
Fly 251 at 120 kts
Get 124.7 ATIS

______ Time
Change #1 frequency to 117.0, ident
Set up #2 for PITTS at 116.8/022, ident
Expect frequency change to 119.9
Tell approach VOR 19 approach own-nav, full stop or published missed, and - request lower with ATIS
Fly 251 at 120 kts.

______ Time
Setup poorman's DME at 112.1/101, ident
Slow up to 90 kts descend as allowed
Do pre-approach briefing: headings, altitudes; time, VDP, (Use plate)
Fly 251 at 90 kts

CCR-VOR (outbound)
______ Time
Turn to 030 to intercept 010 outbound, descend to 2500
Use poor-man's DME to set point of procedure turn
Use 45-degree ticks for outbound procdure turn, time one minute
Turn inbound, report inbound, on intercept descend to 1000'
Expect handoff to 119.7
Set timer for 2:04
Pre-landing check
Fly 191 at 90 kts

CCR-VOR (inbound)
_______ Time
Start timer
Turn to 171
Initiate descent to 460 or 640
Time to VDP (Visual descent point) 1:20 or 1:04 if full stop or
At end of time climbing left turn to VOR and outbound on 044
Set up REJOY

CCR-VOR (missed)
Right turn to 060 to intercept 044 radial

Retread Lesson 7
Student arrived on the hour, late and without the papers. I went to my backup lesson which was to OAK with a published missed. Since the approach after the departure procedure from CCR is vectors, I was able only to set up four crossing radials for the flight. Two off of OAK and two off SJC.

I ran the student through the expected courses for the flight, the expected altitudes, and the changing of frequencies for the #1 Com on which we do all our communications and the #2 on which we get all ATIS information and Flight Watch or FSS contacts.

Special emphasis was upon getting the ATIS and flying the missed. The flight proceeded quite well because of the limited required communications and reportable intersections. The missed occurred in VFR and the second hold was as good as it gets.

We proceeded VFR to CCR, intending to do a pop-up. The following was a separate writing from this….
Just returned from a flight with a 'Retread" who has been flying for more years than I have. I have been trying to improve his communications skills. If he is rehearsed he does o.k. But when he has to answer spontaneously he reverts to unnecessary words and confusing word order. His justification argument is that if it is not illegal and gets the point across it's o.k.

My second opinion:

We were doing a pop-up VOR approach into our home field. His initial call was just our aircraft number. Fine. Then he began to give our position, request for own-nav, altitude and that we had the ATIS. It took him three different transmissions to get it all over to the controller. Controller's response, " Call back in five minutes."

I'm certain that a good clean call would have given us an immediate clearance. A busy controller does not want a fumble-mouth on the frequency.

Instead of waiting, I decided to proceed to the airport VFR. 'Retread' so advised the approach controller and was given inbound traffic point-out and frequency change. 'Retread' lacked sufficient positional awareness to know our relationship to the traffic and proceeded to look all over the sky. Fact is the traffic was a thousand feet below and behind us for landing. Had he asked for ATC to, 'Say again' , it would have removed his anxiety. I had also asked him to give a position and altitude call. When he asked, "why?" I explained that he was really giving the information to the other aircraft rather than ATC.

I had him request to overfly the airport and report on a left downwind. This instead, of a right downwind which occurs before reaching the airport. I tried to convince him that you could see the airport better out the left side than the right side. He disagreed. IFR circle to land can be either left or right  unless specified.. Can't wait to get into an actual circle to land situation to see if it changes his mind about which window is easier to see through.

On our roll-out after touchdown the controller told him to change to ground frequency.  This instruction did not include, as it should have the words 'when clear'. 'Retread' reached up to change the frequency while we were still rolling down the runway. I stopped the change and said that we would do it after crossing the hold-bars.

He proceeded to discuss the possibility that we might be contacted by either the ground or tower frequency in our situation had we changed to ground while still on the runway. I tried to explain the operation and separation of authority as it is supposed to exist. The 'local' controller has authority over the active runway and its intersections. All else of the ground 'movement area' belongs to the Ground controller. As that great aviation comic Lucille Ball once said, Knowing what you can't do is more important than knowing what you can do."

We plan to do a second Lesson Six on Monday.

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Continued on Page 7.74 IFR Checkrides