Flight Instructor Training Module
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CFI Review Information,… Index; … Volume I FITS; … Terminology; … Definitions; ...Introduction1; … Additional FITS Resources; … Volume 2 Course Developer’s Guide; …People; …Procedures, …Equipment; …Facilities, …Risk Management; …Matrix; … Practical Risk Management Tools, … Volume 3: Course Developers’ Guide; … Introduction2; ...Likelihood Scale of Definitions
Severity Scale Definitions; ...Safety Decision Process ...Pilot Judgment; ...Flow Chart System Safety Process; ......Questions to Ask; ...Obstacles and Constraints
...Training Methodology; … CFIT Scenario; … Developing Training Scenarios; … Scenario Lesson Plan #1; ...Mitigation Strategies and Resources; ...Factors of CFIT Scenario; …Alternatives1; … Training Materials;...Lesson Plan #2; ...Lesson Plan #3; …Conclusion; … Lesson Plan Format; … FITS Challenge; … Scenario Based Training (SBT); …Federal Air Regulations; … Single Pilot Resource Management; …TECHNICALLY ADVANCED AIRCRAFT; …Sample Scenario; … Aeronautical Decision Making (AC60-22); … DECIDE Process; … Hazardous Attitudes; … Crew Resource Management; Aeronautical Decision Making; …DECIDE; … Maneuvers; … Pre-Lesson Briefing; …Demonstration-Performance Teaching; …Stalls, ...Spins, …Pre-solo Flight Training; ...Required Knowledge; ...FAR Part 91; … Ground Instruction Proficiency Review;: ...Regulations; ...Flight Instruction Proficiency Review; ...The Flight Review; Legal Requirements of an Aircraft; ...Legal Requirements of a Pilot;  …System Safety; … The Poker Scenario; …Accidents; … Risk Resolution; … I’M SAFE; … Aeronautical Decision Making2; … Pre-Planning Your Accident Survival; …Be Prepared; …Survival is Pre-Determined by What You Are; ...Mind Set is EssentialThe Accident; …First Aid;…Post Accident; …Emergency Kit; … The Six C’s of Survival; … Fear has Symptoms; …The Enemy; … Survival Needs Knowledge, Skill and Luck; …Influenced by Fatigue; ...Stress, Overload, and Complacency; ...Controlled Flight into Terrain; ... Student Pilots' Written Tests on Essential Knowledge:…

CFI Review Information
CFI Training Module (FITS) 
My take on this program is that it is a creative effort to give a pedagogic slant to flight instruction. This is done by giving definitions and terminology for the techniques and procedures recommended for use. Created ad hoc and directly related to the FITS methods, principles and procedures used for teaching the required skills of judgment. (choices, options, decisions, discrimination and inquiry).

The problem I see and feel is the matching of the vocabulary with the ‘scenario’ format because that is the evaluation basis used to determine instructional competence. Therein it replicates the rote learning faults of the old Instructors Handbook.  Learning the terms that fit into the FITS program is a major requirement (NOW) for being a 'good' instructor.  Who will save us from our saviors?

The entire pedagogy is structured through a gaggle of mnemonics any time more than three items exist in sequence. Your problem, should you chose to remember in this manner is to keep words like PAVE, CARE, TEAM, DECIDE, PPPPP and CCCCCC in constant use.

To the best of my ability I have reduced the material to essentials.  Without
the terminology I have been using scenarios on every flight without the organized format for nearly 37 years.

Volume I Forward, Terminology, Introduction, Additional FITS resources, Getting Started, Airport/Runway Factors Alternatives of elimination or mitigation,
Volume 2 Course Developer’s Guide, Introduction, System Safety, people, procedures, facilities, Risk Management, Risk Management Process, Practical Risk Management Tools, Deliberate RM Tools, Example-Real World Risk Management,

Volume 3: Forward, Hazard versus Risk, Identifying hazards, Risk Assessment, Likelihood Scale of Definitions, Severity Scale Definitions, Matrix, Safety Decision Process, Pilots and Judgment, Flow Chart System Safety Process, Management, Questions to Ask, Obstacles and Constraints, Training Methodology, Developing Training Scenarios, Lesson Plan #1, Lesson Plan # 2, Lesson Plan #3, Lesson Plan Format

Volume I FITS
Proven concepts in system safety for technically advanced aircraft. (TAA) Will shift GA instruction from skill/examining to scenario based integration of risk management, aeronautical decision making (ADM), situational awareness and single-pilot resource management (SRM) Module designed to give history, objectives, methods, and goals designed to get instructor to develop FITS – based training curricula of scenarios

Aircraft Automation Management – Able to fly using automated systems

Automated Navigation Leg – 30 minute flight using automated systems

Automation Competence – Ability to understand and operate automated system

Automation Surprise – Ability of system to give cues in time critical situations

Automation Bias – Degree of confidence pilot has in automation system

Candidate Assessment - System of critical thinking and skill evaluation to check readiness for learning automation management

Critical Safety Tasks/Events – Time critical tasks/events creating hazards

Data link Situational Awareness (SA) Systems – Providing real-time weather, flight and terrain info

Emergency Escape Maneuver – Use of systems to avoid IMC conditions

Exposure – the number, value to resources affected by an event or series of events

Generic FITS – Standards for flight reviews, training in complex/high-performance, certificates, etc.

Hazard – an existing or potential condition, event or circumstance that could lead to r contribute to an unplanned or undesired event. A hazard exists in the present.

Learner Centered Grading – Is where student self evaluates and analyzes outcome

Desired in Training Scenario -- Outcomes show by ability to recognize progress, replicate acceptable solutions

Describe – physical and cognitive illustration of an activity

Explain – underlying concepts, principles and procedures of an activity

Practice – Independent proficient performance correcting errors and deviations

Perform – Independent precise performance with precision and proficiency

Manage/Decide – Pilot able to get all data, identify choices, rate risks in choices and make decision.

Mishap – An unplanned-event or series that results in fatalities, injury, loss or damage

Light Turbine TAA – Light Jet/turbine one pilot with straight wing Class-A capable

Mission Related Tasks – Tasks required for flight to be successful

Multi-Function Display (MFD) – Glass display of all navigation, systems and situation at once.

Process – A collection of planned activities to produce results considered of value.

Primary Flight Display (PDF) – Single electronic display of basic 6-pack instruments

Probability – likelihood that a hazard will result in a mishap as being frequent, likely, occasional, seldom, unlikely, never

Proficiency Based Qualification – Demonstrated performance rather than age and beauty

Risk – a measure of the impact any event produces in terms of severity and likelihood. A risk exists on in the future.

Risk analysis – From a hazards list the extent, likelihood and severity is judged

Risk assessment – Identifying, sorting, combining, prioritizing and documenting priority of hazards as an amount of risk presented

Risk control measures – Ways to mitigate or eliminate risk factors such as probability, severity or exposure.

Risk management defined a levels 1. no unnecessary, decisions at PIC level, accept if benefits outweigh other aspects, integrate into planning . Levels of RM are time critical, deliberate, and strategic.

Safety – A form of freedom from events containing a sense of loss

Safety Decision Process – Five steps identify, assess risk, acceptability, eliminate, and mitigate.

Scenario-Based Training (SBT) – Use of real experiences to train initial, transitional, upgrade, recurrent or specialized program

Severity - loss measured as catastrophic. critical, marginal or negligible

Simulation - Replication of real situations by animation

Single Pilot Resource Management (SRM) – Use of resources to achieve success

Specific FITS – A lesson aimed at a single aircraft or system

System – All the elements that exist in a situation for a purpose or task.

System Safety – Use of all resources available to assure safe economical flights. Organized identification and control of hazards in a situation

Technically Advanced Aircraft (TAA) – GA aircraft with GPS, moving map, autopilot

Training-Only Tasks – Maneuvers not required for normal flight.

Increase in aviation accidents and fatalities in TAA aircraft shows need for new training program.

What is FITS – Integrates flight instruction with risk management, aeronautical decision-making (ADM), situational awareness and single-pilot resource management (SRM) using scenario training..

What is not FITS – No new regulations or policies but superior guidance and innovative programs. Instructors are expected to make their own programs.

Why FITS is needed –

--Basic skills do not kill pilots or people in airplanes.
--The killers of aviation are situational awareness and poor aeronautical decision making.
--Piloting skills are not keeping up with the development of aircraft.

Keys to Success – FITS is a value-added program, meaning that the system and method works to make flight safer and more efficient..

FITS program overview – FITS is an integrated program to make the product airplane and the training of its use produce greater safety and productivity.

Additional FITS resources

What can FITS do for me?
The complexity of the cockpit does not change the usefulness and legitimacy of the FITS process. Flight review, transition, recurrent training will be more effective and valid through the use of FITS

FITS will give more better training in less time and at less cost

Getting Started
The basic premise is that system safety must be integrated into every training activity. The better the integration the more relevant and easily recalled will be the lesson. Initially, the basic mechanical skills must be taught and practiced to give essential stick and rudder control. Since these basic skills are to be superimposed upon a situation of ever changing complexity such as an airport/runway. It is your use of aeronautical decision-making that will produce the desired outcomes.

Airport/Runway Factors
How quickly a change in any of the following factors and sub-factors become catastrophic.

Surface conditions -
No short field operations on contaminated runways. Check NOTAMS, A/FD, POH, FOM, PIREPS
Length and width, illusions, slope,

Crosswind, velocity, gusts

Surface conditions
Painted, wet, ice, irregular, grooved,
Landing Gear/tires
Tire size, condition

Engine failure
Altitude needed to make runway, alternatives, taxiway
Clean or Flaps
Slips, amount of power, keep/add/remove

Alternate fields
Pasture, surfaced, altitude, distance, residual power,

Type, number, proximity, front/rear,
Density altitude,
Touch and go
Abort point, incremental flaps, maintain altitude until getting airspeed.

Low pass, full stop, stop and go, touch and go,
Land and Hold Short Operations (LAHSO)
Dual intersecting runways, urgency, options,

ATC variations
Sidestep, change airports, change radio frequencies, speeds, vectors,

Alternatives of elimination or mitigation
Time - Is always a variable, earlier, later, never

Location – may be variable or eliminated. Plan flexibility

Abort Training Exercise – Change lesson, to reduce or eliminate risk.

Requisite skill sets – Required basic skills to maneuver aircraft into a specific position, speed and configuration.

Scenario –based training – Flight with at least two risk situations requiring mechanical or cognitive resolution

Resources – Aircraft, POH/FOM FITS, Generic Transition syllabus (?), A/FD, Charts, AIM, FARs

Emphasis on risk management and decision making. Use of the foregoing skills to resolve all parts of the flight safely.

First step is to identify all risk factors as of the emergency moment.

, expand student ability to safely select the mitigation factor best able to produce the safest result.

The four tenets to do this are
--Decision making, DM

--Risk management, RM
--Resource management. RM

--Situational awareness SA

Mitigation or resource use being absent, requires alternative. Critical thinking and judgment are integrated at every juncture. Distractions at any point are legitimate scenario conduct. It is always good instructional procedure to present the student with several choices. Every choice will have immediate and future consequences. Scenarios provide body to instruction that enhances memory.
FITS is the future of instruction

Volume 2 Course Developer’s Guide
FAA uses the word client instead of student. What is the difference? Why the difference? How does it affect how the instructor teaches and the student learns? Is this the relationship a CFI wants? Client is usually a reference to a relationship with an attorney or accountant.

CFI duties include creating a safe environment, teach the enjoyment of flying, reduce the costs, teach respect for and compliance with the FARs with the understanding that they are minimums.

The safety of the individual is directly a part of the total system safety. Regulatory risk management provisions (minimums usually) of the system provide a basis for instruction in risk management and system safety. I, personally, teach far beyond minimums for my own peace of mind.

System Safety
The system consists of
The governmental Department of Transportation department called the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The Country is divided and subdivided repeatedly into segments somewhat geographic. The administration, inspection, program and control parts of the FAA are the bureaucratic functions. The FAA has charge of aircraft maintenance, parts, manufacture and more. A part cannot be affixed to an aircraft that is not an approved FAA part. A repair (with exceptions) cannot be made to an aircraft unless done by an FAA certified Airframe & Engine mechanic. The owner of an aircraft has responsibilities and liabilities distinct from the responsibilities and liabilities of the pilot. The part of the FAA most connected with flying has to do with the movement of aircraft. These are the towers; radar facilities called TRACON or Center. Off hand, I do believe there is a very close match between the number of pilots to the number of FAA employees

Consist of rules related to altitude, airspace, direction, speed, patterns, charted and maneuvers as written in the Federal Air Regulations (FARs)

I go back a year or two in aviation but I have never flown in a single radial engine biplane. I rode in a Curtiss Robin in 1929 in Kansas City, MO as a child. I rode in a Stinson 105 and 108 in the 1940s.I rode in the Lockeed Hudson (B-20, Ventura (B34), Douglas (B-18 Bolo (DC-3 Bomber), C-47, C-54, Curtiss C-46, and B-29- during WWII. I learned to fly a C-150, C-172, C-182, PA-28, PA-32, Grumman AA-2 and AA-5B, Mooney 5 different types up to 201. Got my twin rating in a Piper Senica twin. I have one flight in a Stinson Reliant radial engine WWII veteran of the Battle of Britain. I now have about 30 hours in a Sirrus. Expect to fly in a LSA Sierra next month. Not many aircraft for a guy with 11,000+ hours.

I have flown behind a coffee grinder radio that required considerable searching for a specific radio frequency. I flew all the way to Quebec, Canada using a 90-channel radio that required hundreds of miles no communications flying in the Far West and north. I have flown with tube radios so prone to failure that one out of every three flights would require a NORDO return home. I once flew a two-hour IFR flight without radio. I have flown with dual 720 digital channel radios with pre-selected radio frequencies.

I have one total engine failure at 800’ over a forest of dogwood trees. Emergency procedure included pulling the mixture out. Engine started. Seems the float had stuck in such a way as to flood the engine and bring it to a stop. My leaning solved the problem and freed the float to operate properly. Between skill and luck, take luck every time. I now have four distinct emergency kits for differing aircraft, terrain, weather, time and hazards.

Radio, radar coverage covers all of the U.S. West Coast inland except to most eastern valleys. Where there used to be a FSS every forty miles they are over a hundred miles apart and California has only three surrounded by remote communications outlets. (RCOs) Flight Watch started in the 1970s at

Oakland CA. It grew to cover the entire U.S. with radio communications over 5000’ most everywhere from local time 6 a.m. to 10 p.m. An existing airport in the U.S. is being closed every two weeks since 1968

Airspace is being changed, renamed, eliminated, expanded and made more restrictive always in the name of safety. Only with a great deal of luck will there be a hazard left. Fortunately some of the more aggressive forms of airspace have been eating into the lesser airspace. The government payroll continues to expand in numbers and cost. Perhaps the greatest improvement in safety has to do with weather. There seems to be little excuse or reason for a weather related accident any more other than poor judgment.

Regulations since 9/11 have a direction change toward restrictions always in the ‘name’ of safety so that in time every government official will be well protected. Everyone else will need to be protected from breaking the rules for safety’s sake. Pilots will soon consider the greatest risk in flying rests in the regulations that ultimately will require airplanes remain on the ground for total safety to be achieved. All termites are not insects under ground.

Flying in and of itself will be considered a hazard bent on undermining safety. The government analogy of ‘bricks and mortar’ would have us believe that the regulations cannot exist unless obeyed by pilots. Thus, ‘System Safety’ is a program designed to identify and control hazards. If we don’t have or locate hazards there will be no need for system safety. There is a very active self-survival reason for the makers of regulations to devise hazards needing ever more regulation. The regulators call what they do a culture, whereas, others might see a cult.

Software recently developed will have your transponder telling everything except a wife’s maiden name. An aircraft will not be able to violate a regulation even if the pilot wants to.

Tools are in the hands of the pilots, the regulators and the enforcers to make flying as it was up to the year 2000 into an unrecognizable monster.

Risk Management
Concepts and Definitions
RM - RM is the Risk Management decision-making process to identify hazards, amount of risk and what to do.

---A hazard is a present condition, event, object or circumstance presenting an unexpected event

---Risk is the future impact of a hazard measured by being low, medium or high

Severity – extent of possible loss

Probability – likelihood of happening

Exposure -- Extent of impact area

Likelihood      Catastrophic     Critical     Marginal     Negligible

Frequent         high                   high         serious         medium

Probable         high                  high         serious          medium

Occasional      high                  serious     medium        low

Remote          serious              medium    medium        low

Improbable    medium             medium    medium        low

---No unnecessary risk has no benefits either

---Risks taken only by the one in control

---Give student chance to exercise risk management by identifying, assessing and controlling

---Accept risks only when benefits are of greater value.

---Every flight has risks that require risk management

Risk Management Process

U Strategic – Complex equipment needs research, analysis, testing and tracking risks


P Deliberate – Uses prior Experience to identify, assess, and controls for
                        planning, review and training.


S Time Critical – Ad hoc, or for this at this time RM done during performance of risk-event

E Identify hazards>>assess risks >>analyze controls >> Make control decisions       >>  Use control >> Monitor results

Practical Risk Management Tools
The Three P cycle:
Perceive using PAVE
Pilot - experience, recency, currency, condition
Aircraft fuel, experience, performance and equipment
enV ironment – airport, weather, runways, light, terrain
External pressures – delay, diversions, alternatives, kit…

Process using CARE
C onsequences – evaluate route
A lternatives - continuous evaluation
R eality – disregard hope, wishing, what ifs, etc
E xternal pressures – time, ego, others, destination

Perform using TEAM
ransfer – shift responsibility
E liminate – remove problem
A ccept – do benefits outweigh risk level or otherwise
M itigate – Change balance into your favor

Deliberate RM Tools
While time-critical risk-management dominates, an instructor should set up situations where deliberate risk management uses brainstorming the three P process and the PAVE checklist above.
---Develop personal minimums
---‘what-if’ scenarios into the unfamiliar
---Required to transition to new airplane, avionics, etc.

Example-Real World Risk Management
Suggest you use the following outline of the risk management program to create a scenario of a flight to a relatively inaccessible but busy airport. Suggest Half Moon Bay to Bay Area pilots

P (1)erceive hazards related to PAVE Element
External Pressures

P(2)rocess with CARE to determine risk
External Factors

P(3)erform by using TEAM to make risk management decisions

Plane (Aircraft)
P(1)erceive hazards related to PAVE Element

P(2)rocess with CARE to determine risk
External Factors

P(3)erform by using TEAM to make risk management decisions

P(1)erceive hazards related to PAVE Element

P(2)rocess with CARE to determine risk
External Factors


P(3)erform by using TEAM to make risk management decisions

External Pressures
P(1)erceive hazards related to PAVE Element

P(2)rocess with CARE to determine risk
External Factors

P(3)erform by using TEAM to make risk management decisions

Why do it this way if your own way has worked for so many years? The three P method is structured, efficient and systematic. Being able to use the time critical risk management process is just as important as flying skill to a safe flight.

Volume 3: Course Developers’ Guide
Modern flight training that covers risk management, aeronautical decision-making, single pilot resource management and situational awareness as equivalents in skill, value, and importance as flying skills.

Intent is to modernize flight training land provide guidance as to how to introduce new techniques.


The reduction of severity and likelihood of risk in flying by establishing flight safety criteria from risk management, aeronautical decision-making, single pilot resource management and situational awareness in the over all system. By establishing positive control over the hazard-risk complex the pilot maximum safety. The use of risk mitigating strategies through preflight planning and sound judgment trains the critical thinking skills applied to aeronautical decision making to optimize safety.

Experience + Analysis = Situational Awareness
Situational Awareness + aeronautical Decision Making = Risk Management

Hazard versus Risk
---Risk exists only in the future and requires a triggering event

---Regardless of the importance of the trigger the resolution process is the same

---The new training program requires you to know the distinction between risk and hazard

Identifying Hazards
---Only by understanding the system can you identify hazards (everything that can go wrong)

---Being unable to identify the hazards means you do not have situational awareness

---Without situational awareness you cannot exercise sound risk management

---For safety you must consider EVERY possible failure of pilot, aircraft and environmental factor

---Even the experienced will be entering ‘uncharted waters’ trying to identify unexpected hazards.

---Complacency is the overriding hazard of the experienced Mitigation is by checklist.

Risk Assessment
---As a preliminary you must identify everything (risks) that can go wrong.
---Next the risks must be tested for likelihood and severity.
---Another word for likelihood is exposure where risk is related to the frequency of risk
---Use of both scales below improves assessment of risk

Likelihood Scale of Definitions
---Frequent One Likely to occur often
---More Continuously experienced
---Probable One Will occur several times
---More Will occur often
---Occasional One Likely to occur sometime
---More Will occur several times
---Remote One Unlikely to occur, but possible
---More Unlikely but can reasonably be expected to occur
---Improbable One So unlikely, it can be assumed it will not occur
---More Unlikely to occur, but possible

Severity Scale Definitions
Catastrophic Results in fatalities and/or loss of the system
Critical Severe injury and/or major system damage
Marginal Minor injury and/or minor system damage
Negligible Less than minor injury and/or less than minor system damage
Use of both charts gives you a high, serious, medium and low risk assessment

Matrix (repeated)
Likelihood     Catastrophic     Critical     Marginal     Negligible

Frequent         high                 high         serious         medium

Probable         high                 high         serious         medium

Occasional     high                 serious     medium         low

Remote         serious             medium     medium         low

Improbable   medium             medium     medium         low

---The level of risk may vary even considering the same hazard
---Equipment and training will affect level of risk.
---There is a correlation between risk and options, the more options the easier risk management
---The better the training the more options there are

Safety Decision Process
---How do we best determine what will go wrong?
---The consequence (risks) prevention of occurrence
---The safety decision mixes judgment and decision-making
---Has mitigation made the flight safe…yet

Pilots and Judgment
1---Pilots are less conservative when predicting likelihood
2---Pilots are more conservative when assessing severity
3---Pilots tend to ignore doing mitigation based on likelihood
4---Severity is treated with pilot resignation and no mitigation occurs
5---Ideal pilots view everything as probable and plan mitigation to eliminate problem
6---Pilot Perception and risk aversion determine where a pilot will focus his attention
7---The way a pilot perceives the hazard will determine his aversion and mitigation
8---An instructor must study student aversions, perceptions and mitigation process.
9---Your background experience sets your risk aversion, sensitivity and reactions
10—The instructor teaches toward a student’s risk aversion and problematic perceptions

Flow Chart System Safety Process
Define Objectives
---System Descriptions

---Identify Management options
---Hazards and consequences compared
---Risk Analysis with: Analysis of Hazards
---Identify Risks make Risk Assessment:
---Consolidate and Prioritize Risks
 ---Decision-Making: to develop an Action Plan
---Modify any validation of Control: then Evaluate Results
---System for Further Action always while Processing  risk

---Accurately assessing level of risk requires great skill because Judgment becomes part of process
---Purpose of new instructional emphasis is growing decision-making skills needed

Questions to Ask
---Can you complete the flight if everything goes right?
--- Can you complete the flight if everything goes wrong?
---Identify all the things that could go wrong
---Outline if/how the likelihood and severity can be mitigated
---If all elements of the flight are not in the low-medium of risk-assessment matrix don’t fly that flight

Obstacles and Constraints
---Make this program work in General Aviation since it has worked everywhere else.
---What to do….Yes or No if part of General Aviation programs

NO 1. Intensive type-specific training
NO 2. Mandated and highly structured recurrent training
NO 3. Highly experienced instructors
NO 4. Emphasis on scenario-based versus "stick and rudder" training
NO 5. Use of complex, level-qualified simulators in training
NO 6. Greater experience required as total hours, time in type, recency
NO 7. Crew-served versus single-pilot cockpit
NO 8. More towered than non-towered airports
NO 9. IFR or VFR and use of ATC
NO 10. Weather and flight data
NO 11. Flight levels versus low altitude flying
NO 12. More regulatory oversight
NO 13. More standardization
NO 14. Newer aircraft
NO 15. Multi-engine aircraft
NO 16. Turbine versus piston aircraft
NO 17. TAA aircraft w/ground proximity warners, traffic alert/avoidance, flight management system
---Training is important to attain safety. Training leverages the advantages of cockpit resources.
---The low level pilot has more opportunity to see weather as a hazard.
---TAA training now exists in the Sport aircraft.
---There is concern that teaching a changed program with a different emphasis will leave flying a weakness.

Training Methodology
System safety sees flight training as being taught in three phases…

Phase One
--- 1. To be confident as required in flying the pilot must be able to position the aircraft where he want it, when he wants and configured correctly.

Phase Two
---2. The format of system safety will require students to identify hazards, manage risk and use all available resources. Scenarios will emphasize the skill sets required.

Phase Three
--- 3. Complex scenarios requiring several safety-of-flight issues. Works through hazards, risks and considerations as elements of scenarios

---All three phases require power and speed management, configuration, placement, wind correction, aim/sight pictures and so on…

---Many flying skills, in the past, were taught in isolation. Now performance is expected in real-world instances.

---The mix need not increase training time since every flight offers its own unique training opportunities. The instructor should add to the mix additional challenges.

---Even a short flight offers checks of mechanical skills and risk management

---Every flight contains a mix of unrelated tasks that can be scripted into a complete scenario.

CFIT Scenario
---Factors include weather, unfamiliarity, non-standard procedures, loss of communications, loss of situational awareness and inability apply sound risk-management.
---CFIT is the final link in the accident change
---Statistically, weather is a greater risk. See

Developing Training Scenarios
---The scenario methodology makes it possible to teach in a classroom lessons very difficult to find in reality.
---The scenario serves as an adjunct to actual experience that may be easily available.
---The scenario in every phase allows a student to exercise system safety principles in every instance
---Just a bit of creativity can add fun and excitement to most any situation. Single tank limitations as hazard
---Forming Good Safety Habits as a shell to apply flying skills.

Scenario Lesson Plan #1
Mitigation Strategies and Resources

Factors of CFIT Scenario….
Every hazard and consideration MUST be faced with mitigation
Mandatory use of A/F-D and NOTAMS shows existing problems prior to departure
Familiarity reduces work load, phoning to destination improves familiarity
Reference available sources
---terrain and topography
Most anything in the vicinity of an airport is a target for CFIT
Knowledge and planning CFIT avoidance are the best mitigation program
It is best to avoid flying into airports for the first time at night.
---Steep terrain
Flight into such situations should be supported by familiarity, experience, performance….
---number of approaches
Number is not so critical as quality when it comes to approaches and risk reduction
The approach itself may by design have known and unknown hazards
Tomorrow may be the best mitigation
---published procedures
Publishing creates predictability which mitigates hazard
---reachable alternates
A flight that requires an alternate has a built in hazard
Once you head for the alternate your collections of risks and hazards has increased.
---ATC facilities
Radar and communications are important mitigation factors in any flight.
When you lose radar contact, retain communications as long as possible.
---Any language problems
Flights to airports catering to foreign students often have English as a second language hazards
Any misunderstanding can lead to a first class hazard, risk situation
---proximity warnings
Both ATC and aircraft may have devices to warn you of terrain. Knowing this is pre-departure, "Need to know".
Without proximity warning capability you must find a way to mitigate
---Primary flight display or moving map
How do you manage the flight if systems fail?
What is the failure mode?
Use is a form of risk mitigation
Failure of autopilot requires that you KNOW how the failure is to be handled
---proficiency with equipment
Proficiency is so critical in the use of technology that any weakness requires a risk control measure.
---Single pilot or crew
The presence of a second pilot or even person is, or can be, a valuable mitigation tool
The single pilot has an advantage in never having a conflict of opinion or choices except with himself
The extent to which the pilot has a clear mind and a rested body mitigates risk can only be appreciated when the mind is not clear and the body not rested.z
The more complex the aircraft and flight the greater the risk created by distractions, fatigue, etc.
---length (time) of flight
Best to break long flights into several legs. (In my experience after a very long flight I was unable to decide how to fly a left 45-pattern entry into a small airport)
Since so much flight information is obtained through our eyes, any factor that affects sight efficiency requires mitigation
Night has 4% of the flying and 25% of the accidents
---Visibility conditions
As with night, any factor that affects sight efficiency requires mitigation. Knowing where you are is a flight critical factor in risk taking.
---Density altitude
It is ironic that in aviation one of the three factors of density altitude is never made available to aviation. I speak of humidity, which can make as much as a 3000’ difference in density altitude.
To correct for the omission all numbers and graphs related to density altitude have large ‘fudge’ factors to compensate. The same number device is used with Va speeds for aircraft.

Always a factor, always a variable, easiest mitigation process available.
For every flight you plan you should have planned to expect changes, delays, and interruptions.
When everything goes as planned, you must have done something wrong.
There are so many factors that can affect a planned lesson that the instructor must have in reserve an alternative scenario even though not something the student prepared for.
The ability to change a lesson is a true sign of instructional skill only if it is a good lesson.
---Abort Training Exercise
---Learning when not to fly is a growing-up experience. It’s like not getting a present or a vacation.
---Disappointment is a given quality of flying. Learning to adjust and live with a shrug is growing up
---Requisite skill sets
---For many lessons the student must be proficient in cross-country flight planning and operation as well as having aircraft control and a ‘safety-oriented’ attitude.
---Scenario-based training methodology
---Mix into scenario two identifiable hazards to show probable risks during cross-countries
---The idea is to create realistic risks that the student will avoid, mitigate or ignore
---The way a student handles adversity is a strong indicator of problem solving skills.

Training Materials
---Flight planning tools such as POH, FOM, AF/D, AIM, all charts, E6-B, plotter. Parallel-ruler, Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge.,,

Lesson Plan # 2
Developing Personal Weather Minimums
Objectives: Develop tools needed to set personal weather minimums
Hazards and Considerations (samples)

---PIC time
Comfort level by individual as to competent or not

---Total/recent time in type
Familiarity with aircraft and equipment increases pilot comfort
Find an alternative if mitigation doesn’t work

Most situations can be mitigated by different or better technology

---Rated VFR/IFR
The options related to pilot ratings and capability can mitigate weather
Regardless always try to leave a back door to better weather

Adjust your personal minimums to exceed difficulties by adapting personnel

The purpose of a flight may make mitigation of time difficult.
The weather for the flight may make mitigation of route difficult
Time to cancel

---Weather resources
With the availability of internet/television weather there is little logical reason for weather accidents.
Always check with the locals for regional weather patterns such as in the S.F. Bay Area

---Mitigation strategies and resources
Again don’t fly if the locals don’t fly
Weather is the primary killer especially at night.

Not all alternatives mitigate
Time is always a variable
Even the worst of conditions can offer a very safe lesson
Even the best of conditions can offer instructional risks to the creative instructor

The instructional program must be flexible
The flexible program looks ahead several lessons ahead in anticipation of difficulties
First I teach the home field location while making casual visits to nearby airports
There are many ways to depart even a single runway airport….expose the student
Not knowing where you are in relationship to known locations turns the brain to Jell-O
Teach the student the AREA to build familiarity and confidence

---Abort training exercise
The most difficult flying decision for those who love to fly is NOT to fly
Learning when not to fly is more difficult than learning when to fly

Requisite skill sets
Learn national and global weather to pass tests
Learn local and regional weather for flying.
Every region has macroclimates and microclimates, learn the difference
By mastering pilotage the use of GPS becomes a way of confirmation
Excessive reliance on GPS and moving maps leaves you vulnerable, very vulnerable
To fly using pilotage you must be able to put an aircraft where you want it, when you want it there.

Scenario-based training methodology
Using the scenario you can expose the student to identify situations that require problem-solving abilities.
Problem solving can be applied to every risk/hazard situation

Training Materials
ircraft POH/FOM Research possible Advisory Circulars and planning tools

Lesson Plan #3
Type of Training
Maneuver or training objectives
Prevention of runway incursions
Possible hazards and considerations

---Airport/runway configuration
Airport diagrams are available on the Internet. See AF/D as well
Study airport so that you do not go ‘head’s down’ while taxiing
Check with locals for specifics especially unpublished IFR procedures

---Airport Surface Detection Equipment (ASDE)
In Northern California only at San Francisco
The system is available only to ATC not to pilots or aircraft

---Moving Map
The moving map display is capable of showing parking areas and spaces
Moving Map should not be used as substitute for planning and preparation

---Towered versus Non- towered airports
Towered airports have more complex movement areas that were developed over the years.
Expect to find changes every year as re-alignments occur.

---Radio versus NORDO aircraft
You can always expect to encounter a NORDO aircraft at a non-towered airport. Pilots of NORDO aircraft are very careful and watchful.
If you have a radio use it, give your altitude in every call when not at pattern altitude.
Always advise of your intentions regarding landing options at least once in the pattern
Remember you are not just talking to planes in the vicinity but also to arrivals and departures.

---Frequency Congestion
If you find frequency congestion, wait (patience)a while before using radio. Climb or turn away.
Know the proper thing to say in the right sequence. ATIS ident is always last thing said.
Read back all clearances in the air and on the ground
When in doubt, communicate

---Traffic Volume
Go to slow flight when #3 or greater in the pattern.
Avoid IFR fly-ways and altitudes near airports unless IFR
Communicate while knowing you are also talking beyond ATC to other planes

---Single pilot versus crew
When there is ‘crew’ disagreement, verify.
Single pilots verify when in doubt or uncertain every time

Restricted visibility from whatever cause exponentially increases the risk/hazard factor
Communicate your position, altitude, direction flying and intentions
If you are lost, say so along with altitude and visibility
If you are not competent at SVFR, don’t.

---Approach obstructions
There is little need to clear the final approach corridor until you are ready to take the runway
Construction work on the airport surface requires great care since wings often extend over tarmac
If you can’t see, don’t move

---Runway hold short lighting
A half-dozen bright orange light make a curve toward the hold bars of the runway. Seem bright enough to blind you from seeing the painted hold bars.

---Pilot familiarity with airport
No matter how familiar you are, circumstances may make taxiing difficult to impossible
Think dark, faded paint, unlighted, fog mixed with rain
Once at Yuma AZ, at 4 a.m. with the airport covered with construction barriers and very poor lighting, I just stopped the plane and waited. In about five minutes a truck arrived to guide me

If issued a LAHSO clearance, you have the right to refuse it.

Time is always a variable

If the student has prepared for the lesson based upon a specific airport it could be of both instructional and learning value to take the time to go through the preparation again as an efficiency exercise.

---Abort training exercise
Just as time is always a variable, aborting the lesson is also always an option.

Compared to all other flight activities in the U.S., general aviation has been relatively free and responsible for its flight safety habits. The pilot in command makes all the decisions related to time, location, and going or not. Being in compliance with the regulations is being minimal. Being safe is judgment. Use aeronautical decision-making as a bridge to safety. It takes more than luck to become an old pilot. The change in instructional emphasis exists only on the part of the FAA and not in what most instructors have been doing all along. The tests on this material, again devised by the FAA is primarily devoted to matching terminology to procedures. Not good.

Lesson Plan Format
Scenario Based
Type of Training
skill, introduction, initial, review, recurrent, proficiency, safety

Familiarization, orientation, knowledge, understanding, judgment, procedure,

List of factors and considerations
FARs, ATC, Internet, aircraft performance, weather, terrain, time, mitigation, experience

Hazards and Risks
Flying is composed of hazards, doing something other than flying has risks…take your pick.

Mitigation Strategies and Resources
Mitigation is alleviation, remission, easing, abatement, reduction, lessening, diminution, time, location, abort

Local, area, aircraft, ATC, FARs, weather, airports.

Skill sets
Transitions in airspeeds, altitudes, direction, configuration, patterns, landings, departures. maneuvers, checklists

Time in type
Confidence, smoothness, anticipation, caution,

Ratings, health,

Resources and materials
POH, FOM, AIM, FARs, internet

Performance, equipment, maintenance, paper work,

Currency, proficiency, flight review, 90 day requirement,

When available, always a variable

Always an instructional element good or bad

Relatively constant but best use of what is available is always a lesson

As is
We can do the lesson as planned

Reduce the risk by modifying the hazard

Always a variable except with FAR requirements

Find another place to do the same thing

We’ll do it another time

FITS Challenge
Change in flight environment and Instruction
---Glass cockpit entry
---Human factors still major problem
---Three Training Elements of FITS
---Move from Skills base to Scenario base instruction
---Safety concepts and tools in every lesson
---Student able to measure progress
---Program evolves ever more….

Scenario program
Real world lessons of numerous skills
...Single-Pilot Resource Management (SRM)
...Aeronautical Decision Making (ADM)
...Use of complextronics (my made-up word)

Scenario Based Training (SBT)
Flight training in an operational environment
---Combine situations to make flights sequence of probable events

No go, preflight, go
---Go no go

plane ok Not ok

---Trouble shoot
---En route cancel

---Aircraft ok/? 
---Go deviate 
---Divert fuel
---Continue FSS 
---Return/ divert endurance power

Scenario Lesson
Reason for lesson based on pilot purposes
Present student with Problem Flight, ask for options
Post flight--discuss choices, impact, alternatives

Problems Options
Weather cancel
---Terrain aircraft
---Performance fuel

Let student fly his plan
Student in charge, challenges, real choices, variety, doubts
Poor Plan has no challenge, clearly defined decisions, unrealistic

Mid-Lesson changes
Chain events so student must face consequences of previous choices
"What if…" ATC, engine, radio, weather, visibility, ceiling. passenger, pilot
Flex so that changes are opportunities,
Maximum use of student input and performance
Let student get far enough into mistake to remember it

Real situations
Real decisions with real consequences
Several options, several decisions, several consequences
Give practical use of problem solving skills and related flying skills
Student involved in evaluating results
Develop decision making PIC attitude
Improved performance skills
Results Sought
Able to manage situation, make decisions to perform and practice improving. Explain what is being done as related to the individual steps of the scenario.

Federal Air Regulations
By visiting the FAA site "Office of Rulemaking" you can understand NPRM (Notice of proposed rule making)
---You can’t find where to go in the FARs without understanding the way they are organized

Solo Requirements
CFR Part 61, Section61.87
No minimum flight time
Everything required must be taught
Give pre-solo test and go over missed answers
Test must cover related rules of Parts 61 and 91 and local airport procedures
See AC61-101 Pre-Solo Test (See test at end of this page.)

Recommend student identify themselves as students
Be taken through unusual airport and flight situations possible

Cross Country Flight
Defined in 61.1 Licensed pilot to another airport 50 miles straight line uses 

Navigation uses pilotage, dead reckoning, electronics, technology
Time used to qualify for other ratings
Planning must be signed off by an instructor (61.93)

Night requirements
Ten full stop night landings, 100 nautical miles of cross country, three hours
FAR ???

VFR Currency
61.57 Logbook entries for specialties, 90 day three full stop landings for passengers and night in category, type and class AT night

IFR Currency
61.93 6 approaches in last 6-months with holding and navigation. Must be done in rated aircraft
IPC ride required if not met in one year. PTS tasks and standards must be met.

CFI Standards and Limits
61.195 CFI must have ratings on both pilot and CFI certificate to give instruction
CFI must have five hours PIC in class, type and category before giving instruction.

CFI to CFI candidate 24 months experience 200 hours of flight and 40 hours ground instruction
CFI may instruct with third class medical

CFI may instruct without medical if not PIC
CFI must have medical to act as PIC or safety pilot

FAR 91.117
Below 10000 250 kts and in Class B
Below Class B and in corridors 200kts
Within 4 miles and below 2500 of C or B primary airport’s AREA 200kts

VFR Weather Minimums
Visibility required (all visibility in statute miles)
Airport VFR operations require 3-mile visibility and a ceiling of 1000
An uncontrolled airport in Class E still requires a ceiling of 1000 FAR 91.155
Class B 3 mile flight visibility clear of clouds
Class C and D and E -1000 above, 500 below, 2000 laterally below 10,000 and above transition areas
Above 10,000 1000 above and below, 1 mile laterally, five mile visibility
Class G 1200 AGL regardless of terrain height 1 statute mile day and 3 statute mile night 91.155b
Over 1200 and below 10,000 Day 1 mile night 3 mile 500/1000/2000
Over both 1200 and 10,000 Day 5-mile visibility 1-mile clear of clouds

Safety Pilot
Must have appropriate class and category ratings

FAR 61.65
Solo endorsements 61.87 One time for specific aircraft
Solo endorsements much be renewed every 90 days. (frequently missing)
Solo cross-country are category specific on certificate
Solo cross-country are type and make specific in log book
CFI cannot sign off the flight test unless all requirements are met (Hood time)

Logging Pilot and PIC time
CFI may log as PIC time all instructional time 61.51
Students can log PIC time only when solo
Commercial PIC time requires use of controls

Single Pilot Resource Management
Best use of equipment and system for maximum efficiency and safety
(Aeronautical Decision Making, Resource Management, Situational Awareness, Stick anrd Rudder and complextronics

ADM, RM, SA, S&R, and complextronics+


40% of existing aircraft and increasing
Recognize benefits, challenges and importance of ground based instruction
TAA transition

GPS + moving map+ coupled autopilot + Multifunction flight display, primary flight display, and automated engine function management

New, Classic, Retrofitted
---Safety is enhanced only if pilots are well and properly trained to utilize complextronics
---GPS/WAAS capability, system redundancy, enhanced situational awareness, datalink capability

Instructional Hazards
Student overload
Menus and submenus
Multifunction keys
Head-down time in cockpit
Time to do transition training

TAA Ground Time
PC simulation
Part-task training
Flight-training devices
Flight Trainiing

Sample Scenario
---Standard elements of every Scenario
---What to student can do to make scenario work for him
---Focus on realistic/practical situation
---Develop a lesson around a flight that has a purpose
---All considerations related to flight
---Spend time on alternate plans
---Pre-takeoff programming of complextronics, instructor monitors
---Program based on ATC for Flight plan
---Set up MFD and PFD
---Takeoff Briefing
---Malfunctions and default procedures Instructor should allow errors to occur
---"What if…" questions
---Mistake set-up loads but fails to activate complextronics
---Set up problem and allow student to decide and deal with results
---Evaluate prioritizing and decision making of student
---Maintaining of situational awareness
---Create airport arrival problem
---Loss of display(s)
---Post-Flight Briefing

Student evaluation
Student to discuss/defend decisions and consequences
Levels of performance
…introduction, practice perform review…

To produce safe and effective pilots

To use scenarios that teach, stretch, and improve problem solving skills

Enhanced Situational Awareness is a benefit of TAA Training

Typical FITS transitional training lesson 
Focuses on realistic cross-country operations and decision making instead of tasks, such as slow flight, and stalls in the local practice area

FITS-accepted syllabus features 
---Submitted to the FAA, meets FITS criteria and contains scenario-based lessons and learner-centered grading

FITS web site is the source of FITS documents and syllabi

Moving Map, GPS and integrated Autopilot most TAA aircraft have at least this minimum equipment

Part-task trainer is equipment that allows students to practice with avionics unit without use of actual aircraft.

Scenario based training, learner centered grading, 
SRM concepts that form the foundation of FITS training

Lack of equipment standardization. 
A challenge in learning to operate TAA

Aeronautical Decision Making (AC60-22)
Humans are the weak link in flight safety
Competence, experience, currency

Performance, equipment, limitations, airworthiness

Weather, airports, ATC facilities

Purpose for starting, reasons for continuing

Situational Awareness
Influenced by fatigue, stress, overload, complacency

Recognizing need for decision

Evaluation of choices
Making a choice

Negative Influences

DECIDE Process
Allows orderly, logical thought/action process to solve problems

What is needed

What result is needed

What will correct situation

Something to correct

Results and be prepared to start again with "Detect’ again

Hazardous Attitudes
---Consider yourself as an outsider looking in
---An emotional decision is the last think (sic) you want

Anti Authority:
Resents authority …Follow the rules

Tendency to take first choice …Think it over before acting

The reason we put kids into Iraq …Even bad things happen to good guys

He-man approach to action …Taking chances is unnecessary and foolish

Gives up before or without trying …Never give up and quit trying

Crew Resource Management
PIC Responsibility
Being in charge carries responsibility

Talk to your cockpit companions

Share everything with ATC
Listen and become an advocate for your choice

Resource Use
Use cockpit help first then go outside

Workload Management
Simulators help

Situational Management
Begins with knowing where you are.


Aeronautical Decision Making
Get the human weakness out of the equation
Be willing to give up what you desire the most

Look at the problem---Detect
Consider effect of the world around you---Evaluate
Make a choice---Choice
Select an outcome---Identify results
Act for best/safest result---Do something
Evaluate, evaluate, evaluate--Evalutate

Cockpit Resource Management
Get all the help you can from whoever or whatever you can

---Why maneuvers? 3-axis orientation
---Progress Critique
---Use of Training Methods
---Each lesson should include preflight discussion, in-flight demonstration and ost-flight critique

Pre-Lesson Briefing
Basic elements
Teach maneuvers before getting into the aircraft
---Tasks and elements
---Turns about a point relates to rectangle corners
---Find a way to relate one simple maneuver to a complex one
---Emphasize use of outside horizon and trim use
---Demonstrate, Talk your way phase by phase through maneuver

Common errors
Student description of maneuver to show understanding
Maneuver errors should be pointed out immediately

Safety procedures
PTS gives outline as how to do maneuver

In the Air
Go, no go decision for every flight
Clearing area, use of ATC, safe altitude
Flight safety is related to judgment and decisions
Coach and analyze as student performs
Come up with distractions points instead of headings
Immediate evaluation
Change directions
Use of distractions

Demonstration-Performance Teaching
PTS defines standards
Pre-lesson discussion especially student questions
Procedure for passing control of aircraft
Pre flight explanation of phases
Aircraft configuration
Exact performance required and described
Results student can expect

Have student describe your demonstration
Student ability to describe his performance during maneuver is a plus
Student performance-in flight evaluation/analysis—take notes
Critique—informal discussion immediately after flight
Critique can be done by student on himself as a good skill
Post flight evaluation—quiz, next flight, or write-up analysis

Demonstrations stalls not to be practiced solo
Crossed –control stall …final approach situation
Turn to final is danger zone of power-off stall
Demonstrate safety of stall during a slip due to drop of higher wing
In slow flight stall can be prevented by using power or release of back pressure
Power on stall danger zone is at departure, takeoff, go-around
Go-around stall with flaps requires forward yoke pressure at below Vy until flaps are removed.
Elevator trim stall …go around in pattern practiced at altitude with forward yoke pressure
Secondary stall …poor recovery from first stall often due to failure to change trim
Proficiency stalls for student to show skill

Power on
Power off

Parachutes not required when working toward a rating
Angle of Attack
Load Factor
Center of Gravity
Altitude and temperature

Snow, ice or frost

Weight and Balance

Primary causes
Turn with too little or too much rudder or aileron while exceeding the angle of attack at your airspeed Weight and balance (center of gravity)
Contaminated wing surface
Load factor
Pilot distraction

Spin types
Fully developed

There is not substitute for Knowledge, training and skill

Power off to assist recovery and save altitude
Elevators to neutral and determine direction of spin by turn coordinator
Full opposite rudder
At slower rotation. full forward yoke
Center rudder
Gentle with elevator to prevent secondary stall

Pre-solo Flight Training
(1) Preflight, Engine operation, systems
(2) Starting, taxiing, runup
(3) Takeoff & landings, normal and crosswind
(4) Flying straight and level, shallow, medium and steep turns.
(5) Climbs and climbing turns
(6) Traffic pattern entries and departures, collision and large aircraft wake avoidance
(7) Descents straight and w/turns, with and w/out flaps
(8) Speeds cruise through minimum controllable
(9) Emergencies and malfunctions
(10) Ground reference maneuvers
(11) Power-off landings
(12) Slips to a landing
(13) Go arounds from base turns through final flare
(14) Forced landings from takeoff to anywhere in the pattern
(15) Stall entries w/varied attitudes and power with recovery at first sign

Required Knowledge
---FAR Part 61.87:
--Oil levels
--Required papers
--Required inspections
--Weight/balance limits
--Rotation/climb speeds
--Emergency operations
--Approach/landing speeds
--License/medical certificate
--Student Pilot Requirements
--Fuel consumption/flight time
-- Effect of bank on stall speed
--Flap use/go-around procedures
Knowledge of flight rules

-- Endorsements
--License and Logbook
--Slow flight/stall recognition-recovery
--Proficient in pre-flight/run up-taxiing
--Proficient in climbs/turns/level/descents
--Traffic patterns/ground reference/collision avoidance

Ground Instruction Proficiency Review:
Convective activity
Wind velocities
Possible extremes
Information sources:

---90 day requirements
---Flight review
---IFR competence/currency


Class differences in:
Aircraft operations
Pilot requirements

Required inspections and maintenance
Required documents
System operations
New electronics
Weight and balance
Takeoff, cruise, landing

Flight Instruction Proficiency Review:
Enhanced POH checklist
Speed and alignment
Control position

Minimum words

--Takeoffs and Landings

Slow Flight
Steep turns
Ground reference

VFR into IFR

--Post flight

The Flight Review


ALL TO BE PERFORMED TO PRACTICAL TEST STANDARDS FOR PILOT CERTIFICATION IN CATEGORY AND CLASS. No negative comments are allowed in a pilot's logbook about a failure to satisfactorily complete a flight review.

Flight review must include minimum of 1-hour ground, 1-hour flight.

FAR 61.56 says that you must have a flight review within the preceding 24 calendar months to act as pilot in command. Commercial aviation is believed to be 10 times safer than general aviation because of the required recurrent pilot training program. 30% of pilots involved in accidents are not current for the type of conditions at than time. The flight review is meant to provide pilot currency and improve awareness of applicable aviation changes. You can't fail a flight review. You have completed the flight review only when an instructor has properly endorsed your logbook.

The flight review is an FAA-monitored program. An instrument competency ride is not a flight review. The flight is not a test or checkride, but a flight to assess a pilot's knowledge and flight skills. The instructor is trying to determine if the pilot measures up to the FAR requirements. The instructor will teach and review as required to establish the needed skills. Discuss with the instructor the type of flying you do so that the flight review will suit your immediate needs as well as an expansion of your flight experience. The flight review is an opportunity for the pilot to improve. It should be practical, challenging and fun. Any recurrent training should include at least one instance of dealing with an abnormal situation. The unusual and unexpected incident may not be available except in a training situation. Consider simulated radio failure, SVFR procedures, DF steer, VOR failure, etc.

Review Items
1. Use of sectional
2. Not tricks but hypothetical flight in marginal conditions which activate Transition Areas and ATC controlled airspace.
3. How to contact Flight Watch
4. How to contact a radar facility
5. How to contact a unicom airport and land.
6. How to contact a multicom airport and land.
7. How to contact a FSS only airport and land.
8. SVFR procedure-typical clearance
9. RCO procedure
10. Give pilot questions for study. Covers Sectional, FARs, Aircraft. Plan sign-off based on knowledge of these as well as flight review. Oral to cover at least 10% of questions.
11. AIM knowledge
12. Questions and answers
13. Radio frequencies
14. Those to be memorized:
15., 122.0, 122.2, 122.75, 122.85, 122.9,
16. Those to be recognized:
17. 123.6, 122.6

1. FAR Part 91 flight rules and changes in last two years (Not part 61.)
2. Check papers-currency requirements.
3. Use flight as opportunity to become current in landings, night flight, and instruments.
4. VFR CCR to Neighboring Airport
6. Knowledge of area and use of radio
7. Pilot certificates and other FAR Part 61 Requirements
8. Aircraft
9. Documents and records
10. Performance and limitations Loading, weight and balance Systems and operating procedures Abnormal and emergency procedures
11. The difference between legal and safe
12. Flight planning and obtaining weather information
13. Avoidance of hazardous weather
14. Air traffic control and airspace
15. Preflight inspection
16. Ground operations
17. Taxiing
18. Flying
19. Normal operations
20. Straight and level
21. Ground reference, traffic patterns
22. Climbs, turns and descents
23. Emergency operations

24. Use of:
25. Checklists
26. Aircraft systems
27. Trim
28. Control smoothness
29. Radio communication
30. Navigation
31. Crosswind takeoffs
32. Landings
33. Normal
--Soft field
--Short field
34. Maneuvering during slow flight
35. Stalls
--Stall recognition
-- Stall recovery
--Stall situations
--Base to final
36. Constant altitude turns
37. Simulated forced landings and other emergencies
38. Flight by reference to instruments
--Unusual attitude recovery

Engine Shutdown and Parking

Ground Review of maneuvers and procedures
1. Radio 2. Departure/arrival 3. Taxiing 4. Turns 5. Slow flight 6. Stalls 7. Landings 8. VOR 9. Hood 10. Practical FARs

Legal Requirements of an Aircraft:
General 91.7; 91.9
Certificates 91.203
Inspections 91.409
Equipment 91.205; 91.207; 91.215
Minimum equipment 91.213
Fuel 91.151

Legal Requirements of a Pilot
Chemical 91.17

--- Currency
90 day currency in landings is only required for the carrying of passengers. Day and night differences are distinctions between touch-and-go and full stop landings.

--- Passengers, night,
Three full-stop night landings apply for the day requirement. The landings must be in same category and class.

Legal Flight Rules
Preflight 91.103
Belts 91.107
Right of way 91.113
Speeds 91.117
Safe altitudes 91.119
Clearance compliance 91.123
Airspace 91.126-130
Emergency rules 91.139
Basic VFR 91.155
Day VFR equipment
Fuel gauge, airspeed indicator, altimeter, gear indicator, oil pressure, tachometer, manifold, oil temperature, direction/compass
Night VFR add FLAPS 
fuses, landing light, anti-collision, position lights, source of electricity
SVFR 91.157
IFR altitudes 91.177

System Safety
FAA, ATC, Local Authorities, Maintenance, Pilot, Passengers, Emergency Facilities
Preflight Planning, Personal and Aircraft Preflight, Taxiing, Departure, Climb, En route, Arrival, Landing, Taxiing, Parking, Disembarking, Tie down, Post Flight check.
Emergency medical, tool, signal kit, Clothing, Shelter, Exiting, Shelter, Paper, Bag of Bags,
Fueling, Servicing, Restrooms, Food, Transportation, Shelter
Basic Tools, Escape

Give students what they need to:
Identify hazards,
Exit to rear, Upwind, Take emergency kit, Salvage
Manage risks,
Maintenance, fuel, altitude, airport routes, I Follow Roads (ifr), Flight Following, Flight Watch, Communications, Options available,
Make decisions
Collect options, save options,
Fuel, Weather, Nearest airport, Currency/signoff
Situational awareness
SRM single pilot resource management
Planning and Sharing plan, Everything within reach, Organized by sequence, multiple backups,
ADM Aeronautical Decision Making
Risk Management
Highest risk is Takeoff, Maneuvering and Landing, Play plan most likely to win, not cheapest, fastest, prettiest, shortest, quietest
Scenario based training
Accident Factors

The Poker Scenario
Flying is much like playing poker you are initially dealt a flight (Hand) as the flight proceeds you are dealt more situations (cards) and you make your first checkpoint. A new round is dealt and played as a series of cards added and bets raised. Over time other cards appear in your hand and elsewhere that will influence your odds, willingness to wager fuel against distance, yourself against icing, weather deterioration against time to alternate airport. You make considered choices and decisions throughout a flight Each situation displays ‘cards’ in different ways for or against you. Like winning poker your flight options and selections result in degrees of safety. The winning end of the ‘game’ is a safe arrival.

70% pilot error
VFR into IFR
Low and slow maneuvers
Lack of experience
Lack of proficiency
Personal Limits
Poor judgment

Seriousness of accidents matter of decision making
Smart people make bad decisions

Knowing Hazards
Recognizing Hazards

Triggering event
Selection of options

Flight Situation
Takeoff/Landings take less than 5% of flight time but highest source of nonfatal accidents

Takeoff/climb (20%)
En route is 60% of flight time
Weather (12%)

Maneuvering (25%)
More likely fatal in twins
Go around
Landing (35%)

A Airplane
V EnVironment
E External Stress

5-Ps Plan, Plane, Pilot, Passengers, Program

Risk Resolution
Plan ahead
Perceive or recognize risk
Process data to modify risk
Perform option selection
Training Summary
Paper work
FAR requirements
Personal limits
FR/IFR, winds, crosswind, visibility minimums

Illness, medication, stress, Alcohol, fatigue, eating

Experience, Airworthiness, Equipment, Performance

Flight Weather
Wind, crosswind, visibility, changes

Stress Analysis
Time, alternates, delay options, walk-out clothing, who knows what, hourly evaluation

Ways to reduce risk factors I follow roads, airport vicinity route, altitudes

Fatigue, sleep, diversion, postpone, cancel

Assess and mitigate Risks
What is situation?
What is the risk?
What has changed
What can be minimized/maximized
What are the priorities

When you teach flight safety it is incorporated in every sector of your flight instruction.

During which phase of flight is the workload the heaviest? A question you should ask as a risk assessment related to aircraft.

Is the aircraft performance capable of using the existing runway? This is a question related to the environment.

What has changed in the flight since my departure? This should be asked at every point along the flight route.

While en route you determine that your GPS database is out of currency. This is an item that should be checked during the Five-P check at the preflight.

Will ATC services by available throughout the flight.

What question would you ask a student related to accident statistical analysis?
What environmental question would be on a risk assessment checklist?
At each checkpoint what should the pilot ask himself?
Which question related to an aircraft would be on a risk assessment checklist?
Under the Programming category, which question would be on a risk assessment checklist?
--The Instructor can ask questions of the student that resolve the Aeronautical Decision Making Process.
--The students has noted that the time between checkpoints have dramatically increased
Define the problem and select corrective process

FSS confirms increased headwinds exist.
Select an action
Sufficient fuel exists for diversion
Take an action
Established on new course
Instructor Behaviors
Check with Flight Watch
Not a problem, don’t worry NO
Confirm power applied
Confirm on course

Aeronautical Decision Making2
Recognize a change
Define the problem
Select Options…make a choice
Take an Action
Think ahead

CFI Selections
Do you have fuel sufficient to reach destination?
Wind will decrease so there’s no problem (NO)
Which way should we divert if at all.
Can we reach the next airport.
Winds are never as forecast, go on.(NO)
Single Pilot Resource Management
Instrument instruction will help you next time (NO)
What are the resources available?
Let’s practice steep turns
What can you do now to help you for what’s coming?
Is it time to tell ATC that you have a problem?
How do we deal with the changes in airspace.
Examples of teaching Situational Awareness
What is good or bad about the terrain below?
Is there any way you could get help from another pilot?
How do you confirm that you are on course and as planned?
How is this flight related to the three axes of flight?
If you are not feeling well perhaps we should turn back?
What can you do now to make the remainder of the flight go better?
Let’s divert for some landing practice.
Practice a chandelle now for relaxation
If we had an autopilot would you be using it now?

Runway conditions are very poor. What to do.
Approach lights are out.
What is the importance of seeing the low voltage light?
Why did you select this particular approach plate?
What say we divert, land and wait out the weather?
The pilot became disoriented, lost, low on fuel, without radios…
Show how controlled flight into terrain is related to maneuvering accidents

Match to above questions:
Problem solving
Case Studies

Lesson Plan Objectives
"What if…"questions
Examining Student Questions
Looking for other solutions

Pre-Planning Your Accident Survival
---Doing today to prepare for tomorrow
---Flight route and crash area selection
---Emergency kit, first aid, tools, textbook
---Filing flight plan and verbal intentions
---Know your limits
---Flight training and survival training
---Aircraft maintenance

Be Prepared
---Flight plan?
---Who knows your plans?
---Position reports and alternates.
---Survival items?
---Aircraft condition
---Choose where to have accident
---Check ELT and antenna
---Clothing etc.
---Cell Phone/extra batteries
---Signal devices
---Fire starters
---Get shelter
---Water over food
---Take inventory and survey area
---Your aircraft is your supply source
---Gas/oil are fuel
---Immediate comfort first
---What of search and rescue
---Spending your first day
---Have your positive mental attitude
---Stay with aircraft
---Indicate to show where/if you go
---Conserve body water/energy (rest)

Rescue Options
---Who knows, where and when
---How far; how long

---Improve aircraft visibility with reflectors

---Stay with aircraft

Use Common Sense
Protect your body temperature
---File complete flight plan w/alternates
---Tell a friend your plans/alternate plans
---Stick to expected route/notify changes
---Give position reports and ETAs
---Close/open plans at each stop
---Check weather/accept no-fly option
---Have emergency/survival equipment
---Make people look by buzzing/signals
---Use contrast to mark your location
---Stay with aircraft/do all of above.
---Your goal is to plan and stay alive

Emergency Response
---What you do first affects all afterwards
---Perception by eye and ear of problem

---Tension, sweat, adrenaline, heart rate.

Response and Options
---Methodical, precise and sequential use of checklist, or
---Refusal to accept situation as bad or even happening
---Panic with frozen limbs and mind

Survival is Pre-Determined by What You Are
---How and what you think will control what happens
---Come to accident with goal and goal will keep you going.
---The best goal gives meaning and purpose to staying alive
---The goal of a survivor must be beyond rescue
---The survivor self-programmed beyond childhood concerns

Your Fears
---Fear is both normal and acceptable
---Control yourself and situation through positive action
---Proficiency in what you do will give confidence
---Know your options and the odds when selecting them.
---Keep informed of changes and effect they have on outcome
---Never stop trying to better your situation
---Be realistic and take care of others with you first
---Set for companions things to do that have immediate results.
---Create comfort zones to fit the individual including yourself
---Expect emotional drain after use of high energy; rest, rest…
---Expected shock is treated with warmth, fluids and feet raised.

The Fears of/for Others
---Mutual support helps everyone
---Set rules to be followed for common good
---Thinking as a team is the way to go
---Give encouragement without sympathy
---We are in together and will get out together

Mind Set is Essential
---Self-confidence is first essential
---Have a positive self image of yourself
---Get comfortable and make it more so
---Have positive values, habits and attitudes
---Set realistic goals for the situation
---Make your decisions and choices positive

---Clean air to breath is essential
---Maintain body temperature using shelter
---Conserve energies by resting selectively
---Maintain body fluids by drinking often
---Food is not as essential as we think

The Accident
---Aircraft configuration
---Selection of impact area
---Cockpit and passenger security
----Use of radio
---Controlled impact
----Use fragile/collapse parts for impact.
---Clearing aircraft
---Assessment of situation
---First aid kit/text
---Checklist of procedures

First Aid
---Keep warm
---Stop blood with direct pressure (95% success)
---Clean with sterile water and bandage
---Hot or cold on pain points
---Prevent shock by lowering head not head injury
---Immobilize all joint or bone injuries
---For burns maintain fluids in body.

Post Accident
---Self-confidence and positive attitude
---Shelter(Find fallen tree) 90-degrees to wind
---Small, cramped, uncomfortable conserves energy
---Wood is the best insulator from hot or cold
---Think, improvise and improve
---Insulate the floor against hot or cold
---Two feet below or above surface is best
---Environmental improvements
---Area survey
---Shock, rest and recovery time
---Conservation of energy, keep clothes on and dry
---Conservation of items
---Body Management

Emergency Kit
---Garbage bags/tarp

---Space blankets
---Ponchos/solar water
---Socks, gloves and head cover
---Flashlight with replacements
---Clear plastic bag
---1st Aid Kit
---Fire starter|
---Signal capability
---Food/Energy Kit
---Two quarts water per day
---Metal cooking pot
---100 survival items in pot
---CDs as reflectors

---Water is primary concern
---Shield neck, head and eyes
---Improve present location
---Survey area before moving
---Leave note and direction sign
---Shade and wait/rest
---Heavy work at night
---Digging is counter productive
---Wait for aircraft to cool
---Study situation of health, weather, capability
---Avoid sun and heat injury
---Think, then act
---Learn body signals of stress
---Conserve yourself and equipment
---Protect and collect resources
---Buried meat in sand (6") good 72 hours
---Drink but don’t urinate
---Find/make shelter
---Check ELT mount and antenna connection
---Any short piece of metal will work as antenna
---Use color, smoke, reflectors

---Water is primary concern
---Collect water keep it liquid
---Melt snow on dark surface with sun
---Purified if boiled one minute per 1000’ altitude
---Purified if chlorine taste
---Drink water often
---Improve present location
---Survey area before moving (take food)
---Leave note and direction sign
---Triangular fires, smoke, whistles, lights signal help
---Wall in fires and use reflector for warming fire.
---Signals color, contrast, size, straight, unusual, moving…
---For a fire you need tinder, kindling, fuel, dry rocks
---Get materials, keep it dry, be patient
---Star shaped fire is easiest
---Use matches, prism, flint, battery


--Avoid both wet and sweat
---Layered dark clothing
---Avoid weather make shelter
---Heavy work at night
---Digging is counter productive
---Nibble food and sip warm liquids
---Several small fires warm better than one large
---Avoid metal when cold, use insulation for body
---Cover head when feet are cold
---Improve head and body clothing (socks on head)
---Protect head, neck, kidneys, wool is best
---Learn body signals of stress
---Avoid cold injury*
---Grease skin

---Confess that you have a problem
---Message Format
---Mayday, Mayday, Mayday
Position or last known position and route
---Magnetic Heading
---Indicated airspeed
---Available fuel
---Kind of problem
---People aboard

---Help desired
The Six C's of Survival
---Continue repeating
---Climb to increase radio range.
---Communicate on 121.5
---Comply with instructions/suggestions
---Consult survival references
---Conserve resources

Fear has Symptoms
---Irritability, hostility, talkativeness, to speechless, laughing into crying, confusion into forgetfulness, flight, panic into stupor
---Fast pulse, breathless, dilation, tension, fatigue
---Sweat, dry mouth, butterflies, faintness, nausea, vomiting

The Enemy
Your mind…imagination,
…fears, attitudes…will to live
Temperature –12-degree range…get shelter
Injury…mobility, self help…save resources
Disease—fought by body
Food is lowest priority
Two quarts water per day even at rest
Rest to conserve resources

---Avoid anxiety
---Avoid imaginations
---Fear is enemy of judgment|
---Help yourself to do the right things
---Be positive and determined in thoughts and actions

Time to find  without flight plan
---IFR 9 hrs
---VFR 38 hrs. 20 min
---No plan 3 days, 22 hrs
Canadian searches much like U.S.
Mexican searches take longer to start

Average Time of Initiation of Search
Use of flight plan doubles survivor rate
---IFR 40 minutes
---VFR 5hrs 20 min.
---No plan 32 hrs 29 min

Survival Needs Knowledge, Skill and Luck

Positive attitude… most variable results
Oxygen…3 to 6 minutes
Shelter not there…3 to 4 hours
Rest …30 hours
Water…3 days
Food…3 weeks+

Wind speed
---1 to 3 mph smoke shows wind direction
---4-7 feel wind on face
---8-12 leaves in motion
---13-18dust and snow raised
---19-24 small trees sway wavelets on water
---25-31 large branches in motion, white caps
---32-46 Large trees in motion, snow blowing
---47-54 branches break, waves
--- 55-63 trees fall

Wind Chill
Wind 15mph +20F = -5F requires proper clothing
Wind 15mph +0F =-36F Increased danger
Wind 15mph + -10F = -45F Danger of exposed flesh

Survival Time
---Resting,50 degrees, 10 days plus one day per quart of water
---Night Walk, 50 degrees, 8 days plus one/half day per quart of water
---Resting,100 degrees, 5 days plus one/half day per quart of water
---Night Walk, 3 days plus one/half day per quart of water

Symptoms of Body Water Loss 1 to 5% of weight
---75% of weight is water
---At 2.5% body water loss -25% decrease in capability.
---Thirst to discomfort to slow movement to hot skin, to
sleepiness to rise in pulse rate to nausea

Heat Loss Factors
---Conduction #1 cause by touching colder things
---Radiation by exposed areas with 50% by head
---Convection by air currents
---Evaporation body water into vapor
---Respiration by breathing

Controlled Flight Into Terrain
Inadequate awareness by pilot of impending event
5% of accidents 17% of fatalities

Aeronautical Decision Making (AC60-22)
Humans are the weak link in flight safety
Competence, experience, currency

Performance, equipment, limitations, airworthiness

Weather, airports, ATC facilities

Purpose for starting, reasons for continuing

Situational Awareness

Influenced by fatigue, stress, overload, complacency
Recognizing need for decision
Evaluation of choices
Making a choice

Negative Influences


DECIDE Process
Allows orderly, logical thought/action process to solve problems

What is needed

What result is needed

What will correct situation

Something to correct

Results and be prepared to start again with "Detect’ again

Hazardous Attitudes
Anti Authority:
Resents authority …Follow the rules

Tendency to take first choice …Think it over before acting

The reason we put kids into Iraq …Even bad things happen to good guys

Taking chances is unnecessary and foolish … He-man approach to action

Gives up before or without trying …Never give up and quit trying

Crew Resource Management
PIC Responsibility
Being in charge carries responsibility

Talk to your cockpit companions

Share everything with ATC
Listen and become an advocate for your choice

Resource Use
Use cockpit help first then go outside

Workload Management
Talk last

Situational Management
deviate, eliminate, reduce
Undo the last thing you did

Aeronautical Decision Making
Get the human weakness out of the equation

Be willing to give up what you desire the most

Look at the problem ---Detect
Consider effect of the world around you ---Evaluate
Make a choice ---Choose what to do
Select an outcome---Identify
Act for best/safest result---Do something
Evaluate, evaluate, evaluate

Hazardous Attitudes
---Consider yourself as an outsider looking in
---An emotional decision is the last think you want

Cockpit Resource Management
Get all the help you can as soon as you can from whoever or whatever you can

Student Pilot Written Tests on Essential Knowledge:

Pre-Solo Written  (2-copies)

Score 1 to 5 (fails)

1. The (altitudes) below are 'clouds'. Draw in the required clearances.

( 700' AGL) (1800' AGL) (5300' AGL) (12000'MSL)


2. How low a ceiling might it be possible to fly under to return to the airport? Draw route on area chart.

Write checkpoints on this paper.

What other options exist?

3. When weather is marginal for your flying, what makes your decision for you? What are the legal flight minimums for a student? How can they be changed?

4. What are some of your options when encountering weather beyond your capability?

5. What determines whether you can land at an airport as a student? What continuing endorsement is required to maintain this right??

6. Where/when can't you fly as a pilot? Where/when can't you fly as a student pilot?


7. Locate each of the following airs paces where possible as indicated on an area chart

Class A, Class G, Class F, Class E.

8. Where are the second lowest air spaces of SFO Class B airspace?

9. Where is the highest level of OAK, MRY and SAC Class C airspace?

10. How is the radio/flight procedure for Class C different from that of Class B?

11. How is Class D chameleon like?

12. What to do with engine failure on takeoff? (Choose your own altitude and distance)

13. What to do with engine failure on final? (Choose your own altitude and distance.)

14. What to do with engine failure in the pattern? (Choose your own point in the pattern.)

15. What aspect of a touch-and-go is most likely forgotten?

16. After a takeoff with full flaps…then what?
17. In what single circumstance are you obligated to land?
18. How is your response to a clearance different to an instruction?

19. When is it legal for any pilot to violate an FAR?

20. How is an electrical voltage irregularity indicated?

21. What is the back-up indication used to double check low oil-pressure? What do you do regardless?

22. Knowing the general rule for control position during taxi, how would you hold the yoke with a tailwind from the right. How with a headwind from the right?

23. When are brakes used while taxiing? Why does the aircraft turn when not using brakes?

24. What outside factor makes taxiing difficult?

25. What is the meaning of the green arc?

---What is the meaning of the white arc?

---What is the meaning of the yellow arc?

---What happens at the red arc?

26. Except for the C-150, how may a propeller most safely be moved?

27. What the slowest V-speed?.
---What V-speed is used in altitude emergencies?

---For emergency descent?

---For emergency time aloft?

---In landing flare?

---In obstacle climb?

---In rate climb?

28. What instruments are vacuum operated? What is their back-up instrument?

29. What is the function of the left-side of the master switch? When might you want it off?

30. What is the function of the right-side of the master switch? When might you want it off?

---At what point does the master switch stop affecting engine operation?

31. Why do we lean on the ground? Why do we lean above 3000'

32. How do we know when to use carburetor heat?

33. How does the application of C.H. affect engine operation when ice exists?

34. Where are the operating limitations for the aircraft?

35. What is the unit of gravitational force? What is the easiest way to double your weight?

36. Why is the 30° bank the bank of choice?

37. How does the POH describe you aircraft's engine?

38. What do you know about the fuel of your aircraft?

39. What is the fuel capacity, rate of consumption, and time limit to FAR-minimums fuel?

40. What is the Instructor maximum flight time before refueling?

---FAR's Part 91 flight rules

---FAR's Part 6l student pilot restrictions

---Aircraft operations manual

---Airport operational procedures

---Airport runways and checkpoints

---PIC responsibilities

Essential Knowledge

1. Fuel: Octane, useful, preflight, consumption, and time of flight to FAR required reserve.

2. Engine: Oil, power settings, leaning, runup, magnetos, shut down, and proper operations.

3. Speeds: Vx, Vy, Va, Vso, best glide, cruise, normal approach, short approach, and taxiing.

4. Systems: Electric, vacuum, static, control, trim, brake, lights, radios.

5. Instruments: Compass, HI, AI, VSI, altimeter, turn coordinator, airspeed indicator, engine gauges.

6. Maintenance: Log books, required inspections, ADs, papers.

Pre-solo Test of Student Pilot

Subsequent tests in other makes and types may be limited to differences in operations and systems. Instructor copy required by FAR.Pre-solo Test of Student Pilot Instructor copy required by FAR

The Zero Tolerance Question:
What is the most significant change of 9/11 affecting your freedom of flying?

C-150/C-172 Operation

1._______ is the instructor determined safe flight time for a C-150 before being on the ground for fuel.

1a.___ ___ How is this different from the C-172?

2._______ is the minimum oil in a C-150 before adding oil.

2a.______ How is this different from the C-172?

3._______ of Cessna aircraft are prone to slip back.

3a.___ ___ How is this different from the C-172?

4._______ is what you say before starting the engine.

5.____ ____ is where you hold the yoke when the wind is behind you.

6._______ the wind when you run-up.

7._______ toward the final approach course of the runway before you taxi on to the runway for takeoff.

8.________________ if the tower uses the word "hold" prior to clearing you for takeoff.

9. ___________ is the reason the throttle is full in for takeoff and climbs.

10.____________The term for the direction at right angle to your takeoff direction.

11. ________ is the altitude to make your first turn on departure at CCR.

12. ________ is the altitude not to leave before you turn base at CCR.

13,_____________ _____ is used before any power reduction.

14.________ is the count to get 10 degrees of flap before checking flap indicator

15._____ _______ is the only solution if the approach is low

16.____ kts is used to get down from a high approach after full flaps and power is off.

17.___ ________ is the solution to any touchdown not to be made in the first one-third of the runway.

18.__ _____ are used for landing if there is a strong crosswind of 18 kts.

19. __ _____or 2500' is the required distance before tower frequency can be changed on departure at CCR.

20.________ must be obtained before making initial radio contact with any airport.

21.________ is the emergency radio frequency.

22.________ is the standard VFR transponder code.

23.________ is the emergency transponder code.

24.________ at _________is the assigned minimum altitude and airspeed for ground reference practice

.25.___ student flights are to be made without the knowledge and approval of the instructor.

26. _____________and ____ _______ are the required documents a student pilot must have in possession for any solo flight.

27. Every ______ ____ I must have my log book re-endorsed for solo flight.

28. My instructor has placed the following limits for local solo flight:

---Ceiling of _____________

---Visibility of _________ miles

---Wind velocity of _______ _______

29. The aircraft to the _________has the right of way when aircraft are converging.

30. I should turn _________if approaching another aircraft head on.

31. An aircraft is at my altitude when it is on the ______________.

32.___ ______________ information is required by the pilot prior to a flight.

33.____________ aircraft always pass on the right. For this reason initial clearing turns are to the left.

34.________ ____ light from the tower means to move clear of runway.

35.___________ arc of the airspeed indicator should not be flown when in turbulence

.36.______ engine power, wing lift and propeller thrust is available when there is a high density altitude

.37._______ is the arc color on the airspeed indicator showing the flap operating range.

38._____ degrees is the maximum bank to be used in the pattern.

39.____________ is used to improve engine performance and reduce fuel consumption at altitude.

40._______ is the word normally omitted when giving distance

41.____________ is the first item on an emergency checklist.

42._____________ wind directions are given by the ATIS to conform with runway headings and numbers.

43.__________ indicates that a runway is closed to all but emergencies.

44.________ give an aircraft an increased angle of descent and improve landing accuracy.

45._________ is used to keep the tail behind the nose of the aircraft.

46.____________ effect causes control effects to be greatly exaggerated when landing.

47._____________ airspeed makes it easier to determine if high or low on approach.

48._________ is your first radio word in an emergency.

49. _________ ___________ can cause hard landings on hot days.

50.__ _______ is the reason an aircraft turns to the left when in a climb.

51._____ is a beacon activated when an airplane crashes.

52._____________ is always used to check accuracy of heading indicator.

53.________ is responsible for safe operation of an aircraft.

54.___to__ is the mixture ratio of air and fuel that gives best engine operation.

55._______ is the nation wide frequency for Flight Watch.

56. _______ is the altitude AGL that an airplane can proceed in any direction without regard to the hemispheric rule..


1. Solo flight __________________________________________________________



2. Run-up



3.Dutch Roll (why?)



4. See and be seen



5. Slip




6. Go around ________________________________________________________________________


7. Short approach



8. Stalls





9. Airport Class D Airspace



10. Uncontrolled airport




11. Pilot in command




12. Visual reference to ground



13. Night




14. Logbook endorsement ____________________________________________________________________________



15. Visual Flight Rules



16. ATC light signals



17. Right-of-way rules




18. Traffic pattern





19. Noise abatement procedures




20. Wake Turbulence




21. Transponder



22. VASI



23. Clearance




24. VFR fuel requirement



25. Basic VFR weather minimums




26. If there is an aircraft on base while you are flying downwind how do you determine when to turn your base?________________________________________________________________________


27. Describe your flight procedure if you are in the pattern and are told that you are number 3 to land.



28. Describe your landing procedure around a left pattern until clearing the runway if you have a 17 kt right cross wind.




You are at 3000' and for some reason your engine fails. Go through the steps of an emergency procedure.________________________________________________________________________






30. Explain in your own words what you believe the limitations on a student pilot to be.





31. Explain the need and application of carburetor heat. ___________________________________________________________________



Part 91 General Operating and Flight Rules

32. What are minimum safe altitudes: General? 91.119

33. What are VFR fuel requirements? 91.151

34. What is the generalization that applies to flying regarding use of alcohol or drugs? 91.17

35. What are the solo flight requirements for a student pilot? 61.87 a., b., c., d., m.

36. Has your instruction met these requirements? 61.87 a through m.

37. If not; why not?

38. Does your logbook have the required endorsements? 61.87 m.

39. If not; why not?

40. Under what conditions might a student pilot fly into Class B airspace in Hawaii but NOT into the San Francisco's Class B? 61.95

41. What papers are a student pilot required to have with him while operating an aircraft?

42. When can a student fly between airports? 61.87 k. and 61.95 b. 1. 2. 3.

43. What is the 90 day student endorsement requirement? 61.95 b. 2.

44. How are the radios of the C-172 different from that of the C-150?

45, How does the Power/trim/flap operation of the C-172 differ from the C-150?

46. What are Safety Belt requirements applicable to Student Pilots? 91.107

47. What does the FAA consider to be careless or reckless flying?

48. Over populated areas I must fly with what clearances and altitudes?

49. Below 10,000 feet what are the required cloud clearances and visibility?

50. Where must aircraft fly in passing in vicinity of other aircraft at the same altitude?

51. What endorsements are required before I can fly solo?

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